Primary batteries - Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

IEC 60086-5:2011 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. The major technical changes with respect to the previous edition are the test requirements and the harmonization of the marking clause with the other standards of the IEC 60086 series. Moreover, the table of safety pictograms was added as Annex C

Primärbatterien - Teil 5: Sicherheit von Batterien mit wässrigem Elektrolyt

Piles électriques - Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolytes aqueux

L'IEC 60086-5:2016 spécifie des essais et des exigences pour les piles à électrolyte aqueux pour assurer leur fonctionnement sûr dans des conditions d'utilisation prévue et de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2011. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: - La définition du terme explosion a été modifiée pour l'harmoniser avec les autres définitions de la série IEC 60086; - Empêcher l'élimination de l'hydrogène, la phrase a été révisée; - Empêcher les mauvais usages, la phrase sur les compartiments avec des piles connectées en parallèle a été révisée; - La méthode de détermination de la résistance d'isolement a été clarifiée. Mots clés: des essais et des exigences pour les piles

Primarne baterije - 5. del: Varnost baterij z vodnim elektrolitom (IEC 60086-5:2016)

Standard IEC 60086-5:2011 določa preskuse in zahteve za primarne baterije z vodnim elektrolitom za zagotavljanje varnega delovanja v okviru predvidene uporabe in pričakovane nepravilne uporabe. Glavne tehnične spremembe v primerjavi s prejšnjo izdajo so zahteve za preskuse in uskladitev točke o označevanju z drugimi standardi iz skupine IEC 60086. Poleg tega je bila v dodatku C dodana razpredelnica z varnostnimi piktogrami.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2016
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
18-Nov-2016
Completion Date
18-Nov-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Primarne baterije - 5. del: Varnost baterij z vodnim elektrolitom (IEC 60086-5:2016)Primary batteries - Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte (IEC 60086-5:2016)29.220.10Primary cells and batteriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 60086-5:2016SIST EN 60086-5:2017en01-januar-2017SIST EN 60086-5:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 60086-5:20111DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60086-5:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 60086-5
November 2016 ICS 29.220.10
Supersedes
EN 60086-5:2011
English Version

Primary batteries - Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte (IEC 60086-5:2016)

Piles électriques - Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolytes aqueux (IEC 60086-5:2016)

Primärbatterien - Teil 5: Sicherheit von Batterien mit wässrigem Elektrolyt (IEC 60086-5:2016) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2016-08-17. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2016 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60086-5:2016 E SIST EN 60086-5:2017

EN 60086-5:2016 2 European foreword The text of document 35/1360/FDIS, future edition 4 of IEC 60086-5, prepared by IEC/TC 35 "Primary cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 60086-5:2016. The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2017-05-17 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2019-08-17

This document supersedes EN 60086-5:2011. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 60086-5:2016 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standard indicated : IEC 60086-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60086-3. IEC 60086-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60086-4.

SIST EN 60086-5:2017
EN 60086-5:2016 3
Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60068-2-6 -

Environmental testing -- Part 2-6: Tests - Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal) EN 60068-2-6 -

IEC 60068-2-27 -

Environmental testing -- Part 2-27: Tests - Test Ea and guidance: Shock EN 60068-2-27 -

IEC 60068-2-31 -

Environmental testing -- Part 2-31: Tests - Test Ec: Rough handling shocks, primarily for equipment-type specimens EN 60068-2-31 -

IEC 60086-1 -
Primary batteries - Part 1: General EN 60086-1 -
IEC 60086-2 -
Primary batteries - Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications EN 60086-2 -
SIST EN 60086-5:2017
SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5 Edition 4.0 2016-07 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Primary batteries –

Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
Piles électriques –
Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE

ICS 29.220.10
ISBN 978-2-8322-3507-2
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 60086-5:2017

– 2 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 CONTENTS FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 7 1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 8 2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 8 3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 8 4 Requirements for safety ............................................................................................... 10 4.1 Design ................................................................................................................ 10 4.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 10 4.1.2 Venting ........................................................................................................ 10 4.1.3 Insulation resistance .................................................................................... 11 4.2 Quality plan......................................................................................................... 11 5 Sampling ..................................................................................................................... 11 5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 11 5.2 Sampling for type approval .................................................................................. 11 6 Testing and requirements ............................................................................................ 12 6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 12 6.1.1 Applicable safety tests ................................................................................. 12 6.1.2 Cautionary notice ......................................................................................... 13 6.1.3 Ambient temperature .................................................................................... 13 6.2 Intended use ....................................................................................................... 13 6.2.1 Intended use tests and requirements ............................................................ 13 6.2.2 Intended use test procedures ....................................................................... 13 6.3 Reasonably foreseeable misuse .......................................................................... 16 6.3.1 Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements ............................... 16 6.3.2 Reasonably foreseeable misuse test procedures ........................................... 16 7 Information for safety ................................................................................................... 18 7.1 Precautions during handling of batteries .............................................................. 18 7.2 Packaging ........................................................................................................... 20 7.3 Handling of battery cartons .................................................................................. 20 7.4 Display and storage ............................................................................................ 20 7.5 Transportation ..................................................................................................... 21 7.6 Disposal .............................................................................................................. 21 8 Instructions for use ...................................................................................................... 21 9 Marking ....................................................................................................................... 22 9.1 General (see Table 7) ......................................................................................... 22 9.2 Marking of small batteries (see Table 7) .............................................................. 22 9.3 Safety pictograms ............................................................................................... 22 Annex A (informative)

