Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of 6 GHz to 300 GHz) - Part 1: Measurement procedure

IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 specifies protocols and test procedures for repeatable and reproducible measurements of power density (PD) that provide conservative estimates of exposure incident to a human head or body due to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) transmitting communication devices, with a specified measurement uncertainty. These protocols and procedures apply for exposure evaluations of a significant majority of the population during the use of hand-held and body-worn RF transmitting communication devices. The methods apply for devices that can feature single or multiple transmitters or antennas, and can be operated with their radiating structure(s) at distances up to 200 mm from a human head or body.
The methods of this document can be used to determine conformity with applicable maximum PD requirements of different types of RF transmitting communication devices being used in close proximity to the head and body, including if combined with other RF transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip), or embedded in garments. The overall applicable frequency range of these protocols and procedures is from 6 GHz to 300 GHz.
The RF transmitting communication device categories covered in this document include but are not limited to mobile telephones, radio transmitters in personal computers, desktop and laptop devices, and multi-band and multi-antenna devices.
NOTE 1 The protocols and test procedures in this document can be adapted to evaluate exposure also due to non-communication types of devices operating in close proximity to the head and body, but these devices are not in the scope of this document.
NOTE 2 For the assessment of the combined exposure from simultaneous transmitters at frequencies below 6 GHz, the relevant standards for SAR measurements are IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 and IEC/IEEE 62209-3:2019 [1].
NOTE 3 Between 6 GHz and 10 GHz, the scopes of this document and IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 overlap. According to ICNIRP [2] and IEEE ICES TC95 [3] exposure guidelines, power density is the conformity metric in this frequency range. SAR can be used as conformity metric if local regulatory requirements allow it. (e.g. in case where a single transmit band includes test channels at both below and above 6 GHz).
The procedures of this document do not apply for EMF measurements of devices or objects intended to be implanted in the body.
This publication is published as an IEC/IEEE Dual Logo standard.

Evaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 ghz à 300 ghz) - Partie 1: Procédure de mesure

IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 spécifie les protocoles et les procédures d'essai relatifs aux mesures répétables et reproductibles de la densité de puissance (PD, Power Density) qui donnent des estimations prudentes de l'exposition de la tête ou du corps humain aux champs provenant de dispositifs de communication qui émettent un champ électromagnétique (EMF, Electromagnetic Field) radiofréquence (RF), avec une incertitude de mesure spécifiée. Ces protocoles et procédures s'appliquent aux évaluations de l'exposition d'une vaste majorité de la population lors de l'utilisation de dispositifs de communication qui émettent des RF tenus à la main et portés sur le corps. Les méthodes s'appliquent aux dispositifs qui peuvent comporter un ou plusieurs émetteurs ou antennes, et qui peuvent être utilisés alors que leurs structures rayonnantes se trouvent à des distances inférieures ou égales à 200 mm de la tête ou du corps humain.
Les méthodes décrites dans le présent document peuvent être utilisées pour déterminer la conformité aux exigences en matière de densité de puissance maximale applicables de différents types de dispositifs qui émettent des RF lorsqu'ils sont utilisés à proximité immédiate de la tête et du corps, y compris s'ils sont combinés à d'autres dispositifs ou accessoires qui émettent des RF ou non (clip de ceinture, par exemple) ou s'ils sont intégrés dans des vêtements. La plage de fréquences globale applicable pour ces protocoles et procédures est comprise entre 6 GHz et 300 GHz.
Les catégories de dispositifs de communication qui émettent des RF couvertes par le présent document incluent notamment les téléphones mobiles, les émetteurs radio des ordinateurs personnels, les dispositifs de bureau et les dispositifs portables, ainsi que les dispositifs multibandes et multiantennes.
NOTE 1 Les essais de validation du système sont indiqués à l'Annexe B pour les fréquences de 10 GHz, 30 GHz, 60 GHz et 90 GHz afin de couvrir la plage de fréquences de 6 GHz à 110 GHz. Des antennes de validation supplémentaires qui permettent de couvrir la plage de fréquences jusqu'à 300 GHz seront élaborées dans une révision ultérieure du présent document. Une analyse plus approfondie des justifications est donnée à l'Annexe I.
NOTE 2 Les procédures d'essai et les protocoles décrits dans le présent document peuvent par ailleurs être adaptés afin d'évaluer l'exposition liée à des dispositifs autres que des dispositifs de communication utilisés à proximité de la tête ou du corps, ces dispositifs n'étant cependant pas couverts par le domaine d'application du présent document.
NOTE 3 Pour l'évaluation de l'exposition combinée en provenance de plusieurs émetteurs qui fonctionnent à des fréquences inférieures à 6 GHz, les normes applicables pour les mesures du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) sont l'IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 et l'IEC/IEEE 62209‑3:2019 [1].
NOTE 4 Pour la plage de fréquences entre 6 GHz et 10 GHz, le domaine d'application du présent document coïncide avec celui de l'IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020. Selon les lignes directrices de l'ICNIRP [2] et la norme C95.1 de l'ICES de l'IEEE [3], la densité de puissance est la mesure réglementaire dans cette plage de fréquences. Le DAS peut être utilisé comme mesure réglementaire si les exigences réglementaires locales le permettent (lorsqu'une seule bande de transmission comprend des canaux d'essai à des fréquences inférieures et supérieures à 6 GHz, par exemple).
Les procédures du présent document ne s'appliquent pas aux mesures du champ électromagnétique de dispositifs ou d'objets destinés à être implantés dans le corps.
Cette publication est publiée en tant que norme IEC/IEEE Dual Logo.

