Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of 6 GHz to 300 GHz) - Part 2: Computational procedure

IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 specifies computational procedures for conservative and reproducible computations of power density (PD) incident to a human head or body due to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) transmitting devices. The computational procedures described are finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and finite element methods (FEM), which are computational techniques that can be used to determine electromagnetic quantities by solving Maxwell’s equations within a specified computational uncertainty. The procedures specified here apply to exposure assessments for a significant majority of the population during the use of hand-held and body-worn RF transmitting devices. The methods apply to devices that can feature single or multiple transmitters or antennas, and that can be operated with their radiating part or parts at distances up to 200 mm from a human head or body.
This document can be employed to determine conformity with any applicable maximum PD requirements of different types of RF transmitting devices used in close proximity to the head and body, including those combined with other RF transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip), or embedded in garments. The overall applicable frequency range of these protocols and procedures is from 6 GHz to 300 GHz.
The RF transmitting device categories covered in this document include but are not limited to mobile telephones, radio transmitters in personal computers, desktop and laptop devices, and multi-band and multi-antenna devices.
The procedures of this document do not apply to PD assessment of electromagnetic fields emitted or altered by devices or objects intended to be implanted in the body.
NOTE For the assessment of the combined exposure from simultaneous transmitters at frequencies below 6 GHz, the relevant standards for SAR computation are IEC/IEEE 62704-1:2017 and IEC/IEEE 62704-4:2020.
This publication is published as an IEC/IEEE Dual Logo standard.

Evaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 ghz à 300 ghz) - Partie 2: Procédure de calcul

IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 spécifie les procédures de calcul pour des calculs conservateurs et reproductibles de la densité de puissance (PD, Power Density) incidente sur la tête ou le corps humain, provenant de dispositifs de transmission par champ électromagnétique (EMF, Electromagnetic Field) radiofréquence (RF). Les procédures de calcul décrites appliquent la méthode des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD, Finite-Difference Time‑Domain) ou la méthode des éléments finis (FEM, Finite Element Methods), qui sont des techniques de calcul pouvant être utilisées pour déterminer les grandeurs électromagnétiques en résolvant les équations de Maxwell dans une incertitude de calcul spécifiée. Les procédures spécifiées dans le présent document s'appliquent à l'évaluation de l'exposition d'une vaste majorité de la population lors de l'utilisation de dispositifs qui émettent des RF tenus à la main et portés sur le corps. Les méthodes s'appliquent aux dispositifs qui peuvent comporter un ou plusieurs émetteurs ou, et qui peuvent être utilisés alors que leurs parties rayonnantes se trouvent à des distances inférieures ou égales à 200 mm de la tête ou du corps humain.
Le présent document peut être utilisé pour déterminer la conformité aux exigences en matière de densité de puissance maximale applicables de différents types de dispositifs qui émettent des RF lorsqu'ils sont utilisés à proximité immédiate de la tête et du corps, y compris s'ils sont combinés à d'autres dispositifs ou accessoires qui émettent des RF ou non (clip de ceinture, par exemple) ou s'ils sont intégrés dans des vêtements. La plage de fréquences globale applicable pour ces protocoles et procédures est comprise entre 6 GHz et 300 GHz.
Les catégories de dispositifs qui émettent des RF couvertes par le présent document incluent notamment les téléphones mobiles, les émetteurs radio des ordinateurs personnels, les dispositifs de bureau et les dispositifs portables, ainsi que les dispositifs multibandes et multiantennes.
Les procédures du présent document ne s'appliquent pas à l'évaluation de la densité de puissance des champs électromagnétiques émis ou altérés par des dispositifs ou des objets destinés à être implantés dans le corps.
NOTE Pour l'évaluation de l'exposition combinée en provenance de plusieurs émetteurs simultanés qui fonctionnent à des fréquences inférieures à 6 GHz, les normes applicables pour les calculs du DAS sont l'IEC/IEEE 62704-1:2017 et l'IEC/IEEE 62704-4:2020.
Cette publication est publiée en tant que norme IEC/IEEE Dual Logo.

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Published
Publication Date
10-May-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
11-May-2022
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IEC/IEEE 63195-2
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from
wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of
6 GHz to 300 GHz) –
Part 2: Computational procedure
Évaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs
radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la
tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 GHz à 300 GHz) –
Partie 2: Procédure de calcul
IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 63195-2
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from
wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of
6 GHz to 300 GHz) –
Part 2: Computational procedure
Évaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs
radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la
tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 GHz à 300 GHz) –
Partie 2: Procédure de calcul
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-0184-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Exposure metrics and parameters ......................................................................... 10

3.2 Spatial, physical, and geometrical parameters associated with exposure

metrics .................................................................................................................. 11

3.3 Test device technical operating and antenna parameters ...................................... 13

3.4 Computational parameters .................................................................................... 13

3.5 Uncertainty parameters ......................................................................................... 14

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 14

4.1 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 14

4.1.1 Physical quantities ......................................................................................... 14

4.1.2 Constants ...................................................................................................... 15

