Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment - Part 1: General

IEC 62477-1:2012 applies to Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) and equipment, their components for electronic power conversion and electronic power switching, including the means for their control, protection, monitoring and measurement, such as with the main purpose of converting electric power, with rated system voltages not exceeding 1 000 V a.c. or 1 500 V d.c. This document may also be used as a reference standard for product committees producing product standards for:
- adjustable speed electric power drive systems (PDS);
- standalone uninterruptible power systems (UPS);
- low voltage stabilized d.c. power supplies.
For PECS for which no product standard exists, this standard provides minimum requirements for safety aspects. This part of IEC 62477 has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 for power electronic converter systems and equipment for solar, wind, tidal, wave, fuel cell or similar energy sources. According to IEC Guide 104, one of the responsibilities of technical committees is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications and/or group safety publications in the preparation of their product standards. This International Standard:
- establishes a common terminology for safety aspects relating to PECS and equipment;
- establishes minimum requirements for the coordination of safety aspects of interrelated parts within a PECS;
- establishes a common basis for minimum safety requirements for the PEC portion of products that contain PEC;
- specifies requirements to reduce risks of fire, electric shock, thermal, energy and mechanical hazards, during use and operation and, where specifically stated, during service and maintenance;
- specifies minimum requirements to reduce risks with respect to pluggable and permanently connected equipment, whether it consists of a system of interconnected units or independent units, subject to installing, operating and maintaining the equipment in the manner prescribed by the manufacturer.
This International Standard does not cover:
- telecommunications apparatus other than power supplies to such apparatus;
- functional safety aspects as covered by e.g. IEC 61508;
- electrical equipment and systems for railways applications and electric vehicles.

Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques de conversion de puissance - Partie 1: Généralités

La CEI 62477-1:2012 s'applique aux matériels et aux systèmes électroniques de conversion de puissance (SECP), à leurs composants pour la conversion de puissance électronique et la commande (ouverture et fermeture) électronique de puissance, y compris les moyens de commande, de protection, de surveillance et de mesure, ayant pour principale fonction la conversion de puissance électrique, d'une tension système assignée ne dépassant pas 1 000 V c.a. ou 1 500 V c.c. Le présent document peut également être utilisé comme norme de référence par les comités de produits qui élaborent des normes de produits applicables aux:
- systèmes d'entraînement électrique de puissance à vitesse variable;
- alimentations sans interruption autonomes (ASI);
- alimentations stabilisées basse tension en courant continu.
Pour les SECP pour lesquels il n'existe pas de norme de produits, la présente norme spécifie des exigences minimales pour les aspects de sécurité. La présente partie de la CEI 62477 a le statut d'une publication groupée de sécurité conformément au Guide 104 de la CEI applicable aux systèmes électroniques de conversion de puissance et équipements pour énergie solaire, éolienne, des marée, des vagues, des piles à combustible ou sources d'énergie analogues. Conformément au Guide 104 de la CEI, il incombe aux comités d'études d'utiliser, dans toute la mesure du possible, les publications fondamentales de sécurité et/ou les publications groupées de sécurité pour l'élaboration de leurs normes de produits. La présente Norme internationale:
- établit une terminologie commune applicable aux aspects de sécurité concernant les matériels et les SECP;
- établit les exigences minimales pour la coordination des aspects de sécurité des parties interconnectées au sein d'un SECP;
- établit une base commune applicable aux exigences minimales de sécurité de la partie du convertisseur électronique de puissance (CEP) des produits comprenant un CEP;
- précise des exigences permettant de réduire les risques d'incendie, de choc électrique, les dangers thermiques, mécaniques et dus à l'énergie électrique, en cours d'utilisation et de fonctionnement et, lorsque cela est spécifiquement indiqué, au cours des opérations d'entretien et de maintenance;
- précise les exigences minimales permettant de réduire ces types de risques concernant les matériels enfichables et connectés en permanence, qu'ils soient constitués d'un système d'unités interconnectées ou d'unités indépendantes, faisant l'objet d'opérations d'installation, de fonctionnement et d'entretien du matériel tel que spécifié par le fabricant.
La présente Norme internationale ne couvre pas:
- les appareils de télécommunications autres que les alimentations pour ce type d'appareil;
- les aspects de sécurité fonctionnelle tels que traités par exemple par la CEI 61508;
- les matériels et systèmes électriques utilisés dans les applications ferroviaires et les véhicules électriques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Jul-2012
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
20-May-2022
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IEC 62477-1
Edition 1.0 2012-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
GROUP SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION GROUPÉE DE SÉCURITÉ
Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment –
Part 1: General
Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques
de conversion de puissance –
Partie 1: Généralités
IEC 62477-1:2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62477-1
Edition 1.0 2012-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
GROUP SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION GROUPÉE DE SÉCURITÉ
Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment –
Part 1: General
Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques
de conversion de puissance –
Partie 1: Généralités
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 29.200 ISBN 978-2-83220-194-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62477-1 © IEC:2012
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................. 11