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Publication Date
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IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 - Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of 6 GHz to 300 GHz) - Part 1: Measurement procedure
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IEC/IEEE 63195-1
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from
wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of
6 GHz to 300 GHz) –
Part 1: Measurement procedure
Évaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs
radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la
tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 GHz à 300 GHz) –
Partie 1: Procédure de mesure
IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022-05(en-fr)
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 63195-1
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of power density of human exposure to radio frequency fields from
wireless devices in close proximity to the head and body (frequency range of
6 GHz to 300 GHz) –
Part 1: Measurement procedure
Évaluation de la densité de puissance de l'exposition humaine aux champs
radiofréquences provenant de dispositifs sans fil à proximité immédiate de la
tête et du corps (plage de fréquences de 6 GHz à 300 GHz) –
Partie 1: Procédure de mesure
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-0123-7

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 13

3.1 Exposure metrics and parameters ......................................................................... 13

3.2 Spatial, physical, and geometrical parameters associated with exposure

metrics .................................................................................................................. 16

3.3 Measurement instrumentation, field probe, and data-processing parameters ......... 17

3.4 RF power parameters ........................................................................................... 20

3.5 Test device technical operating and antenna parameters ...................................... 21

3.6 Test device physical configurations ....................................................................... 23

3.7 Uncertainty parameters ......................................................................................... 24

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 25

4.1 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 25

4.1.1 Physical quantities ......................................................................................... 25

4.1.2 Constants ...................................................................................................... 26

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 26

5 Quick start guide and application of this document ........................................................ 27

5.1 Quick start guide ................................................................................................... 27

5.2 Application of this document ................................................................................. 30

5.3 Stipulations ........................................................................................................... 30

6 Measurement system and laboratory requirements ........................................................ 30

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 30

6.2 Laboratory requirements ....................................................................................... 31

6.3 Field probe requirements ...................................................................................... 32

6.4 Measurement instrumentation requirements .......................................................... 32

6.5 Scanning system requirements ............................................................................. 33

6.5.1 Single-probe systems .................................................................................... 33

6.5.2 Multiple field-probe systems .......................................................................... 33

6.6 Device holder requirements .................................................................................. 34

6.7 Post-processing quantities, procedures, and requirements .................................... 35

6.7.1 Formulas for calculation of sPD ...................................................................... 35

6.7.2 Post-processing procedure ............................................................................ 37

6.7.3 Requirements ................................................................................................ 38

7 Protocol for PD assessment .......................................................................................... 39

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

7.2 Measurement preparation ..................................................................................... 39

7.2.1 Relative system check ................................................................................... 39

7.2.2 DUT requirements ......................................................................................... 39

7.2.3 DUT preparation ............................................................................................ 40

7.2.4 Selecting evaluation surfaces ........................................................................ 41

7.3 Tests to be performed ........................................................................................... 44

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

7.3.2 Tests to be performed when supported by simulations of the antenna

array .............................................................................................................. 46

7.3.3 Tests to be performed by measurements of the antenna array ....................... 48

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IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022 – 3 –

