Internet of things (IoT) - Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical power substation

ISO/IEC 30144:2020 (E) specifies intelligent wireless sensor network (iWSN) from the perspectives of iWSN's system infrastructure and communications internal and external to the infrastructure, and technical requirements for iWSN to realize smart electrical power substations.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Oct-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
29-Oct-2020
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ISO/IEC 30144
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IOT) – Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical
power substation
ISO/IEC 30144:2020-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30144
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IOT) – Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical
power substation
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.240.10; 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-8941-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................... 9

5 Intelligent wireless sensor network system supporting electrical power substation ......... 10

5.1 System View ......................................................................................................... 10

5.1.1 System overview ........................................................................................... 10

5.1.2 Subsystems and their relationships................................................................ 13

5.2 Communications View ........................................................................................... 15

5.2.1 Communications overview ............................................................................. 15

5.2.2 Sensor nodes ................................................................................................ 16

5.2.3 Gateways ...................................................................................................... 17

5.2.4 Communication interfaces in the iWSN system .............................................. 18

6 Technical requirements for the iWSN system supporting electrical power

substations .................................................................................................................... 19

6.1 System functional requirements ............................................................................ 19

6.1.1 Information acquisition and collection ............................................................ 19

6.1.2 Device management ...................................................................................... 19

6.1.3 Data analysis ................................................................................................. 19

6.1.4 Data display .................................................................................................. 19

6.1.5 Warning and response ................................................................................... 20

6.1.6 Network communication ................................................................................. 20

6.1.7 System privilege management ....................................................................... 20

6.1.8 Collaborative information process (CIP) and decision support........................ 20

6.2 System performance requirements ........................................................................ 20

6.2.1 Performance requirements of sensor node..................................................... 20

6.2.2 Performance requirements of gateway ........................................................... 23

6.2.3 Performance requirements of control subsystem for sensor network .............. 25

Annex A (informative) Sensor network reference architecture from ISO/IEC 29182-3 ........... 27

A.1 Overview of sensor network interfaces .................................................................. 27

A.2 Sensor node physical reference architecture ......................................................... 29

A.3 Functional model of the sensor network ................................................................ 30

Annex B (informative) The sensor models in IEC 61850 ....................................................... 31

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 35

Figure 1 – System overview of the iWSN system supporting electrical power substation ...... 11

Figure 2 – Communications overview of the iWSN system supporting electrical power

substation ............................................................................................................................. 16

Figure A.1 – Overview of sensor network interfaces in a sensor node, sensor node

to sensor node, and sensor node to the external environment ............................................... 27

Figure A.2 – Sensor networks system architecture – Layer focused ...................................... 28

Figure A.3 – Sensor node physical reference architecture ..................................................... 29

Figure A.4 – Functional model of the sensor network ............................................................ 30

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ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020 – 3 –
Table 1 – Mapping between the entities in the System View and the domains

of the IoT RA ........................................................................................................................ 12

Table 2 – Interface for functional subsystem of sensor networks ........................................... 18

Table B.1 – Sensor models in IEC 61850 .............................................................................. 31

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) –
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK SYSTEM
SUPPORTING ELECTRICAL POWER SUBSTATION
FOREWORD

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International Standard ISO/IEC 30144 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of

Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/163/FDIS JTC1-SC41/176/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

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---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The data collected from various types of electrical equipment is sparsely located, and on-line

transmission of the data helps to collaboratively aggregate and analyse them in real-time.

Transitioning to the smart electrical power substation using wireless communication among the

sensor nodes – i.e. wireless sensor network (WSN) – requires systems architecture provisioning

automated data collection from the electrical equipment, which allows collaborative data

processing, sends automatic alerts, provides preventive actions, and potentially takes

corrective actions for certain situations.

Electrical power substation communications should be designed to support scalability,

interoperability, autonomous fault correction, and other key attributes. The intelligent wireless

sensor network (iWSN) is inherently flexible and scalable in its capabilities and in operations

including in the size of its converge areas; however, depending on the geographical (e.g. urban,

suburban, remote location) and structural (both natural and man-made) situations, the

installation architecture should ensure the fidelity of all sensor nodes’ wireless connectivity.

Furthermore, the WSNs can support either distributed or decentralized network architecture.

The wired substation network typically uses high-availability seamless ring (HSR) and parallel

redundancy protocol (PRP) protocols (see IEC 62439-3, IEC 61850-8-1 and IEC 61850-9-2) to

provide seamless failover against failure of any network component. For the iWSN, it is also

important to have the key iWSN network components (e.g. sensor nodes) from data

communication failure. Therefore it is important to select wireless sensor network architecture

for a substation which overcomes the potential issue of a single point of failure in the wireless

sensor network, for example, by installation architecture, the use of PRP to improve packet loss

and timing behaviour in wireless network, or a combination of these.