2 Normative references...................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................... 14

4 Protection against hazards .............................................................................................. 23

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

4.2 Fault and abnormal conditions ............................................................................... 24

4.3 Short circuit and overload protection ...................................................................... 25

4.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 25

4.3.2 Specification of input short-circuit withstand strength and output short

circuit current ability ................................................................................... 26

4.3.3 Short-circuit coordination (backup protection) ............................................. 27

4.3.4 Protection by several devices ..................................................................... 27

4.4 Protection against electric shock ............................................................................ 27

4.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

4.4.2 Decisive voltage class ................................................................................ 27

4.4.3 Provision for basic protection ..................................................................... 32

4.4.4 Provision for fault protection ....................................................................... 34

4.4.5 Enhanced protection .................................................................................. 40

4.4.6 Protective measures .................................................................................. 41

4.4.7 Insulation ................................................................................................... 43

4.4.8 Compatibility with residual current-operated protective devices (RCD) ........ 58

4.4.9 Capacitor discharge ................................................................................... 58

4.5 Protection against electrical energy hazards ........................................................... 59

4.5.1 Operator access areas ............................................................................... 59

4.5.2 Service access areas ................................................................................. 60

4.6 Protection against fire and thermal hazards ............................................................ 60

4.6.1 Circuits representing a fire hazard .............................................................. 60

4.6.2 Components representing a fire hazard ...................................................... 60

4.6.3 Fire enclosures .......................................................................................... 61

4.6.4 Temperature limits ..................................................................................... 65

4.6.5 Limited power sources ............................................................................... 68

4.7 Protection against mechanical hazards .................................................................. 69

4.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 69

4.7.2 Specific requirements for liquid cooled PECS ............................................. 70

4.8 Equipment with multiple sources of supply ............................................................. 71

4.9 Protection against environmental stresses ............................................................. 72

4.10 Protection against sonic pressure hazards ............................................................. 73

4.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 73

4.10.2 Sonic pressure and sound level .................................................................. 73

4.11 Wiring and connections ......................................................................................... 73

4.11.1 General ..................................................................................................... 73

4.11.2 Routing ...................................................................................................... 73

4.11.3 Colour coding ............................................................................................ 73

4.11.4 Splices and connections ............................................................................ 74

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62477-1 © IEC:2012 – 3 –

4.11.5 Accessible connections .............................................................................. 74

4.11.6 Interconnections between parts of the PECS .............................................. 74

4.11.7 Supply connections .................................................................................... 75

4.11.8 Terminals .................................................................................................. 75

4.12 Enclosures ............................................................................................................ 76

4.12.1 General ..................................................................................................... 76

4.12.2 Handles and manual controls ..................................................................... 76

4.12.3 Cast metal ................................................................................................. 77

4.12.4 Sheet metal ............................................................................................... 77

4.12.5 Stability test for enclosure .......................................................................... 80

5 Test requirements ........................................................................................................... 81

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 81

5.1.1 Test objectives and classification ............................................................... 81

5.1.2 Selection of test samples ........................................................................... 81

5.1.3 Sequence of tests ...................................................................................... 81

5.1.4 Earthing conditions .................................................................................... 81

5.1.5 General conditions for tests ....................................................................... 81

5.1.6 Compliance ............................................................................................... 82

5.1.7 Test overview ............................................................................................ 83

5.2 Test specifications ................................................................................................. 84

5.2.1 Visual inspections (type test, sample test and routine test) ......................... 84

5.2.2 Mechanical tests ........................................................................................ 84

5.2.3 Electrical tests ........................................................................................... 88

5.2.4 Abnormal operation and simulated faults tests.......................................... 102

5.2.5 Material tests ........................................................................................... 106

5.2.6 Environmental tests (type tests) ............................................................... 110

5.2.7 Hydrostatic pressure test (type test and routine test) ................................ 115

6 Information and marking requirements .......................................................................... 115

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 115

6.2 Information for selection ...................................................................................... 117

6.3 Information for installation and commissioning ..................................................... 118

6.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 118

6.3.2 Mechanical considerations ....................................................................... 118

6.3.3 Environment ............................................................................................ 118

6.3.4 Handling and mounting ............................................................................ 118

6.3.5 Enclosure temperature ............................................................................. 118

6.3.6 Connections............................................................................................. 119

6.3.7 Protection requirements ........................................................................... 119

6.3.8 Commissioning ........................................................................................ 121

6.4 Information for use .............................................................................................. 121