7.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 48

7.4.1 General measurement procedure ................................................................... 48

7.4.2 Power density assessment methods .............................................................. 49

7.4.3 Power scaling for operating mode and channel .............................................. 51

7.4.4 Correction for DUT drift ................................................................................. 53

7.5 Exposure combining.............................................................................................. 54

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 54

7.5.2 Combining power density and SAR results ..................................................... 55

8 Uncertainty estimation ................................................................................................... 58

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 58

8.2 Requirements for uncertainty evaluations ............................................................. 58

8.3 Description of uncertainty models ......................................................................... 58

8.4 Uncertainty terms dependent on the measurement system .................................... 59

8.4.1 CAL – Calibration of the measurement equipment .......................................... 59

8.4.2 COR – Probe correction ................................................................................. 59

8.4.3 FRS – Frequency response ............................................................................ 59

8.4.4 SCC – Sensor cross coupling ......................................................................... 60

8.4.5 ISO – Isotropy ................................................................................................ 61

8.4.6 LIN – System linearity error ........................................................................... 61

8.4.7 PSC – Probe scattering .................................................................................. 61

8.4.8 PPO – Probe positioning offset ...................................................................... 62

8.4.9 PPR – Probe positioning repeatability ............................................................ 62

8.4.10 SMO – Sensor mechanical offset .................................................................... 63

8.4.11 PSR – Probe spatial resolution ....................................................................... 63

8.4.12 FLD – Field impedance dependence (ratio |E|/|H|) ......................................... 63

8.4.13 MED – Measurement drift .............................................................................. 63

8.4.14 APN – Amplitude and phase noise ................................................................. 64

8.4.15 TR – Measurement area truncation ................................................................ 64

8.4.16 DAQ – Data acquisition .................................................................................. 64

8.4.17 SMP – Sampling ............................................................................................. 64

8.4.18 REC – Field reconstruction ............................................................................. 64

8.4.19 SNR – Signal-to-noise ratio ............................................................................ 65

8.4.20 TRA – Forward transformation and backward transformation .......................... 65

8.4.21 SCA – Power density scaling .......................................................................... 66

8.4.22 SAV – Spatial averaging ................................................................................. 66

8.4.23 COM – Exposure combining ........................................................................... 66

8.5 Uncertainty terms dependent on the DUT and environmental factors .................... 66

8.5.1 PC – Probe coupling with DUT ....................................................................... 66

8.5.2 MOD – Modulation response .......................................................................... 67

8.5.3 IT – Integration time ...................................................................................... 67

8.5.4 RT – Response time ....................................................................................... 68

8.5.5 DH – Device holder influence ........................................................................ 68

8.5.6 DA – DUT alignment ...................................................................................... 68

8.5.7 AC – RF ambient conditions ........................................................................... 68

8.5.8 TEM – Laboratory temperature....................................................................... 68

8.5.9 REF – Reflections in laboratory ...................................................................... 69

8.5.10 MSI – Measurement system immunity/secondary reception ............................ 69

8.5.11 DRI – DUT drift .............................................................................................. 69

8.6 Combined and expanded uncertainty .................................................................... 69

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– 4 – IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022

9 Measurement report ...................................................................................................... 73

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

9.2 Items to be recorded in measurement reports ....................................................... 73

Annex A (normative) Measurement system check and system validation tests ..................... 76

A.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 76

A.2 Normalization to total radiated power .................................................................... 77

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 77

A.2.2 Option 1: Accepted power measurement ........................................................ 77

A.2.3 Option 2: Total radiated power measurement ................................................. 81

A.3 Relative system check .......................................................................................... 82

A.3.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 82

A.3.2 Antenna and test conditions ........................................................................... 82

A.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 83

A.3.4 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 83

A.4 Absolute system check ......................................................................................... 85

A.4.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 85

A.4.2 Antenna and test conditions ........................................................................... 85

A.4.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 85

A.4.4 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 85

A.5 System validation .................................................................................................. 86

A.5.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 86

A.5.2 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 86

A.5.3 Validation of modulation response ................................................................. 87

A.5.4 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 87

Annex B (normative) Antennas for system check and system validation tests ...................... 89

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 89

B.2 Pyramidal horn antennas for system checks ......................................................... 90

B.3 Cavity-fed dipole arrays for system validation ....................................................... 91

B.3.1 Description .................................................................................................... 91

B.3.2 Numerical target values for cavity-fed dipole arrays ....................................... 94

B.3.3 Field and power density distribution patterns ................................................. 94