This document introduces iWSN as a system which helps to make the power substation smarter,

which is compatible with IEC 61850. In the past, wireless communication was thought to be

unreliable and ineffective over long distances. With the advancements in communication

technologies in the last decade, the wireless communications have given rise not only to

wireless meshed systems, multi-hop and self-healing networks, but also to various low-power

protocols having high network/communication security standards. Additionally, different

network topologies with effective wireless signal routing algorithms have improved range and

reduced power consumption while minimizing frequency of communication channel error. These

improvements can be leveraged to form a highly reliable communication network for the

electrical power substation.

The existing applications of the WSNs in smart grid include, but are not limited to, automatic

meter reading, remote system monitoring and control, equipment fault diagnostics, distribution

automation, outage detection, line fault and electronic fault detection, underground cable

system monitoring, towers and poles monitoring, conductor temperature and dynamic thermal

rating. However, the realization of these existing and envisioned WSN-based smart grid

applications is hindered by not having uniform sensing data formats, data interfaces, etc.

Although some sensor communication systems are not compatible with the devices from

different equipment manufacturers, most intelligent electronic devices used in electrical power

substations are interoperable, through the use of standard protocols, for example, IEC 61850

GOOSE, TCP, UDP, etc., and standards related to the common information model (CIM) defined

by IEC 61970 and IEC 61968. For cases where new types of sensors (either existing or newly

developed) have not adopted IEC 61850, they may be used with an intelligent wireless sensor

1 2

network (iWSN) system   because the iWSN system interfaces can act as an adaptor for the

sensors and the rest of the systems.
_____________

Wireless technology in general is not suitable for the transmission of mission critical data such as sampled

measured values according to IEC 61850-9-2 or trip signals for circuit breakers due to the possible interference

of electromagnetic radiation caused by arc-flashes (e.g. in case of an internal fault or switching operations inside

a substation) with the radio signals of wireless sensors.

Any data commonly sent over layer 2 broadcast (e.g. GOOSE) are not suitable for transmission over wireless

networks due to the unavailability of corresponding broadcast features.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020

The main purpose of wireless sensor network applications for electrical power substations is to

improve the capability of acquiring, monitoring, processing, and maintaining the data and

information from the power equipment. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is characterized by

flexible deployment, device collaboration and low-cost implementation, and WSN realizes

efficient monitoring of the smart grid systems and subsystems. By enabling the monitoring and

controlling capabilities by installing wireless sensor nodes on critical power grid equipment,

reliable and real-time online management of this equipment can be accomplished.

Electrical power substation is one of the most important building blocks of the smart grid. The

monitoring and control systems in electrical power substations acquire current, voltage, status

and other parameters from their primary equipment, and also data from their environment. The

information from the measurement systems provides the basis for integrated applications,

enabling the transformation of a conventional electrical power substation to a smart electrical

power substation, especially when considering the use of the IEC 61850 series, iWSN and other

information technologies. In addition to the substation equipment’s (wired) connectivity, which

is likely based on the IEC 61850 series, the iWSN system will provide additional benefits to

collect, process, and transmit data/information about power substation equipment and its

environment. An effective and efficient sensing system can be achieved by an iWSN system

which takes the role of a data/information measurement and collection system. The concept of

the iWSN system provides functions, such as automatic data collection and aggregation,

collaborative information processing (e.g. data/information fusion), data analysis, and alarming,

and other functional applications that enable the intelligence or smartness of the system that

the iWSN system is monitoring.

The information collected in an electrical power substation about the equipment state and the

flow of electricity provides the electricity providers with a clearer view and better control over

the electrical power substation. Among the many add-values that the iWSN brings compared to

the wired installation, one of them is the migration to the no-wire installation as all the sensor

nodes are powered by batteries and the data is transmitted via the wireless communication

links of the iWSN. A wireless sensor network, that is able to communicate with the utility

provider’s control system by sharing the collected information with the existing networks

becomes an attractive technology to deploy in an electrical power substation in order to collect

required and critical information.

This document is built upon ISO/IEC 29182 (Sensor Network Reference Architecture) and

ISO/IEC 30101 (sensor network and its interfaces for smart grid systems), IEC 61850

(communication networks and systems for power utility automation), and ETSI’s and NIST’s

work in smart grid, and extends ISO/IEC 29182 and ISO/IEC 30101 to the application standard

of the sensor network that supports the electrical power substations.

The iWSN system uses wireless sensor networks for power substations including substation,

equipment, facility, environment, etc. The existing communication protocols specified in

IEC 61850-8-1 and IEC 61850-9-2 can be used within power substation, or IEC 61850-8-2 can

be used over public network. This document provides the iWSN system’s infrastructure from

System and Communications Views and also specifies the iWSN system’s technical

requirements to realize and support the smart electrical power substation. Electrical power

substations with sensor networks use advanced information and communication technologies

in order to improve the efficiency, reliability, and security of their components and services.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) –
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK SYSTEM
SUPPORTING ELECTRICAL POWER SUBSTATION
1 Scope
This document specifies

– intelligent wireless sensor network (iWSN) from the perspectives of iWSN's system

infrastructure and communications internal and external to the infrastructure, and