6.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 121

6.4.2 Adjustment .............................................................................................. 121

6.4.3 Labels, signs and signals ......................................................................... 121

6.5 Information for maintenance ................................................................................ 123

6.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 123

6.5.2 Capacitor discharge ................................................................................. 124

6.5.3 Auto restart/bypass connection ................................................................ 124

6.5.4 Other hazards .......................................................................................... 124

6.5.5 Equipment with multiple sources of supply ............................................... 124

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– 4 – 62477-1 © IEC:2012

Annex A (normative) Additional information for protection against electric shock ................. 125

Annex B (informative) Considerations for the reduction of the pollution degree .................... 145

Annex C (informative) Symbols referred to in IEC 62477-1 .................................................. 146

Annex D (normative) Evaluation of clearance and creepage distances ................................ 147

Annex E (informative) Altitude correction for clearances ..................................................... 155

Annex F (normative) Clearance and creepage distance determination for frequencies

greater than 30 kHz ............................................................................................................. 156

Annex G (informative) Cross-sections of round conductors ................................................. 162

Annex H (informative) Guidelines for RCD compatibility ...................................................... 163

Annex I (informative) Examples of overvoltage category reduction ...................................... 167

Annex J (informative) Burn thresholds for touchable surfaces ............................................. 174

Annex K (informative) Table of electrochemical potentials .................................................. 177

Annex L (informative) Measuring instrument for touch current measurements ..................... 178

Annex M (informative) Test probes for determining access ................................................. 179

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 182

Figure 1 – Touch time-d.c. peak voltage zones of ventricular fibrillation in dry skin

condition ............................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 2 – Touch time- d.c. peak voltage zones of ventricular fibrillation in water-wet

skin condition ........................................................................................................................ 31

Figure 3 – Touch time- d.c. peak voltage zones of ventricular fibrillation in saltwater-wet

skin condition ........................................................................................................................ 31

Figure 4 – Example of a PECS assembly and its associated protective equipotential

bonding ................................................................................................................................. 36

Figure 5 – Example of a PECS assembly and its associated protective equipotential

bonding ................................................................................................................................. 37

Figure 6 – Fire enclosure bottom openings below an unenclosed or partially enclosed

fire-hazardous component ..................................................................................................... 63

Figure 7 – Fire enclosure baffle construction ......................................................................... 64

Figure 8 – Supported and unsupported enclosure parts ......................................................... 78

Figure 9 – Impact test using a steel ball ................................................................................. 86

Figure 10 – Voltage test procedures ...................................................................................... 93

Figure 11 – Protective equipotential bonding impedance test for separate unit with

power fed from the PECS with protection for the power cable ................................................ 99

Figure 12 – Protective equipotential bonding impedance test for sub-assembly with

accessible parts and with power fed from the PECS ............................................................ 100

Figure 13 – Circuit for high-current arcing test ..................................................................... 107

Figure 14 – Test fixture for hot-wire ignition test .................................................................. 108

Figure A.1 – Protection by DVC As with protective separation .............................................. 125

Figure A.2 – Protection by means of protective impedance .................................................. 126

Figure A.3 – Protection by using limited voltages ................................................................. 127

Figure A.4 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones for dry skin condition ....................................... 130

Figure A.5 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones for water-wet skin condition ............................. 130

Figure A.6 – Touch time- d.c. voltage for saltwater-wet skin condition .................................. 131

Figure A.7 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones of dry skin condition ......................................... 132

Figure A.8 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones of water-wet skin condition .............................. 132

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62477-1 © IEC:2012 – 5 –

Figure A.9 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones of saltwater-wet skin condition ......................... 133

Figure A.10 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones of dry skin condition ....................................... 134

Figure A.11 – Touch time- d.c. voltage zones of water-wet skin condition ............................. 134

Figure A.12 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones for dry skin condition ..................................... 135

Figure A.13 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of water-wet skin condition ............................. 136

