Fire hazard testing - Part 11-11: Test flames - Determination of the characteristic heat flux for ignition from a non-contacting flame source

IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016 describes a test method used to determine the characteristic heat flux for ignition (CHFI) from a non-contacting flame source for materials used in electrotechnical products and sub-assemblies. It provides a relationship between ignition time and incident heat flux. A test specimen cut from an end-product or sub-assembly can be tested by this test method. This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. Keywords: Fire Hazard, Fire Test Method, Test Flames, Ignition
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60695-11-4:2011.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 11-11: Flammes d'essai - Détermination du flux de chaleur caractéristique pour l'allumage à partir d'une flamme source sans contact

IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016 décrit une méthode d'essai utilisée pour déterminer le flux de chaleur caractéristique pour l'allumage (CHFI) à partir d'une flamme source qui n'est pas en contact pour les matériaux utilisés dans les produits et les sous-ensembles électrotechniques. Elle donne une relation entre le temps d'allumage et le flux de chaleur incident. Une éprouvette prélevée sur un produit fini ou un sous-ensemble peut être soumise aux essais de la présente méthode d'essai. Cette publication fondamentale de sécurité est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d'études pour l'établissement de leurs normes conformément au IEC Guide 104 et dans le Guide ISO/IEC 51. Mots clés: Risque du feu, Méthode d'essai du feu, flammes d'essai, allumage
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la IEC 60695-11-4:2011.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Feb-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
27-May-2021
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IEC TS 60695-11-11
Edition 2.0 2016-02
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –

Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic heat flux for ignition

from a non-contacting flame source
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 11-11: Flammes d'essai – Détermination du flux de chaleur caractéristique
pour l'allumage à partir d'une flamme source sans contact
IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-11
Edition 2.0 2016-02
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –

Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic heat flux for ignition

from a non-contacting flame source
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 11-11: Flammes d'essai – Détermination du flux de chaleur caractéristique
pour l'allumage à partir d'une flamme source sans contact
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40, 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3177-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 8

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 8

4 Principle of the test ........................................................................................................ 9

5 Apparatus ...................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Test arrangement .................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Burner and test flame .......................................................................................... 10

5.3 Heat flux meter ................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Data acquisition system ....................................................................................... 11

5.5 Dummy test specimen board ............................................................................... 11

5.6 Masking board .................................................................................................... 11

5.7 Timing device ...................................................................................................... 12

5.8 Conditioning ........................................................................................................ 12

5.9 Test specimen support ........................................................................................ 12

5.10 Burner support .................................................................................................... 12

5.11 Observation mirror .............................................................................................. 12

6 Test specimen ............................................................................................................. 12

6.1 Specimen preparation ......................................................................................... 12

6.2 Test specimen dimensions .................................................................................. 12

6.3 Testing ranges in formulations ............................................................................. 13

6.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 13

6.3.2 Density, melt flows and filler/reinforcement ................................................... 13

6.3.3 Colour ......................................................................................................... 13

6.4 Conditioning of test specimens ............................................................................ 13

7 Testing conditions ....................................................................................................... 13

8 Test procedure ............................................................................................................ 13

8.1 Determination of incident heat flux calibration curve ............................................ 13

8.2 Determination of ignition times ............................................................................ 14

8.3 Repetition of the test at different heat flux values ................................................. 14

9 Evaluation of test results .............................................................................................. 15

9.1 Average ignition time t ...................................................................................... 15

9.2 Report format for CHFI ........................................................................................ 15

9.3 Precision data ..................................................................................................... 15

10 Test report................................................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) An example of the calibration curve of incident heat flux versus

the distance between the top of the burner tube and the lower surface of the test

specimen ............................................................................................................................ 16

A.1 Calibration curves ............................................................................................... 16

Annex B (informative) Examples of ignition times with various materials of 3 mm

thickness ............................................................................................................................ 18

B.1 Materials tested .................................................................................................. 18

Annex C (informative) Precision data.................................................................................. 21

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016 – 3 –

C.2 Heat flux versus distance at different Gas flow rates ............................................ 21

C.3 Repeatability ....................................................................................................... 22

C.4 Calculations and plots ......................................................................................... 23

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 1 – Arrangement and position of test specimen and burner ....................................... 10

Figure 2 – Dummy test specimen board ............................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Structure of the masking board ........................................................................... 12

Figure A.1 – Calibration curve (example) ............................................................................. 16

Figure B.1 – Example of ignition times of PMMA .................................................................. 18

Figure B.2 – Ignition times for ABS (example) ..................................................................... 19

Figure B.3 – Ignition times for HIPS (example) .................................................................... 19

Figure C.1 – Incident heat flux calibration curve (Gas flow rate = 105 cm /min) .................. 21

Figure C.2 – Incident heat flux calibration curve (Gas flow rate = 160 cm /min) .................. 22

Figure C.3 – 1/t for Material A .......................................................................................... 23

Figure C.4 – 1/t for Material B .......................................................................................... 23

Figure C.5 – 1/t for Material C .......................................................................................... 24

Figure C.6 – 1/t for Material D .......................................................................................... 24

Table A.1 – Calibration data (examples of actual measured data as shown in

Figure A.1) ......................................................................................................................... 17

Table A.2 – Calibration data (examples of interpolated values) ............................................ 17

Table B.1 – Illustrative example of tabulated results ............................................................ 20

Table C.1 – Precision data of ignition time ........................................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic
heat flux for ignition from a non-contacting flame source
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a technical

specification when

• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

despite repeated efforts, or

• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.

