Semiconductor devices - Micro-electromechanical devices - Part 33: MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device

IEC 62047-33:2019 (E) defines terms, definitions, essential ratings and characteristics, as well as test methods applicable to MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device. This document applies to piezoresistive pressure-sensitive devices for automotive, medical treatment, electronic products.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Apr-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
05-Apr-2019
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IEC 62047-33
Edition 1.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Micro-electromechanical devices –
Part 33: MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device
IEC 62047-33:2019-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33
Edition 1.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Micro-electromechanical devices –
Part 33: MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99; 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-6718-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Essential ratings and characteristics ................................................................................ 8

4.1 Ratings (Limiting values) ......................................................................................... 8

4.2 Recommended operating conditions ....................................................................... 8

4.3 Characteristics ........................................................................................................ 8

5 Test methods ................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Input resistance ...................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Output resistance .................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Leakage current ...................................................................................................... 9

5.3.1 P-N junction isolation type sensitive device ..................................................... 9

5.3.2 Insulating medium type sensitive device ........................................................ 10

5.4 Breakdown voltage ............................................................................................... 10

5.5 Isolation voltage .................................................................................................... 10

5.6 Static performances .............................................................................................. 10

5.6.1 Test method .................................................................................................. 10

5.6.2 Output under normal pressure ....................................................................... 12

5.6.3 Zero output .................................................................................................... 12

5.6.4 Output symmetry ........................................................................................... 13

5.6.5 Full-span output ............................................................................................. 13

5.6.6 Nonlinearity ................................................................................................... 13

5.6.7 Pressure hysteresis ....................................................................................... 13

5.6.8 Repeatability ................................................................................................. 14

5.6.9 Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 15

5.6.10 Sensitivity ...................................................................................................... 15

5.6.11 Zero drift........................................................................................................ 15

5.7 Stability................................................................................................................. 16

5.7.1 Test method .................................................................................................. 16

5.7.2 Zero long-term stability .................................................................................. 16

5.7.3 Sensitivity long-term stability ......................................................................... 16

5.8 Temperature influence .......................................................................................... 16

5.8.1 Test method .................................................................................................. 16

5.8.2 Thermal zero drift .......................................................................................... 17

5.8.3 Thermal sensitivity drift .................................................................................. 17

5.8.4 Thermal zero output hysteresis ...................................................................... 17

5.8.5 Thermal sensitivity hysteresis ........................................................................ 17

5.8.6 Temperature hysteresis ................................................................................. 18

5.9 Static pressure influence ....................................................................................... 18

5.9.1 Two way static pressure ................................................................................ 18

5.9.2 Unidirectional static pressure ......................................................................... 19

5.10 Overload ............................................................................................................... 19

5.11 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 19

5.11.1 Test method .................................................................................................. 19

5.11.2 Frequency response ...................................................................................... 20

5.11.3 Ringing frequency .......................................................................................... 20

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IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

5.11.4 Damping ratio ................................................................................................ 20

5.11.5 Rise time ....................................................................................................... 21

5.11.6 Resonant frequency ....................................................................................... 21

5.11.7 Overshoot ...................................................................................................... 21

5.12 Environment test ................................................................................................... 21

5.12.1 Storage at high temperature .......................................................................... 21

5.12.2 Storage at low temperature ............................................................................ 21

5.12.3 Temperature cycling ...................................................................................... 22

5.12.4 Vibration ........................................................................................................ 22

5.12.5 Mechanical shock .......................................................................................... 22

5.12.6 Acceleration .................................................................................................. 22

5.12.7 Moisture resistance ....................................................................................... 22

5.12.8 Mucedine ....................................................................................................... 22

5.12.9 Salt atmosphere ............................................................................................ 22

5.12.10 Electromagnetic compatibility ........................................................................ 23

5.12.11 Low pressure ................................................................................................. 23

5.12.12 High temperature electric life ......................................................................... 23

5.12.13 Fatigue life .................................................................................................... 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Structure schematic diagram of the device ............................................................. 7

Figure 2 – Test connection graph for P-N junction isolation type sensitive device ................. 10

Figure 3 – Test connection graph for insulating medium type sensitive device ...................... 10

Figure 4 – Test system ......................................................................................................... 11

Figure 5 – The output wave .................................................................................................. 20

Table 1 – Characteristics of the device ................................................................................... 8

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– 4 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES –
Part 33: MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

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Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62047-33 has been prepared by subcommittee 47F: Micro-

electromechanical systems, of IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47F/327FDIS 47F/332/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62047 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Micro-electromechanical devices, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES –
Part 33: MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62047 defines terms, definitions, essential ratings and characteristics, as well

as test methods applicable to MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device. This document

applies to piezoresistive pressure-sensitive devices for automotive, medical treatment,

electronic products.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests –Test A: Cold

IEC 60068-2-10, Environmental testing – Part 2-10: Tests – Test J and guidance: Mould

growth

IEC 60747-14-3, Semiconductor devices – Part 14-3: Semiconductor sensors – Pressure

sensors

IEC 60749-2, Semiconductor devices-Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 2: Low air

pressure

IEC 60749-6, Semiconductor devices-Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 6: Storage

at high temperature

IEC 60749-10, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic tests methods – Part 10:

Mechanical shock

IEC 60749-12, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic tests methods – Part 12:

Vibration, variable frequency

IEC 60749-13, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 13: Salt

atmosphere

IEC 60749-24, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 24:

Accelerated moisture resistance-Unbiased HAST

IEC 60749-25, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 25:

Temperature cycling

IEC 60749-36, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic tests methods – Part 36:

Acceleration, steady state
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –

IEC TR 61000-4-1, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-1:Testing and measurement

techniques – Overview of the IEC 61000-4 series
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60747-14-3 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
MEMS piezoresistive pressure-sensitive device

device that transforms pressure signal into electric signal due to piezoresistive effect, usually

including cavity-membrane structure on silicon substrate and Wheatstone bridge in the

membrane fabricated by MEMS technology
IEC
Key
1 membrane
2 sensitive resistance
3 silicon
4 cavity
Figure 1 – Structure schematic diagram of the device
3.2
frequency response
ratio variation of output to measurand depending on frequency

Note 1 to entry: The frequency response should be based on the given frequency range.

3.3
resonant frequency
frequency at which the device responds with the maximum output amplitude
3.4
ringing frequency

frequency of free oscillations in the transducer output resulting from a step change in

measurand
3.5
damping ratio
ratio of the practical damping coefficient to the critical damping coefficient
3.6
rise time

length of time required for the output of the device to rise from 10 % to 90 % of its final steady

value when excited by a step change in measurand
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
3.7
overshoot

amount of output measured beyond the final steady output value in response to a step change

in the measurand
4 Essential ratings and characteristics
4.1 Ratings (Limiting values)

The following items should be described in the specification, unless otherwise stated in the

relevant procurement specifications. Stresses over these limits can be one of the causes of

permanent damage to the devices:
a) power supply voltage;
b) storage temperature;
c) mechanical shock;
d) acceleration;
e) vibration.
4.2 Recommended operating conditions

The following items should be described in the specification, unless otherwise stated in the

relevant procurement specifications.
a) power supply voltage;
b) operating temperature.
4.3 Characteristics

Characteristics of the pressure-sensitive devices are listed as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 – Characteristics of the device
Value
Parameter Mandatory Optional Symbol Test method
Min Type Max
Input resistance × × R See 5.1
Output resistance × × R See 5.2
Leakage current × × × I See 5.3
Breakdown voltage × × × U See 5.4
Isolation voltage × × × U See 5.5
Output under normal
× × × Y See 5.6.2
pressure
Zero output × × × Y See 5.6.3
Output symmetry × × P See 5.6.4
F·S
Full-span output × × Y See 5.6.5
Nonlinearity × × ξ See 5.6.6
Pressure hysteresis × × ξ See 5.6.7
Repeatability × × ξ See 5.6.8
Accuracy × × ξ See 5.6.9
Sensitivity × × b See 5.6.10
Zero drift × × D See 5.6.11
Zero long-term stability × × r See 5.7.2
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
Value
Parameter Mandatory Optional Symbol Test method
Min Type Max
Sensitivity long-term
× × r See 5.7.3
stability
Thermal zero drift × × α See 5.8.2
Thermal sensitivity drift × × β See 5.8.3
Thermal zero output
× × α See 5.8.4
hysteresis
Thermal sensitivity
× × β See 5.8.5
hysteresis
Temperature hysteresis × × σ See 5.8.6
Zero static pressure
× × p See 5.9.1.2
deviation
Full-span output static
× × p See 5.9.1.3
F·S
pressure deviation
Overload × × O See 5.10
Frequency response × × × F See 5.11.2
Ringing frequency × × w See 5.11.3
Damping ratio × × ζ See 5.11.4
Rise time × × T See 5.11.5
Resonant frequency × × w See 5.11.6
Overshoot × × O See 5.11.7
5 Test methods
5.1 Input resistance

Measure the resistance value of power supply terminals with the output terminals of device

staying open circuited.
5.2 Output resistance

Measure the resistance value of output terminals of device with the power supply terminals

staying short circuited.
5.3 Leakage current
5.3.1 P-N junction isolation type sensitive device

Connect the P-N junction isolation type sensitive device according to Figure 2. There are P-N

junctions between the sensitive resistance and the silicon substrate. Measure the voltage V of

the standard resistance R under the condition of specified bias voltage and no light. Calculate

the leakage current according to Formula (1):
I = (1)
where
is the leakage current;
V is the voltage of the standard resistance;
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
R is the value of the standard resistance.
Choose the bias voltage form the following: 10 V DC, 15 V DC, 20 V DC, 25 V DC,
30 V DC,35 V DC,40 V DC.
IEC

Figure 2 – Test connection graph for P-N junction isolation type sensitive device

5.3.2 Insulating medium type sensitive device

Connect it according to Figure 3. There is an insulating medium between sensitive resistance

and silicon substrate. Measure the voltage V of the standard resistance R under the condition

of the specified bias voltage and no light. Calculate the leakage current according to

Formula (1).
IEC
Key
1 insulating medium
Figure 3 – Test connection graph for insulating medium type sensitive device
5.4 Breakdown voltage

Measure the inverse voltage between sensitive resistance and the silicon substrate under the

specified test current. Choose the test current form the following: 2 μA, 5 μA, 10 μA,

20 μA,50 μA.
5.5 Isolation voltage

Measure the voltage between sensitive resistance and the silicon substrate under the

specified test current. Choose the test current form the following: 1 μA,2 μA,5 μA,10 μA.