Additional information on display and storage ................................... 23 Annex B (informative)

Battery compartment design guidelines ............................................ 24 B.1 Background ......................................................................................................... 24 B.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 24 B.1.2 Battery failures resulting from poor battery compartment design .................... 24 B.1.3 Potential hazards resulting from battery reversal ........................................... 24 B.1.4 Potential hazards resulting from a short circuit .............................................. 24 B.2 General guidance for appliance design ................................................................ 25 SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 – B.2.1 Key battery factors to be first considered ...................................................... 25 B.2.2 Other important factors to consider ............................................................... 25 B.3 Specific measures against reversed installation ................................................... 26 B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 26 B.3.2 Design of the positive contact ....................................................................... 26 B.3.3 Design of the negative contact ..................................................................... 26 B.3.4 Design with respect to battery orientation ..................................................... 27 B.3.5 Dimensional considerations .......................................................................... 28 B.4 Specific measures to prevent short-circuiting of batteries ..................................... 29 B.4.1 Measures to prevent short-circuiting due to battery jacket damage ................ 29 B.4.2 Measures to prevent external short-circuit of a battery caused when coiled spring contacts are employed for battery connection ........................... 30 B.5 Special considerations regarding recessed negative contacts ............................... 31 B.6 Waterproof and non-vented devices ..................................................................... 32 B.7 Other design considerations ................................................................................ 32 Annex C (informative)

Safety pictograms ............................................................................ 34 C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 34 C.2 Pictograms .......................................................................................................... 34 C.3 Recommendations for use ................................................................................... 36 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 1 – Sampling for type approval tests and number of batteries required ...................... 11 Figure 2 – Temperature cycling procedure ........................................................................... 16 Figure 3 – Circuit diagram for incorrect installation (four batteries in series) ......................... 17 Figure 4 – Circuit diagram for external short circuit .............................................................. 17 Figure 5 – Circuit diagram for overdischarge ....................................................................... 18 Figure 6 – XYZ axes for free fall .......................................................................................... 18 Figure 7 – Ingestion gauge .................................................................................................. 20 Figure B.1 – Example of series connection with one battery reversed ................................... 24 Figure B.2 – Positive contact recessed between ribs ........................................................... 26 Figure B.3 – Positive contact recessed within surrounding insulation ................................... 26 Figure B.4 – Negative contact U-shaped to ensure no positive (+) battery contact ................ 27 Figure B.5 – Design with respect to battery orientation ........................................................ 27 Figure B.6 – Example of the design of a positive contact of an appliance ............................. 28 Figure B.7 – Example of a short circuit, a switch is piercing the battery insulating jacket ...... 29 Figure B.8 – Typical example of insulation to prevent short circuit ........................................ 29 Figure B.9 – Insertion against spring (to be avoided) ........................................................... 30 Figure B.10 – Examples showing distorted springs .............................................................. 30 Figure B.11 – One example of protected insertion ............................................................... 30 Figure B.12 – Example of negative contacts ........................................................................ 32 Figure B.13 – Example of series connection of batteries with voltage tapping ....................... 33

Table 1 – Test matrix .......................................................................................................... 12 Table 2 – Intended use tests and requirements .................................................................... 13 Table 3 – Shock pulse ........................................................................................................ 14 SIST EN 60086-5:2017

– 4 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 Table 4 – Test sequence ..................................................................................................... 14 Table 5 – Test sequence ..................................................................................................... 15 Table 6 – Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements ....................................... 16 Table 7 – Marking requirements .......................................................................................... 22 Table B.1 – Dimensions of battery terminals and recommended dimensions of the positive contact of an appliance in Figure B.6 ...................................................................... 28 Table B.2 – Minimum wire diameters ................................................................................... 31 Table B.3 – Dimensions of the negative battery terminal ...................................................... 32 Table C.1 – Safety pictograms ............................................................................................ 34

SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 – INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 60086-5 has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee 35: Primary cells and batteries. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) The definition of explosion was changed to suitable sentence in order to harmonize in IEC 60086 series; b) To prevent removal of hydrogen gas, we revised it to the suitable sentence, c) To prevent misuse, the battery compartments with parallel connections were revised to the suitable sentence. d) To clarify the method to determine the insulation resistance. SIST EN 60086-5:2017

– 6 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 35/1360/FDIS 35/1361/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, published under the general title Primary batteries, can be found on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 – INTRODUCTION The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property. This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous electrolyte and has been prepared in accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account all relevant national and international standards which apply. Also included in this standard is guidance for appliance designers with respect to battery compartments and information regarding packaging, handling, warehousing and transportation. Safety is a balance between freedom from risks of harm and other demands to be met by the product. There can be no absolute safety. Even at the highest level of safety, the product can only be relatively safe. In this respect, decision-making is based on risk evaluation and safety judgement. As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisions and recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this standard, when followed on a judicious "use when applicable" basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards for safety.

