Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval - Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) based photovoltaic (PV) modules

IEC 61215-1-2:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1-2:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-2, issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b. A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c. A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules added.

Modules photovoltaïques (PV) pour applications terrestres - Qualification de la conception et homologation - Partie 1-2: Exigences particulières d'essai des modules photovoltaïques (PV) au tellurure de cadmium (CdTe) à couches minces

IEC 61215-1-2:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 61215-1-2:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 établit les exigences pour la qualification de la conception des modules photovoltaïques (PV) pour applications terrestres adaptés à une utilisation de longue durée dans les climats à l'air libre. La durée de vie utile des modules ainsi qualifiés dépend de leur conception, de leur environnement et de leurs conditions de fonctionnement. Les résultats d’essai ne sont pas considérés comme une prévision quantitative de la durée de vie des modules. Le présent document est destiné à s'appliquer à tous les modules à plaque plane au tellurure de cadmium (CdTe) à couches minces pour applications terrestres. À ce titre, il spécifie des exigences d'essai particulières à cette technologie en complément des exigences d'essai données dans l'IEC 61215-1:2021 et l'IEC 61215-2:2021. Le présent document définit les modifications dépendantes de la technologie photovoltaïque, apportées aux exigences et procédures d'essai de l'IEC 61215-1:2021 et de l'IEC 61215 2:2021. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition de l'IEC 61215-1-2, parue en 2016. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a. Ajout d'un essai de charge mécanique (dynamique) cyclique (MQT 20).
b. Ajout d'un essai de dégradation induite par le potentiel (MQT 21)
c. Ajout d'un essai de flexion (MQT 22) dédié aux modules souples

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Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Feb-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Feb-2021
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IEC 61215-1-2:2021 - Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval - Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) based photovoltaic (PV) modules
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IEC 61215-1-2
Edition 2.0 2021-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval –
Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
based photovoltaic (PV) modules
Modules photovoltaïques (PV) pour applications terrestres – Qualification de la
conception et homologation –
Partie 1-2: Exigences particulières d'essai des modules photovoltaïques (PV)
au tellurure de cadmium (CdTe) à couches minces
IEC 61215-1-2:2021-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2
Edition 2.0 2021-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval –
Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
based photovoltaic (PV) modules
Modules photovoltaïques (PV) pour applications terrestres – Qualification de la
conception et homologation –
Partie 1-2: Exigences particulières d'essai des modules photovoltaïques (PV)
au tellurure de cadmium (CdTe) à couches minces
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-9358-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Test samples ................................................................................................................... 7

5 Marking and documentation ............................................................................................. 7

6 Testing ............................................................................................................................ 7

7 Pass criteria .................................................................................................................... 7

8 Major visual defects ......................................................................................................... 7

9 Report ............................................................................................................................. 7

10 Modifications ................................................................................................................... 7

11 Test flow and procedures ................................................................................................ 7

11.1 Visual inspection (MQT 01) ..................................................................................... 7

11.2 Maximum power determination (MQT 02) ................................................................ 7

11.3 Insulation test (MQT 03) ......................................................................................... 8

11.4 Measurement of temperature coefficients (MQT 04) ................................................ 8

11.5 Placeholder section, formerly NMOT ....................................................................... 8

11.6 Performance at STC (MQT 06.1) ............................................................................. 8

11.7 Performance at low irradiance (MQT 07) ................................................................. 8

11.8 Outdoor exposure test (MQT 08) ............................................................................. 8

11.9 Hot-spot endurance test (MQT 09).......................................................................... 8

11.9.1 Purpose ........................................................................................................... 8

11.9.2 Hot-spot effect ................................................................................................. 8

11.9.3 Classification of cell interconnection ................................................................ 8

11.9.4 Apparatus ........................................................................................................ 8

11.9.5 Procedure ........................................................................................................ 8