– technical requirements for iWSN to realize smart electrical power substations.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 61000-4-39, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-39: Testing and measurement

techniques – Radiated fields in close proximity – Immunity test

IEC 61326-1, Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use – EMC

requirements – Part 1: General requirements

IEC 61850-3, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 3:

General requirements
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
control subsystem for sensor network
CSSN

platform together with all the sensor nodes communicated to it with networks, including the

rules for control, for communication and for management among application processes of

sensor network

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-732:2014, 732-10-02, modified – In the definition, "home network",

"devices" and "attached to it" have been replaced by "platform", "sensor nodes" and

"communicated to it with networks", respectively, and "of sensor network" has been added at

the end.]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020
3.2
control subsystem for power substation
CSPS

infrastructure together with all the equipment attached to it, including the rules for control, for

communication and for management among application processes of a power substation

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-732:2014, 732-10-02, modified – In the definition, "home network" and

"devices" have been replaced by "infrastructure" and "equipment", respectively, and "of a

power substation" has been added at the end.]
3.3
data acquisition functional subsystem
DAFS

subsystem for gathering required data from a group of sensors, and assembling them into

messages for delivery to another component

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-721:1991, 721-18-64, modified – In the definition, "a facility", "small

quantities of" and "a nominated group of addresses" have been replaced by "subsystem",

"required" and "a group of sensors", respectively, and "a single message" and "nominated

address" have been changed to "messages" and "component", respectively.]
3.4
intelligent wireless sensor network
iWSN

system of spatially distributed sensor nodes interacting with each other using wireless

communication technology and, depending on applications, possibly with other infrastructure in

order to acquire, process, transfer, and provide information extracted from its environment with

a primary function of information gathering, analysing, fusing, and possible control capability to

support the intelligent services based on the application scenarios and users

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, 2.1.6, modified – In the definition, "using wireless

communication technology" and "analysing, fusing," have been added, and "to support the

intelligent services based on the application scenarios and users" has been added at the

end.]
3.5
sensor network for electrical power substation

system of spatially distributed sensor nodes interacting with each other and, depending on

electrical power substation applications, possibly with other infrastructure in order to acquire,

process, transfer, and provide information extracted from electrical power substation’s

equipment and environment with a primary function of information gathering and possible

control capability

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, 2.1.6, modified – In the definition, "electrical power

substation" has been added in front of applications, and "its environment" has been replaced

by "electrical power substation’s equipment and environment".]
3.6
smart electrical power substation

part of an electrical system, confined to a given area, mainly including ends of transmission or

distribution lines, electrical switchgear and control gear, buildings and transformers, and

generally including safety or control devices (for example protection), with the infrastructures

and technologies of digital information, network communication and shared information to

collect data, measure, detect and protect the electrical system, possibly support online analysis,

decision-making, collaborative interaction, and real-time control
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020 – 9 –
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-601:1985, 601-03-02, modified – "a" has been removed from the

beginning, and "A. substation generally includes" is replaced by "and generally including".

"network communication and shared information to collect data, measure, detect and protect

the electrical system, possibly support online analysis, decision-making, collaborative

interaction, and real-time control" is added in the end of the definition.]
3.7
reliability

ability to perform as required, without failure, for a given time interval, under given conditions

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-24]
3.8
availability
property of being accessible and usable on demand by an authorized entity

Note 1 to entry: IoT systems can include both human users and service components as "authorized entities".

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.7]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ASD Application and Service Domain
CAN controller area network
CIP collaborative information process
CSPS control subsystem for power substation
CSSN control subsystem for sensor network
CT current transformer
DAFS data acquisition functional subsystem
DER distributed energy resource
EMF electromagnetic field
GIS gas isolated switchgear
GOOSE generic object oriented substation event
HMI human–machine interface
IED intelligent electronic device
iWSN intelligent wireless sensor network
LoRaWAN™ long range wide area network
OLTC on load tap changer
MMS manufacture message service
MTBF mean time between failures
MTTF mean operating time to failure
MTTFF mean operating time to first failure
NB-IoT narrow band Internet of Things
ONVIF open network video interface forum
OTA over the air
PD partial discharge
PED Physical Entity Domain
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020
PSIA Physical Security Interoperability Alliance
RTU remote terminal unit
SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition
SCD Sensing and Controlling Domain
SF sulfur hexafluoride
SNRA Sensor Network Reference Architecture
SV sample value
UD User Domain
VT voltage transformer
XML extensible markup language
5 Intelligent wireless sensor network system supporting electrical power
substation
5.1 System View
5.1.1 System overview

The iWSN system for electrical power substation is composed of subsystems which include

sensor nodes, meters, cameras, and gateways, communication network, and control subsystem

for sensor network (CSSN). The iWSN system collects data (system operation status, etc.) from

electrical equipment and substation environment, and transmits the data wirelessly to be

processed, aggregated and/or analysed for effective and efficient monitoring of the electrical

power substation in real-time. The iWSN system contributes to the automation of the operation

and management of the substation especially by feeding it with appropriate data, but also

provides the electricity providers with a clearer operating picture of the substation and better

automated co
...

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