Information technology - Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) - Part 1: Overview and requirements

ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018(E) This part of ISO/IEC 30140 provides a general overview of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASN). It describes their main characteristics in terms of the effects of propagation variability and analyses the main differences with respect to terrestrial networks. It further identifies the specificities of UWASN and derives some specific and general requirements for these networks.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Feb-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
14-Feb-2018
Completion Date
14-Feb-2018
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ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 - Information technology - Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) - Part 1: Overview and requirements
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ISO/IEC 30140-1
Edition 1.0 2018-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Part 1: Overview and requirements
ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC 30140-1
Edition 1.0 2018-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Part 1: Overview and requirements
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-5372-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 9

5 UWASN overview and applications .................................................................................. 9

5.1 Overview................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Application domain of UWASN .............................................................................. 11

6 Characteristics of UWASN in terms of the effects of propagation variability ................... 12

6.1 Underwater acoustic communication ..................................................................... 12

6.2 Acoustic signal strength attenuation ...................................................................... 12

6.3 High propagation delay ......................................................................................... 12

6.4 Multipath ............................................................................................................... 13

6.5 Propagation loss ................................................................................................... 13

6.6 Noise .................................................................................................................... 14

7 Differences between UWASN and terrestrial sensor network ......................................... 14

7.1 Types of underwater communication technologies ................................................ 14

7.2 Housing case ........................................................................................................ 16

7.3 Costs associated with sensor nodes ..................................................................... 16

7.4 Omni-directional and directional transducers for data transmission and

reception ............................................................................................................... 16

7.5 Underwater object and event localization and 3D relay node ................................. 17

7.6 Energy harvesting technology for UWASN ............................................................ 18

8 Specificities of UWASN and related requirements .......................................................... 18

8.1 Three structural scales of UWASN network ........................................................... 18

8.2 Deployments of 2D and 3D topology ..................................................................... 21

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

8.2.2 Two-dimensional UWASN architecture ........................................................... 21

8.2.3 Three-dimensional UWASN architecture ........................................................ 22

8.3 Cross layering ....................................................................................................... 24

8.4 Underwater acoustic modem ................................................................................. 25

8.5 Doppler spread ..................................................................................................... 25

8.6 Deployment considering water depths ................................................................... 26

8.7 Underwater wired and wireless communication ..................................................... 26

8.8 Time synchronization ............................................................................................ 27

8.9 Data transmission period for energy saving ........................................................... 28

8.10 Routing ................................................................................................................. 29

8.11 Network coding ..................................................................................................... 31

8.12 Data compression ................................................................................................. 31

8.13 Delay and disruption tolerant network (DTN) ......................................................... 31

9 UWASN further general requirements ............................................................................ 32

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

9.2 General requirements for UWASN – Cross layering .............................................. 32

9.3 General requirements for the UWASN – Communication technology ..................... 32

9.4 General requirements for the UWASN – Other system requirements ..................... 33

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ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 3 –

Annex A (informative) Selected applications of UWASN ....................................................... 34

A.1 Environmental monitoring – Chemical and biological changes ............................... 34

A.1.1 Description .................................................................................................... 34

A.1.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 35

A.1.3 Normal flow ................................................................................................... 35

A.1.4 Conditions ..................................................................................................... 35

A.2 Detection of pipeline leakages .............................................................................. 35

A.2.1 Description .................................................................................................... 35

A.2.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 36

A.2.3 Normal flow ................................................................................................... 36

A.2.4 Conditions ..................................................................................................... 37

A.3 Exploration of natural resources ............................................................................ 37

A.3.1 Description .................................................................................................... 37

A.3.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 38

A.3.3 Normal flow ................................................................................................... 38

A.3.4 Conditions ..................................................................................................... 39

A.4 Fish farming .......................................................................................................... 39

A.4.1 Description .................................................................................................... 39

A.4.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 40

A.4.3 Normal flow ................................................................................................... 40

A.4.4 Conditions ..................................................................................................... 40

A.5 Harbour security ................................................................................................... 40

A.5.1 Description .................................................................................................... 40

A.5.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 41

A.5.3 Normal flow ................................................................................................... 41

A.5.4 Conditions ..................................................................................................... 42

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 1 – Overview of a UWASN ......................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Omni-directional and directional transducers for data transmission and

reception .............................................................................................................................. 17

Figure 3 – Underwater cluster network .................................................................................. 18

Figure 4 – Underwater ad-hoc network.................................................................................. 19

Figure 5 – UWA-UN communication network ......................................................................... 19

Figure 6 – UWA-UN communication network using fixed gateway ......................................... 20

Figure 7 – UWA-EUN communication network ...................................................................... 21

Figure 8 – Two-dimensional UWASN architecture ................................................................. 22

