Internet of things (IoT) - Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical power substation

ISO/IEC 30144:2020 (E) specifies intelligent wireless sensor network (iWSN) from the perspectives of iWSN's system infrastructure and communications internal and external to the infrastructure, and technical requirements for iWSN to realize smart electrical power substations.

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ISO/IEC 30144
Edition 1.0 2020-10
Internet of things (IOT) – Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical
power substation
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ISO/IEC 30144
Edition 1.0 2020-10
Internet of things (IOT) – Wireless sensor network system supporting electrical

power substation
ICS 29.240.10; 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-8941-9

– 2 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020
1 Scope . 7
2 Normative references . 7
3 Terms and definitions . 7
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms . 9
5 Intelligent wireless sensor network system supporting electrical power substation . 10
5.1 System View . 10
5.1.1 System overview . 10
5.1.2 Subsystems and their relationships. 13
5.2 Communications View . 15
5.2.1 Communications overview . 15
5.2.2 Sensor nodes . 16
5.2.3 Gateways . 17
5.2.4 Communication interfaces in the iWSN system . 18
6 Technical requirements for the iWSN system supporting electrical power
substations . 19
6.1 System functional requirements . 19
6.1.1 Information acquisition and collection . 19
6.1.2 Device management . 19
6.1.3 Data analysis . 19
6.1.4 Data display . 19
6.1.5 Warning and response . 20
6.1.6 Network communication . 20
6.1.7 System privilege management . 20
6.1.8 Collaborative information process (CIP) and decision support. 20
6.2 System performance requirements . 20
6.2.1 Performance requirements of sensor node. 20
6.2.2 Performance requirements of gateway . 23
6.2.3 Performance requirements of control subsystem for sensor network . 25
Annex A (informative) Sensor network reference architecture from ISO/IEC 29182-3 . 27
A.1 Overview of sensor network interfaces . 27
A.2 Sensor node physical reference architecture . 29
A.3 Functional model of the sensor network . 30
Annex B (informative) The sensor models in IEC 61850 . 31
Bibliography . 35

Figure 1 – System overview of the iWSN system supporting electrical power substation . 11
Figure 2 – Communications overview of the iWSN system supporting electrical power
substation . 16
Figure A.1 – Overview of sensor network interfaces in a sensor node, sensor node
to sensor node, and sensor node to the external environment . 27
Figure A.2 – Sensor networks system architecture – Layer focused . 28
Figure A.3 – Sensor node physical reference architecture . 29
Figure A.4 – Functional model of the sensor network . 30

Table 1 – Mapping between the entities in the System View and the domains
of the IoT RA . 12
Table 2 – Interface for functional subsystem of sensor networks . 18
Table B.1 – Sensor models in IEC 61850 . 31

– 4 – ISO/IEC 30144:2020  ISO/IEC 2020

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International Standard ISO/IEC 30144 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of
Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/163/FDIS JTC1-SC41/176/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the
report on voting indicated in the above table.
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The data collected from various types of electrical equipment is sparsely located, and on-line
transmission of the data helps to collaboratively aggregate and analyse them in real-time.
Transitioning to the smart electrical power substation using wireless communication among the
sensor nodes – i.e. wireless sensor network (WSN) – requires systems architecture provisioning
automated data collection from the electrical equipment, which allows collaborative data
processing, sends automatic alerts, provides preventive actions, and potentially takes
corrective actions for certain situations.
Electrical power substation communications should be designed to support scalability,
interoperability, autonomous fault correction, and other key attributes. The intelligent wireless
sensor network (iWSN) is inherently flexible and scalable in its capabilities and in operations
including in the size of its converge areas; however, depending on the geographical (e.g. urban,
suburban, remote location) and structural (both natural and man-made) situations, the
installation architecture should ensure the fidelity of all sensor nodes’ wireless connectivity.
Furthermore, the WSNs can support either distributed or decentralized network architecture.
The wired substation network typically uses high-availability seamless ring (HSR) and parallel
redundancy protocol (PRP) protocols (see IEC 62439-3, IEC 61850-8-1 and IEC 61850-9-2) to
provide seamless failover against failure of any network component. For the iWSN, it is also
important to have the key iWSN network components (e.g. sensor nodes) from data
communication failure. Therefore it is important to select wireless sensor network architecture
for a substation which overcomes the potential issue of a single point of failure in the wireless
sensor network, for example, by installation architecture, the use of PRP to improve packet loss
and timing behaviour in wireless network, or a combination of these.
This document introduces iWSN as a system which helps to make the power substation sma

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