11.9.6 Final measurements ........................................................................................ 9

11.9.7 Requirements .................................................................................................. 9

11.10 UV preconditioning test (MQT 10) ........................................................................... 9

11.11 Thermal cycling test (MQT 11) ................................................................................ 9

11.12 Humidity-freeze test (MQT 12) ................................................................................ 9

11.13 Damp heat test (MQT 13) ........................................................................................ 9

11.14 Robustness of terminations (MQT 14) ..................................................................... 9

11.15 Wet leakage current test (MQT 15) ......................................................................... 9

11.16 Static mechanical load test (MQT 16) ...................................................................... 9

11.17 Hail test (MQT 17) .................................................................................................. 9

11.18 Bypass diode testing (MQT 18) ............................................................................... 9

11.19 Stabilization (MQT 19) ............................................................................................ 9

11.19.1 Criterion definition for stabilization ................................................................... 9

11.19.2 Light induced stabilization procedures ........................................................... 10

11.19.3 Other stabilization procedures ....................................................................... 10

11.19.4 Initial stabilization (MQT 19.1) ....................................................................... 10

11.19.5 Final stabilization (MQT 19.2) ........................................................................ 10

11.20 Cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) ................................................... 11

11.21 Potential induced degradation test (MQT 21) ........................................................ 11

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

11.22 Bending test (MQT 22) .......................................................................................... 11

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
TERRESTRIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES –
DESIGN QUALIFICATION AND TYPE APPROVAL –
Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium
Telluride (CdTe) based photovoltaic (PV) modules
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61215-1-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82:

Solar photovoltaic energy systems.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-2, issued in 2016,

and constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b) A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c) A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules added.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

Informative Annex A, of 61215-1:2021, explains the background and reasoning behind some

of the more substantial changes that were made in the IEC 61215 series in progressing from

edition 1 to edition 2.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
82/1825/FDIS 82/1850/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

This standard is to be read in conjunction with IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61215 series, published under the general title Terrestrial

photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval, can be found on the IEC

website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
TERRESTRIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES –
DESIGN QUALIFICATION AND TYPE APPROVAL –
Part 1-2: Special requirements for testing of thin-film Cadmium
Telluride (CdTe) based photovoltaic (PV) modules
1 Scope

This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic

modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of

modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under

which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module

lifetime.
In climates where 98 percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are

recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in

IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations

are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described

in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics

tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize

IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.

This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules.

As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing

IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing.

This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be

utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests

are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design

concentration.

The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module

and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the

module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions

are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and

are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design

and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on

accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component

testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions

that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a

sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into

the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures

described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.

This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and

requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.
2 Normative references

The normative references of IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 are applicable without

modifications.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
4 Test samples
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
5 Marking and documentation
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
6 Testing
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable with the following modifications:

Special care has to be taken for stabilizing the power output of the module using MQT 19

procedure with specific requirements stated in 11.19 below.
7 Pass criteria
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable with the following modifications:
The maximum allowable value of reproducibility is set to r = 2,0 %.

The maximum allowable value of measurement uncertainty is set to m = 4,0 % for modules

containing single-junction cells, and m1 = 5,0 % for modules containing multi-junction cells.

8 Major visual defects
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
9 Report
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
10 Modifications
This clause of IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11 Test flow and procedures
The test flow from IEC 61215-1:2021 is applicable.
11.1 Visual inspection (MQT 01)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.2 Maximum power determination (MQT 02)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
11.3 Insulation test (MQT 03)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.4 Measurement of temperature coefficients (MQT 04)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.5 Placeholder section, formerly NMOT

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021 does not require technology-specific modifications.

11.6 Performance at STC (MQT 06.1)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.7 Performance at low irradiance (MQT 07)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.8 Outdoor exposure test (MQT 08)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.9 Hot-spot endurance test (MQT 09)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable with the following modifications:

CdTe thin-film modules may exhibit performance changes with extended time in storage

without light exposure (the “dark soak” effect). In order to minimize the influence of this dark

soak effect, limit the time delay between the outdoor exposure or stabilization and the hot

spot procedure to within 2 to 3 days. During the first hour after the hot-spot procedure is

complete, no additional heating or light beyond room ambient shall be applied. If the time

delay is to exceed 1 h, the modules are to be stored in the dark at ≤ 25 °C.
11.9.1 Purpose

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.9.2 Hot-spot effect

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.9.3 Classification of cell interconnection

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.9.4 Apparatus

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.9.5 Procedure
MQT 09.2 of IEC 61215-2:2021 shall be performed for any MLI module design.