Figure A.14 – Touch time- a.c. voltage of saltwater-wet skin condition ................................. 136

Figure A.15 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of dry skin condition ....................................... 137

Figure A.16 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of water-wet skin condition ............................. 138

Figure A.17 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of saltwater-wet skin condition ....................... 138

Figure A.18 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of dry skin condition ....................................... 139

Figure A.19 – Touch time- a.c. voltage zones of water-wet skin condition ............................. 140

Figure A.20 – Typical waveform for a.c. working voltage ...................................................... 141

Figure A.21 – Typical waveform for d.c. working voltage ...................................................... 141

Figure A.22 – Typical waveform for pulsating working voltage .............................................. 142

Figure F.1 – Diagram for dimensioning of clearances .......................................................... 157

Figure F.2 – Diagram for dimensioning of creepage distances ............................................. 159

Figure F.3 – Permissible field strength for dimensioning of solid insulation according to

Equation (1) ........................................................................................................................ 161

Figure H.1 – Flow chart leading to selection of the RCD type upstream of a PECS ............... 163

Figure H.2 – Fault current waveforms in connections with power electronic converter

devices ............................................................................................................................... 165

Figure I.1 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits connected to the origin of the

installation mains supply ..................................................................................................... 167

Figure I.2 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits connected to the mains supply ............... 168

Figure I.3 – Basic insulation evaluation for single and three phase equipment not

permanently connected to the mains supply ......................................................................... 168

Figure I.4 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits connected to the origin of the

installation mains supply where internal SPDs are used ....................................................... 168

Figure I.5 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits connected to the mains supply where

internal SPDs are used ....................................................................................................... 169

Figure I.6 – Example of protective separation evaluation for circuits connected to the

mains supply where internal SPDs are used ........................................................................ 169

Figure I.7 – Example of protective separation evaluation for circuits connected to the

mains supply where internal SPDs are used ........................................................................ 170

Figure I.8 –Example of protective separation evaluation for circuits connected to the

mains supply where internal SPDs are used ........................................................................ 170

Figure I.9 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits not connected directly to the mains

supply ................................................................................................................................. 170

Figure I.10 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits not connected directly to the supply

mains .................................................................................................................................. 171

Figure I.11 – Functional insulation evaluation within circuits affected by external

transients ............................................................................................................................ 171

Figure I.12 – Basic insulation evaluation for circuits both connected and not connected

directly to the mains supply ................................................................................................. 172

Figure I.13 – Insulation evaluation for accessible circuit of DVC A ....................................... 172

Figure I.14 – PEC with mains and non-mains supply without galvanic separation .................. 173

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62477-1 © IEC:2012

Figure I.15 – Transformer (basic) isolated PEC inverter with SPD and transformer to

reduce impulse voltage for functional and basic insulation. .................................................. 173

Figure J.1 – Burn threshold spread when the skin is in contact with a hot smooth

surface made of bare (uncoated) metal ............................................................................... 174

Figure J.2 – Rise in the burn threshold spread from Figure J.1 for metals which are

coated by shellac varnish of a thickness of 50 µm, 100 µm and 150 µm ............................... 175

Figure J.3 – Rise in the burn threshold spread from Figure J.1 for metals coated with

the specific materials .......................................................................................................... 175

Figure J.4 – Burn threshold spread when the skin is in contact with a hot smooth

surface made of ceramics, glass and stone materials .......................................................... 176

Figure J.5 – Burn threshold spread when the skin is in contact with a hot smooth

surface made of plastics ..................................................................................................... 176

Figure K.1 – Electrochemical potentials (V) ......................................................................... 177

Figure L.1 – Measuring instrument ...................................................................................... 178

Figure M.1 – Sphere 50 mm probe (IPXXA) ......................................................................... 179

Figure M.2 – Jointed test finger (IPXXB) .............................................................................. 180

Figure M.3 – Test rod 2,5 mm (IP3X) ................................................................................... 181

Table 1 – Alphabetical list of terms ........................................................................................ 15

Table 2 – Selection of DVC for touch voltage to protect against ventricular fibrillation ............ 28

Table 3 – Selection of body contact area ............................................................................... 29

Table 4 – Selection of humidity condition of the skin .............................................................. 29

Table 5 – Steady state voltage limits for the decisive voltage classes .................................... 29

Table 6 – Protection requirements for circuit under consideration .......................................... 32

Table 7 – PE conductor cross-section .................................................................................. 38

Table 8 – Definitio
...

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