SIST EN 60086-5:2017
– 8 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

1 Scope This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60086-1, Primary batteries – Part 1: General IEC 60086-2, Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal) IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock IEC 60068-2-31, Environmental testing – Part 2-31: Tests – Test Ec: Rough handling shocks, primarily for equipment-type specimens 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. NOTE Certain definitions taken from IEC 60050-482, IEC 60086-1, and IEC Guide 51 are repeated below for convenience. 3.1

battery one or more cells electrically connected by permanent means, fitted in a case, with terminals, markings and protective devices etc., as necessary for use [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified definition] 3.2

button (cell or battery) small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter Note 1 to entry: In English, the term "button (cell or battery)" is only used for non-lithium batteries while the term "coin (cell or battery)" is used for lithium batteries only. In languages other than English, the terms "coin" and "button" are often used interchangeably, regardless of the electrochemical system. SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 – 3.3

cell basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals and usually separators that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct conversion of chemical energy [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01] 3.4

component cell cell contained in a battery 3.5

cylindrical (cell or battery) round cell or battery with a cylindrical shape in which the overall height is equal to or greater than the diameter [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-39, modified ("cell with a cylindrical shape" replaced by "round cell or battery")] 3.6

explosion (battery explosion) the cell or battery opens and solid components are forcibly expelled 3.7

fire flames are emitted from the test cell or battery 3.8

intended use use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in the absence of such information, by generally understood patterns of usage [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.6] 3.9

leakage unplanned escape of electrolyte from a cell or battery [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-32] 3.10

nominal voltage (of a primary battery) Vn suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell, a battery or an electrochemical system [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified (addition of "(of a primary battery)" and symbol Vn)] 3.11

primary (cell or battery) cell or battery that is not designed to be electrically recharged 3.12

prismatic (cell or battery) cell or battery having the shape of a parallelepiped whose faces are rectangular SIST EN 60086-5:2017

– 10 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-38, modified (deletion of "qualifies a")] 3.13

protective devices devices such as fuses, diodes or other electric or electronic current limiter designed to interrupt the current flow in an electrical circuit 3.14

reasonably foreseeable misuse use of a product or system in a way not intended by the supplier, but which can result from readily predictable human behaviour [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.14, modified ("process or service" replaced by "or system" and "may" replaced by "can" and deletion of the Note)] 3.15

round (cell or battery) cell or battery with circular cross section 3.16

safety freedom from risk which is not tolerable [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.14] 3.17

undischarged state of charge of a primary cell or battery corresponding to 0 % depth of discharge 3.18

venting release of excessive internal pressure from a cell or battery in a manner intended by design to preclude explosion 4 Requirements for safety 4.1 Design 4.1.1 General Batteries shall be so designed that they do not present a safety hazard under conditions of normal (intended) use. 4.1.2 Venting All batteries shall incorporate a pressure relief feature or shall be so constructed that they will relieve excessive internal pressure at a value and rate which will preclude explosion. If encapsulation is necessary to support cells within an outer case, the type of encapsulant and the method of encapsulation shall not cause the battery to overheat during normal operation nor inhibit the operation of the pressure relief feature. The battery case material and/or its final assembly shall be so designed that, in the event of one or more cells venting, the battery case does not present a hazard in its own right. SIST EN 60086-5:2017

IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 11 – 4.1.3 Insulation resistance The insulation resistance between externally exposed metal surfaces of the battery excluding electrical contact surfaces and either terminal shall be not less than 5 MΩ at 500 V100V0–V+ applied for a minimum of 60 seconds. 4.2 Quality plan The manufacturer shall prepare and implement a quality plan defining the procedures for the inspection of materials, components, cells and batteries during the course of manufacture, to be applied to the total process of producing a specific type of battery. Manufacturers should understand their process capabilities and should institute the necessary process controls as they relate to product safety. 5 Sampling 5.1 General Samples should be drawn from production lots in accordance with accepted statistical methods. 5.2 Sampling for type approval The number of samples drawn for type approval is given in Figure 1.

NOTE 1 Four batteries connected in series with one of the four batteries reversed (5 sets). NOTE 2 Four batteries connected in series, one of which is discharged (5 sets). Figure 1 – Sampling for type approval tests and number of batteries required IEC Open circuit voltage (n = 70) Dimensions (n = 70) Intended use Reasonably foreseeable misuse A Partial use (n = 5) B-1 Transportation- shock (n = 5) B-2 Transportation- vibration (n = 5) C Climatic (n = 5) D Incorrect installation see NOTE 1 (n = 20) E External short circuit (n = 5) F Over- discharge see NOTE 2 (n = 20) G Free fall

(n = 5) SIST EN 60086-5:20
...

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