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 15

5 Overview and application of this document .................................................................... 16

5.1 Overview of the numerical evaluation .................................................................... 16

5.2 Application of this document ................................................................................. 17

5.3 Stipulations ........................................................................................................... 18

6 Requirements on the numerical software ....................................................................... 18

7 Model development and validation ................................................................................. 19

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

7.2 Development of the numerical model of the DUT................................................... 19

7.3 Power normalization ............................................................................................. 20

7.4 Requirements on the experimental test equipment for model validation ................. 22

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

7.4.2 Ambient conditions and device holder ............................................................ 23

7.4.3 Power measurement ...................................................................................... 23

7.5 Testing configurations for the validation of the DUT model .................................... 24

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

7.5.2 Tests to be performed .................................................................................... 24

7.5.3 Determining the validity of the DUT model ..................................................... 25

7.5.4 Test reduction for additional DUTs ................................................................. 25

8 Power density computation and averaging ..................................................................... 26

8.1 Evaluation surface ................................................................................................ 26

8.2 Tests to be performed and DUT configurations ..................................................... 26

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

8.2.2 Devices with a single radiating element or with multiple elements that

do not operate simultaneously ....................................................................... 27

8.2.3 Devices with antenna arrays or sub-arrays .................................................... 27

8.2.4 Devices with multiple antennas or multiple transmitters ................................. 28

8.3 Considerations on the evaluation surface and dimensions of the

computational domain ........................................................................................... 29

8.4 Averaging of power density on an evaluation surface ............................................ 29

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

8.4.2 Construction of the averaging area on an evaluation surface ......................... 30

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022 – 3 –

8.5 Computation of sPD by integration of the Poynting vector...................................... 31

8.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

8.5.2 Surface-normal propagation-direction power density into the evaluation

surface, sPD .............................................................................................. 31

8.5.3 Total propagating power density into the evaluation surface, sPD ............ 32

tot+
8.5.4 Total power density directed into the phantom considering near-field

exposure, sPD ....................................................................................... 32

mod+

8.6 Software ............................................................................................................... 33

9 Uncertainty evaluation ................................................................................................... 33

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 33

9.2 Uncertainty of the sPD and of the mpsPD due to the computational

parameters ........................................................................................................... 33

9.2.1 Uncertainty contributions due to the computational parameters ..................... 33

9.2.2 Mesh resolution ............................................................................................. 34

9.2.3 Absorbing boundary conditions ...................................................................... 35

9.2.4 Power budget ................................................................................................ 35

9.2.5 Model truncation ............................................................................................ 35

9.2.6 Convergence ................................................................................................. 35

9.2.7 Dielectric properties ....................................................................................... 36

9.2.8 Lossy conductors ........................................................................................... 36

9.3 Uncertainty contribution of the computational representation of the DUT

model ................................................................................................................... 36

9.4 Uncertainty of the maximum exposure evaluation ................................................. 37

9.5 Uncertainty budget ................................................................................................ 38

10 Reporting ...................................................................................................................... 39

Annex A (normative) Code verification ................................................................................. 41

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

A.2 Interpolation and superposition of vector field components ................................... 41

A.3 Computation of the far-field pattern and the radiated power .................................. 43

A.4 Implementation of lossy conductors ...................................................................... 43

A.5 Implementation of anisotropic dielectrics ............................................................... 46

A.6 Computation of the sPD and psPD ......................................................................... 47

A.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 47

A.6.2 Planar surfaces ............................................................................................. 49

A.6.3 Non-planar surfaces ...................................................................................... 50

A.7 Implementation of the field extrapolation according to the surface

equivalence principle ............................................................................................ 52

Annex B (informative) Experimental evaluation of the radiated power .................................. 53

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

B.2 Direct conducted power measurements ................................................................. 53

B.3 Radiated power measurement methods ................................................................ 54

B.4 Information provided by the DUT ........................................................................... 54

Annex C (normative) Maximum-exposure evaluation techniques .......................................... 55

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 55

C.2 Evaluation of EM fields radiated by each antenna element .................................... 55

C.3 Evaluation of the mpsPD by superposition of individual EM fields .......................... 56

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 56

C.3.2 Maximization over the entire codebook by exhaustive search ........................ 56

C.3.3 Optimization with fixed total conducted power................................................ 56

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022

C.3.4 Optimization with fixed power at each port ..................................................... 56

Annex D (informative) Examples of the implementation of power density averaging

algorithms ............................................................................................................................. 58

D.1 Example for the evaluation of the psPD on a planar surface .................................. 58

D.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 58

D.1.2 Evaluation of the psPD by direct construction of the averaging area ............... 58

D.1.3 Example for the efficient evaluation of the psPD using an equidistant

mesh on the evaluation surface ..................................................................... 59

D.2 Example for the evaluation of the psPD on a non-planar surface ........................... 60

Annex E (informative) File format for exchange of field data ................................................ 62