Figure 9 – Three-dimensional UWASN architecture .............................................................. 23

Figure 10 – UWA-cross layer protocol stack .......................................................................... 25

Figure 11 – Underwater wired and wireless communication .................................................. 27

Figure 12 – Time synchronization for data transmission ........................................................ 28

Figure 13 – Using active and sleep modes for energy saving ................................................ 29

Figure 14 – UWASN routing .................................................................................................. 30

Figure A.1 – Illustration of the environmental monitoring use case ........................................ 34

Figure A.2 – Oil and gas pipeline leakage monitoring use case ............................................. 36

Figure A.3 – Flow – Oil and gas pipeline leakage monitoring ................................................ 37

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018

Figure A.4 – Underwater resource exploration use case ....................................................... 38

Figure A.5 – Fish farming and monitoring use case ............................................................... 39

Figure A.6 – Harbour security monitoring use case ............................................................... 41

Table 1 – UWASN market segments and their current and future applications list ................. 11

Table 2 – Summary of the features of acoustic, radio, and optical waves in seawater

environments ........................................................................................................................ 15

Table 3 – Differences between underwater communication technologies [10][12] .................. 15

Table 4 – Comparison between 2D and 3D UWASNs. ........................................................... 24

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ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 5 –
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 1: Overview and requirements
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established

by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical

committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-

governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology,

ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

3) IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted

by IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to

ensure that the technical content of IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications is accurate, IEC or ISO cannot be held

responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies undertake to

apply IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and

regional publications. Any divergence between any ISO, IEC or ISO/IEC publication and the corresponding

national or regional publication should be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) ISO and IEC do not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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ISO/IEC publication or any other IEC, ISO or ISO/IEC publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC publication may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 30140-1 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The list of all currently available parts of the ISO/IEC 30140 series, under the general title

Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN), can be found on the

IEC and ISO websites.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

Water covers approximately 71 % of the surface of the Earth. Modern technologies introduce

new methods to monitor the body of water, for example pollution monitoring and detection.

Underwater data gathering techniques require exploring the water environment, which can be

most effectively performed by underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). Applications

developed for the UWASNs can record underwater climate, detect and control water pollution,

monitor marine biology, discover natural resources, detect pipeline leakages, monitor and

locate underwater intruders, perform strategic surveillance, and so on.

The ISO/IEC 30140 series provides general requirements, reference architecture (RA)

including the entity models and high-level interface guidelines supporting interoperability

among UWASNs in order to provide the essential UWASN construction information to help

and guide architects, developers and implementers of UWASNs.

Additionally, the ISO/IEC 30140 series provides high-level functional models related to

underwater sensor nodes and relationships among the nodes to construct architectural

perspective of UWASNs. However, the ISO/IEC 30140 series is an application agnostic

standard. Thus, ISO/IEC 30140 series specifies neither any type of communication waveforms

for use in UWASNs nor any underwater acoustic communication frequencies. Specifying

communication waveforms and/or frequencies are the responsibility of architects, developers

and implementers.

Acoustical data communication in sensor networks necessitates the introduction of acoustical

signals that overlap biologically important frequency bands into the subject environment.

These signals may conflict with regional, national, or international noise exposure regulations.

Implementers of acoustical communication networks should consult the relevant regulatory

agencies prior to designing and deployment of these systems to ensure compliance with

regulations and avoid conflicts with the agencies.

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 30140 series is to provide general requirements, guidance and

facilitation in order for the users of the ISO/IEC 30140 series to design and develop the target

UWASNs for their applications and services.
The ISO/IEC 30140 series comprises four parts as shown below.

Part 1 provides a general overview and requirements of the UWASN reference architecture.

Part 2 provides reference architecture models for UWASN.

Part 3 provides descriptions for the entities and interfaces of the UWASN reference

architecture.

Part 4 provides information on interoperability requirements among the entities within a

UWASN and among various UWASNs.
___________

Architects, developers and implementers need to be aware of the submarine emergency frequency band, near

and below 12 kHz, and it is recommended to provide a provision for such submarine emergency band in their

UWASN design and applications.
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ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 7 –
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 1: Overview and requirements
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 30140 provides a general overview of underwater acoustic sensor

networks (UWASN). It describes their main characteristics in terms of the effects of

propagation variability and analyses the main differences with respect to terrestrial networks.