Technical specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 60695-11-11, which is a technical specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 89: Fire hazard testing.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC

Guide 51.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016 – 5 –

This second edition of IEC TS 60695-11-11 cancels and replaces the first edition published in

2008. It constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) Fix of editiorials throughout the text;
b) Introduction updated;
c) Normative references updated;
d) Results of recent round-robin testing incorporated; and
e) Informative Annex C "Precision data" added.
The text of this technical specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
89/1227/DTS 89/1248/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

This technical specification is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-11-4.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can

be found on the IEC website.
Part 11 consists of the following parts:

Part 11-2: Test flames – 1 kW nominal pre-mixed flame – Apparatus, confirmatory test

arrangement and guidance

Part 11-3: Test flames – 500 W flames – Apparatus and confirmational test methods

Part 11-4: Test flames – 50 W flame – Apparatus and confirmational test method
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method – Apparatus, confirmatory test
arrangement and guidance
Part 11-10: Test flames – 50 W horizontal and vertical flame test methods

Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic heat flux for ignition from a

non-contacting flame source
Part 11-20: Test flames – 500 W flame test methods

Part 11-21: Test flames – 500 W vertical flame test method for tubular polymeric materials

Part 11-30: Test flames – History and development from 1979 to 1999
Part 11-40: Test flames – Confirmatory tests – Guidance
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• transformed into an International standard,
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

In the design of any electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit

and equipment design as well as the choice of materials is to reduce the risk of fire to a

tolerable level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

IEC 60695-1-10, together with its companion, IEC 60695-1-11, provide guidance on how this

is to be accomplished.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can be initiated from external non-electrical sources.

Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by

– trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product.

– trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the

harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion

products.

This technical specification is to be used to measure and describe the properties of materials

used for electrotechnical products and sub-assemblies in response to heat from a non-

contacting flame source under controlled laboratory conditions and is to not be used to

describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under

actual fire conditions. However, results of this test can be used as elements of a fire hazard

assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment

of the fire hazard of a particular end use. A test specimen cut from end-product or sub-

assembly can be tested by this test method.

This technical specification may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. It

does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the

responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine

the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Test methods to determine flammability by contact of flame have been developed and

standardized already, such as IEC 60695-11-10 [1] and IEC 60695-11-20 [2] and
ISO 4589-2 [3] .

This is the first test method to determine the characteristic heat flux for ignition (CHFI) of

materials used for electrotechnical products and sub-assemblies from a non-contacting flame

source. CHFI characterizes ignition behaviour in terms of incident heat flux. This test method

simulates the fire behaviour of materials used for electrotechnical products where a flame

source exists close to, but does not contact with these items. An example is a candle flame

near an electrotechnical product.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic
heat flux for ignition from a non-contacting flame source
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695, which is a technical specification describes a test method used to

determine the characteristic heat flux for ignition (CHFI) from a non-contacting flame source

for materials used in electrotechnical products and sub-assemblies. It provides a relationship

between ignition time and incident heat flux. A test specimen cut from an end-product or sub-

assembly can be tested by this test method.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-11-4, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-4: Test flames – 50 W flame – Apparatus and

confirmational test method

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications

ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards

ISO 291, Plastics – Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 293, Plastics – Compression moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials

ISO 294 (all parts), Plastics – Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials

ISO 295, Plastics – Compression moulding of test specimens of thermosetting materials

ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary

ISO 14934-4:2014, Fire tests – Calibration of heat flux meters – Part 4: Guidance on the use

of heat flux meters in fire tests
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943:2008, some

of which are reproduced below for the user’s convenience, as well as the following apply.

3.1
average ignition time, t
arithmetic mean of three ignition times measured at a given heat flux
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-11:2016  IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.2
characteristic heat flux for ignition
CHFI

maximum incident heat flux which is a multiple of 5 kW/m and at which t is greater than

120 s
3.3
draught-free environment

space in which the results of experiments are not significantly affected by the local air speed

Note 1 to entry: A qualitative example is a space in which a wax candle flame remains essentially undisturbed.

Quantitative examples are small-scale fire tests in which a maximum air speed of 0,1 m/s or 0,2 m/s is sometimes

specified.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.70]
3.4
heat flux

amount of thermal energy emitted, transmitted or received per unit area and per unit time

Note 1 to entry: The typical units are watts per square metre (W/m ).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13943:2008, 4.173]
3.5
ignition

initiation of combustion which results in a sustained flaming combustion for at least 5 s

Note 1 to entry: The term “ignition” in French has a very different meaning [state of body combustion].

3.6
incident heat flux
heat flux received by the surface of a test specimen
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.15]
4 Principle of the test

The incident heat flux is measured using the apparatus described in 5.3 and 5.4. The incident

heat flux value is controlled by changing the distance between the top of the burner tube and

the lower surface of the test specimen and by changing the flow rate of gas to the burn

...

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