Annex F (informative) Rationales of the methods applied in IEC/IEEE 63195-1 and this

document .............................................................................................................................. 64

F.1 Frequency range ................................................................................................... 64

F.2 Computation of sPD .............................................................................................. 64

F.2.1 Application of the Poynting vector for computation of incident power

density ........................................................................................................... 64

F.2.2 Averaging area .............................................................................................. 65

Annex G (informative) Square averaging area on non-planar evaluation surfaces ................ 66

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

G.2 Example implementation for the evaluation of the psPD on a non-planar

surface using square-shaped averaging area ........................................................ 66

Annex H (informative) Validation of the maximum-exposure evaluation techniques .............. 67

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 67

H.2 Validation of the exhaustive search ....................................................................... 67

H.2.1 Validation of the exhaustive search ............................................................... 67

H.2.2 Validation using reconstruction method ......................................................... 67

H.2.3 Validation of optimization with fixed total conducted power or with fixed

power at each port ......................................................................................... 67

H.2.4 Validation of the maximum-exposure evaluation of measurement results ....... 67

H.3 Example validation source for maximum-exposure evaluation validation ............... 68

H.3.1 Description .................................................................................................... 68

H.3.2 Positioning..................................................................................................... 70

H.3.3 Nominal codebook, uncertainty and conducted power P .............................. 71

H.3.4 Target values................................................................................................. 71

Annex I (normative) Supplemental files and their checksums ............................................... 73

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 74

Figure 1 – Overview of the numerical power density evaluation procedure ............................ 17

Figure 2 – Power reference planes ....................................................................................... 22

Figure 3 – Example for configurations of radiating elements as different antenna sub-

arrays on the same DUT ....................................................................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Flow chart for the evaluation of power density for DUTs with antenna arrays

or sub-arrays as described in 8.2.3 ....................................................................................... 28

Figure 5 – Example of the construction of the averaging area within a sphere with fixed

radius according to 8.4 ......................................................................................................... 31

Figure A.1 – Configuration of three λ/2 dipoles, D , D , and D , for the evaluation of

1 2 3

the interpolation and superposition of the electric field and magnetic field components ......... 42

Figure A.2 – R320 waveguide ............................................................................................... 45

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022 – 5 –
Figure A.3 – Cross section of the R320 waveguide showing the locations of the E

components to be recorded ................................................................................................... 46

Figure A.4 – S (x,y) computed with Formula (A.4) for the six parameter sets of

Table A.6 normalized to their maxima ................................................................................... 49

Figure A.5 – Cross sections of the symmetric quarters of the testing geometries (SAR

Stars) for the benchmarking of the power density averaging algorithm .................................. 51

Figure A.6 – Areas for the computation of the sPD on a cone of the SAR Star ....................... 51

Figure D.1 – Rotated averaging area on the discretized evaluation surface (base

mesh) ................................................................................................................................... 60

Figure D.2 – Reduction of the area of triangles that are partially included in the

averaging sphere .................................................................................................................. 61

Figure H.1 – Main dimensions of patch array stencil ............................................................. 69

Figure H.2 – Main dimensions of the validation device, including polypropylene casing ........ 70

Figure H.3 – Validation device with SAM head in the tilt position .......................................... 70

Figure H.4 – Validation device with SAM head in the touch position ...................................... 71

Table 1 – Budget of the uncertainty contributions of the computational algorithm for the

validation setup or testing setup ........................................................................................... 34

Table 2 – Budget of the uncertainty of the developed model of the DUT ............................... 37

Table 3 – Computational uncertainty budget ......................................................................... 38

Table A.1 – Interpolation and superposition of vector field components; maximum

permissible deviation from the reference results is 10 % ....................................................... 42

Table A.2 – Computation of P ; maximum permissible deviation from the reference

results is 10 % for the radiated power and for the electric field amplitude of the far-

field pattern .......................................................................................................................... 43

Table A.3 – Minimum fine and coarse mesh step for used method ........................................ 46

Table A.4 – Results of the evaluation of the computational dispersion characteristics ........... 46

Table A.5 – Results of the evaluation of the representation of anisotropic dielectrics ............ 47

Table A.6 – Parameters for the incident power density distribution of Formula (A.4) ............. 48

Table B.1 – Comparison of the experimental methods for the evaluation of the radiated

power ................................................................................................................................... 53

Table H.1 – Main dimensions for the patch array stencil ....................................................... 68

Table H.2 – Main dimensions of the validation device ........................................................... 68

Table H.3 – Target values for validation device with the nominal codebook........................... 72

Table H.4 – Target values for validation device with infinite codebook .................................. 72

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC/IEEE 63195-2:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ASSESSMENT OF POWER DENSITY OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO RADIO
FREQUENCY FIELDS FROM WIRELESS DEVICES IN CLOSE PROXIMITY
TO THE HEAD AND BODY (FREQUENCY RANGE OF 6 GHz TO 300 GHz) –
Part 2: Computational procedure
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