5.6 Static performances
5.6.1 Test method

The test system is shown in Figure 4. Turn on the pressure source and control the pressure to

be stable at the full-scale pressure for at least 1 minute and then at the zero-scale pressure

for at least 1 minute on the condition of 5.2. Recycle this process for 3 times.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –
IEC
Key
1 pressure-sensitive device
2 pressure chamber
3 temperature cabinet
4 power supply
5 data acquisition equipment
6 pressure control system
Figure 4 – Test system

The test points of the device shall be no less than 6 in full range, including full-scale pressure

and the zero-scale pressure.

This test shall start from the zero-scale pressure and approach the full-scale pressure (i.e.

forward stroke) by increasing load steadily in accordance with the provision. For each testing

pressure point, when the pressure is stable,read the output values of the devices on the

wafer. Then start from the full-scale pressure and approach the zero-scale pressure (i.e.

backward stroke) by decreasing the load steadily in accordance with the provision.

There are m test points in the full-scale pressure range and n cycle tests. Then there are n

test data at each point in forward and backward stroke respectively. Calculate the average

value of each test point in the forward/backward stroke and the overall average value of each

test pressure point in the forward and backward stroke.
The average value during forward stroke of the i test point Y ,
1 n
Y = Y (2)
Ui ∑ Uij
j=1
The average value during backward stroke of the i test point Y ,
1 n
Y = Y (3)
Di ∑ Dij
j=1

The overall average value of the forward and backward stroke of the i test point Y ,

Y = (Y + Y ) (4)
i Ui Di
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019
where
th th

Y is the output value of the i test point in the j forward stroke (i = 1,2,3, …m,

Uij
j = 1,2,3, …n);
th th

Y is the output value of the i test point in the j backward stroke (i = 1,2,3, …m,

Dij
j = 1,2,3, …n);
n is the number of cycle test.
The working characteristic formula of the device is given as
Y= a+ bX (5)

The intercept a and slope b (i.e. sensitivity) is fitted using least squares method

m m m m
X ∗ Y− X ∗ X Y
i i i i i
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1
a= (6)
m m
2 2
m X − ( X )
i i
∑ ∑
i=1 i=1
m m m
m X Y− X * Y
i i i i
∑ ∑ ∑
i=1 i=1 i=1
b= (7)
m m
2 2
m X − ( X )
i i
∑ ∑
i=1 i=1
where
X is the pressure value of the i test point (i=1, 2, 3, …m);

Y is the overall average value of the i test point in the forward and backward stroke;

m is the number of test points.
5.6.2 Output under normal pressure

Connect the testing cavity with atmosphere to measure the voltage output of the device and

correct the value to standard reference atmosphere pressure (101,3 kPa). Calculate the

voltage output under normal pressure with the following equation.
Y = Y+ b(P− X ) (8)
c c
where

Y is the voltage output corrected to standard reference atmosphere pressure (101,3 kPa);

Y is the voltage output under the practical atmosphere pressure;
P is the standard reference atmosphere pressure(101,3 kPa);
X is the actual atmosphere pressure in the test.
5.6.3 Zero output

For absolute pressure-sensitive device, measure the output of the device under the input

pressure within 10 Pa. For differential pressure device, measure the output with both high and

low pressure terminals connected to the atmosphere.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 62047-33:2019 © IEC 2019 – 13 –
5.6.4 Output symmetry

Measure the full-span output of the device in the high pressure terminal and the low pressure

terminal respectively or positive pressure section and negative pressure section of the device.

Calculate the output symmetry under normal pressure with the following equation.
Y (h)−Y (l)
F⋅S F⋅S
P = ×100% (9)
Y (h)
F⋅S
where
P is output symmetry;
Yh() is the full-span output of the device in the high pressure terminal;
FS⋅
Yl() is the full-span output of the device in the low pressure terminal.
FS⋅
5.6.5 Full-span output

The full-span output value of the device is the absolute difference between the outputs of full-

scale pressure and zero-scale pressure in measure range, based on the calculated value of

theoretical working characteristic formula. The full-span output value Y is given as

FS⋅
Y = b× (X − X ) (10)
F⋅S H L
where
b is the slope of theoretical working characteristic formula, i.e. sensitivity;

X , X are the full-scale pressure and zero-scale pressure value in measure range,

H L
respectively.
5.6.6 Nonlin
...

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