If the module is constructed by interconnection of cell-like substructures, MQT 09.1 of

may be applicable.
IEC 61215-2:2021
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
11.9.6 Final measurements

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.9.7 Requirements

This subclause of IEC 61215-2:2021, test MQT 09, is applicable without modifications.

11.10 UV preconditioning test (MQT 10)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.11 Thermal cycling test (MQT 11)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable with the following modifications:
The technology specific current which needs to be applied according to MQT 11 of

IEC 61215-2:2021 shall be equal to 0,1 × STC peak power current. If 0,1 × STC peak power

current is less than 100 mA, then 100 mA may be applied instead.
11.12 Humidity-freeze test (MQT 12)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.13 Damp heat test (MQT 13)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.14 Robustness of terminations (MQT 14)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.15 Wet leakage current test (MQT 15)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.16 Static mechanical load test (MQT 16)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.17 Hail test (MQT 17)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.18 Bypass diode testing (MQT 18)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.19 Stabilization (MQT 19)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable with the following modifications:
11.19.1 Criterion definition for stabilization

For the definition of stabilization as per MQT 19 of IEC 61215-2:2021 x = 0,02 shall be used.

Any kind of storage shall be done at temperature below 25 °C to avoid thermally activated

processes affecting MQT 06.1 of IEC 61215-2:2021 measurement.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
11.19.2 Light induced stabilization procedures
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.19.3 Other stabilization procedures
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.19.4 Initial stabilization (MQT 19.1)
Initial stabilization is performed on all modules.

To fulfil MQT 19 requirements using light exposure, a minimum of two intervals each of at

least 20 kWh/m are required. After this preconditioning all of the test modules shall be

measured for STC power (MQT 06.1 of IEC 61215-2:2021).

If stabilization is performed outdoors, in general no module temperature limits apply. The

outdoor stabilization shall be proven at least with one module using the indoor method

following the validation procedure from MQT 19 of IEC 61215-2:2021.

The minimum and maximum module temperatures observed during outdoor light exposure

stabilization verification while the irradiance level is above 500 W/m shall be the minimum

and maximum allowable module temperatures for all modules. If the module temperature falls

outside of these limits, the new module temperature range has to be re-verified.

Output power determination shall be performed after a minimum cooling time of 30 min and

maximum 60 min.

A validated alternative procedure can be used in accordance to MQT 19 of IEC 61215-2:2021.

11.19.5 Final stabilization (MQT 19.2)

Final stabilization is performed on all modules after the test sequences to prove fulfilment of

gate No. 2 requirement of IEC 61215-1:2021.

To fulfil MQT 19 requirements using light exposure, at least two intervals of at least

20 kWh/m each are required.

If stabilization is performed outdoors, in general no module temperature limits apply. The

outdoor stabilization shall be proven at least with one module using the indoor method

following MQT 19 of IEC 61215-2:2021.

The minimum and maximum module temperatures observed during outdoor light exposure

stabilization verification while the irradiance level is above 500 W/m shall be the minimum

and maximum allowable module temperatures for all modules. If the module temperature falls

outside of these limits, the new module temperature range has to be re-verified.

For modules that have been subjected to potential induced degradation (PID) stress (MQT

21), the maximum exposure limit after reaching stabilization shall not be exceeded. The light

soak shall terminate no more than 40 kWh/m after the stabilization criterion is met.

Output power determination shall be performed after a minimum cooling time of 30 min and

maximum 60 min.

A validated alternative procedure can be used in accordance to MQT 19 of IEC 61215-2:2021.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
11.20 Cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.21 Potential induced degradation test (MQT 21)
This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable without modifications.
11.22 Bending test (MQT 22)

This test of IEC 61215-2:2021 is applicable to flexible modules without modifications.

___________
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 61215-1-2:2021 © IEC 2021
SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS .................................................................................................................. 14

1 Domaine d'ap
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