B.3.4 Far-field radiation patterns ............................................................................. 99

B.4 Pyramidal horns with slot arrays for system validation ........................................ 101

B.4.1 Description .................................................................................................. 101

B.4.2 Numerical target values for pyramidal horns loaded with a slot array ........... 103

B.4.3 Field and power density distribution patterns ............................................... 104

B.4.4 Far-field radiation patterns ........................................................................... 109

B.5 Antenna validation procedure .............................................................................. 110

B.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 110

B.5.2 Objectives, scope, and usage specifications ................................................ 111

B.5.3 Antenna design............................................................................................ 111

B.5.4 Numerical targets ........................................................................................ 111

B.5.5 Reference antennas calibration ................................................................... 111

B.5.6 Antenna verification and life expectation ...................................................... 111

B.5.7 Uncertainty budget considerations ............................................................... 111

B.6 Validation procedure for wideband signals .......................................................... 112

B.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 112

B.6.2 Validation signals ........................................................................................ 112

B.6.3 Validation antennas and setup ..................................................................... 112

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IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022 – 5 –

B.6.4 Target values for validation antennas transmitting wideband signals ........... 112

B.6.5 Wideband signal uncertainty ........................................................................ 112

B.6.6 Validation procedure .................................................................................... 113

Annex C (normative) Calibration and characterization of measurement probes .................. 114

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 114

C.2 Calibration of waveguide probes ......................................................................... 114

C.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 114

C.2.2 Sensitivity .................................................................................................... 114

C.2.3 Linearity ...................................................................................................... 114

C.2.4 Lower detection limit .................................................................................... 115

C.2.5 Isotropy ....................................................................................................... 115

C.2.6 Response time ............................................................................................. 115

C.3 Calibration for isotropic scalar E-field or H-field probes ....................................... 115

C.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 115

C.3.2 Sensitivity .................................................................................................... 115

C.3.3 Isotropy ....................................................................................................... 115

C.3.4 Linearity ...................................................................................................... 116

C.3.5 Lower detection limit .................................................................................... 116

C.3.6 Response time ............................................................................................. 116

C.4 Calibration of phasor E-field or H-field probes ..................................................... 116

C.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 116

C.4.2 Sensitivity .................................................................................................... 116

C.4.3 Isotropy ....................................................................................................... 117

C.4.4 Linearity ...................................................................................................... 117

C.4.5 Lower detection limit .................................................................................... 117

C.5 Calibration uncertainty parameters...................................................................... 117

C.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 117

C.5.2 Input power to the antenna .......................................................................... 117

C.5.3 Mismatch effect (input power measurement) ................................................ 117

C.5.4 Gain and offset distance .............................................................................. 118

C.5.5 Signal spectrum ........................................................................................... 118

C.5.6 Setup stability .............................................................................................. 118

C.5.7 Uncertainty for field impedance variations ................................................... 119

C.6 Uncertainty budget template ............................................................................... 119

Annex D (informative) Information on use of square or circular shapes for power

density averaging area in conformity evaluations ................................................................ 121

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 121

D.2 Method using computational analysis .................................................................. 121

D.3 Areas averaged with square and circular shapes on planar evaluation

surface ............................................................................................................... 121

D.4 Areas averaged with square and circular shapes on nonplanar evaluation

surface ............................................................................................................... 123

Annex E (informative) Reconstruction algorithms ............................................................... 125

E.1 General ............................................................................................................... 125

E.2 Methodologies to extract local field components and power densities ................. 125

E.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 125

E.2.2 Phase-less approaches ............................................................................... 126

E.2.3 Approaches using E-field polarization ellipse measurements ....................... 126

E.2.4 Direct near-field measurements ................................................................... 126

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– 6 – IEC/IEEE 63195-1:2022 © IEC/IEEE 2022

E.3 Forward transformation (propagation) of the fields .............................................. 127

E.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 127

E.3.2 Field expansion methods ............................................................................. 128

E.3.3 Field integral equation methods ................................................................... 128

E.4 Backward transformation (propagation) of the fields ............................................ 129

E.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 129

E.4.2 Field expansion methods – the plane wave expansion ................................. 129

E.4.3 Inverse source methods ............................................................................... 130

E.5 Analytical reference functions ............................................................................. 131

Annex F (normative) Interlaboratory comparisons .............................................................. 133

F.1 Purpose .......................
...

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