It further identifies the specificities of UWASN and derives some specific and general

requirements for these networks.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29182-2, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference

Architecture (SNRA) – Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
ad-hoc node
device in a wireless ad-hoc network

Note 1 to entry: A wireless ad-hoc network is defined in ISO/IEC 27033-6:2016[1], 3.12, as a “decentralized

wireless network which does not rely on a pre-existing infrastructure”.
3.2
cross-layer

technology that permits communication between different layers by allowing one layer to

access data of another layer to exchange information and enable interaction
3.3
management cross-layer

technology that provides a system-level management service to all or selected OSI layers in a

wireless network system
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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– 8 – ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018

Note 1 to entry: Examples of management cross-layer are device management cross-layer, network management

cross-layer, QoS management cross-layer, security management cross-layer, localization management cross-layer,

power management cross-layer, etc.
3.4
underwater acoustic fundamental network
UWA-FN

wireless communication network that is built either exclusively using one or more cluster

networks or exclusively using one or more ad-hoc networks for underwater environment using

acoustic modems

Note 1 to entry: Fundamental network consists of only one network type, either cluster network or ad-hoc network.

Note 2 to entry: Wireless acoustic communication and data links are realized using an acoustic modem.

Note 3 to entry: A modem is defined in ISO/IEC 2382:2015[2], 2124386, as a “functional unit that modulates and

demodulates signals”.
3.5
underwater acoustic united network
UWA-UN
wireless communication network that is made of two or more underwater acoustic
fundamental networks (3.4) and relay nodes

Note 1 to entry: A relay node is, for example, an unmanned underwater vehicle, communication node, beacon, etc.

3.6
underwater acoustic extended united network
UWA-EUN

wireless communication network that is made of two or more underwater acoustic united

networks (3.5)
3.7
underwater acoustic sensor node
UWA-SNode

sensor network element that includes at least one sensor and, optionally actuators with

communication capabilities and data processing capabilities, which is built for underwater

applications using acoustic modem as a communication unit internal to this element

Note 1 to entry: Wireless acoustic communication and data links are realized using an acoustic modem.

Note 2 to entry: A modem is defined in ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2124386, as a “functional unit that modulates and

demodulates signals”.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, 2.1.8 – modified: the original definition of sensor node is

adapted to an underwater acoustics context.]
3.8
underwater acoustic cluster head
UWA-CH

unit that receives data from underwater acoustic sensor nodes (3.7) and transmits the data to

one or more relay nodes or a nearby underwater acoustic gateway (3.9)
3.9
underwater acoustic gateway
UWA-GW

unit connecting different underwater networks or parts of one underwater network and

performing any necessary protocol translation in underwater environment using acoustic

modem

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29108:2013, 3.1.88.3 – modified: the original definition is adapted to

an underwater acoustics context.]
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ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 9 –
4 Abbreviated terms
2D two dimensional
3D three dimensional
BER bit error rate
DG distance group
DTN delay and disruption tolerant network
EM electromagnetic wave
EMI electromagnetic interference
GPS global positioning system
kbps kilobits per second
LED light emitting diode
µPa Micropascal
Mbps megabits per second
MCCP minimum cost clustering protocol
QoS quality of service
RF radio frequency
RSS received signal strength
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
UWASN underwater acoustic sensor network
UWA-CH underwater acoustic cluster head
UWA-DTN underwater delay tolerant network
UWA-DTN-GW underwater DTN gateway
UWA-EUN underwater acoustic extend united network
UWA-FN underwater acoustic fundamental network
UWA-GW underwater acoustic gateway
UWA-SNode underwater acoustic sensor node
UWA-UN underwater acoustic united network
5 UWASN overview and applications
5.1 Overview

Figure 1 shows the basic topology of UWASN. In a cluster-based network, the data sensed by

underwater acoustic sensor nodes (UWA-SNodes) are transmitted via acoustic

communication to an underwater acoustic gateway (UWA-GW) using an underwater acoustic

cluster head (UWA-CH), unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), or relay nodes. Users receive

the transmitted data through various externally connected networks (e.g. radio frequency (RF)

or satellite communication). During these processes, underwater communication is

implemented by acoustic communication. In general, UWA-GWs are either moving nodes or

fixed nodes. Topologies and communication configuration models could be adaptively

modified according to the application domain’s needs at any given time.
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 30140-1:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
IEC
Key
1 Internet 6 Surface 11 UWA-DTN-GW 16 UWA-SNode
2 Satellite 7 RF 12 Acoustic link 17 Ad-hoc network
3 Base station 8 UWA-GW 13 Relay node 18 UUV
4 RF link 9 Buoy 14 Cluster 19 UWA-CH
5 Moving gateway 10 Fixed gateways 15 Underwater 20 User
Figure 1 – Overview of a UWASN

RF communication systems are used in terrestrial sensor networks. The reasons for this are

their high efficiency and low cost. Underwater RF communication is very difficult due to limited

wave propagation characteristics that arise from the high attenuation due to the conductivity

of water. Underwater communications can also be achieved by optical links employing lasers

or LED light sources. Optical waves are still affected by attenuation, but can typically operate

over longer ranges than RF.
Diode laser beams and low cost light s
...

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