Environmental considerations specific to insulated electrical power and control cables

IEC 62125:2019 provides methodologies addressing environmental evaluation and communication related to cables in normal use.
It includes an environmental checklist for power cables, the method for life cycle assessment (LCA) and a methodology for conductor size optimization.
The results obtained by applying such methodologies can be used for external communication. Environmental communication can also include other topics, such as material declaration.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Sep-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Sep-2019
Ref Project

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IEC 62125
Edition 1.0 2019-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Environmental considerations specific to insulated electrical power and control
cables
IEC 62125:2019-09(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62125
Edition 1.0 2019-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Environmental considerations specific to insulated electrical power and control
cables
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.060.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-7374-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and symbols........................................................................................ 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Symbols .................................................................................................................. 9

4 General principles ......................................................................................................... 11

5 Environmental checklist approach.................................................................................. 11

5.1 What is the checklist approach? ............................................................................ 11

5.2 Checklist ............................................................................................................... 12

6 Life cycle assessment (LCA) of cables .......................................................................... 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Goal and scope ..................................................................................................... 13

6.2.1 LCA study goal .............................................................................................. 13

6.2.2 Functional unit ............................................................................................... 13

6.2.3 Reference flow .............................................................................................. 14

6.2.4 System boundary ........................................................................................... 14

6.2.5 Cut-off criteria ............................................................................................... 15

6.2.6 Assumptions and limitations .......................................................................... 15

6.3 Life cycle inventory (LCI) ...................................................................................... 15

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

6.3.2 Data collection ............................................................................................... 15

6.3.3 Data selection................................................................................................ 16

6.3.4 Allocation procedure ...................................................................................... 16

6.4 Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) ..................................................................... 16

6.5 Interpretation ........................................................................................................ 17

6.6 Single environmental indicator approach ............................................................... 17

7 Environmental and energy cost-based conductor size optimization – ECSO .................. 18

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Basic rules ............................................................................................................ 18

7.3 Factors ................................................................................................................. 20

7.4 CO evaluation ..................................................................................................... 20

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.4.2 CO emissions during manufacturing, transportation, installation and

final disposal ................................................................................................. 20

7.4.3 CO emissions at the use phase ................................................................... 20

7.5 Calculation method ............................................................................................... 20

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.5.2 Calculation of initial cost ................................................................................ 20

7.5.3 Calculation of running costs ........................................................................... 21

7.5.4 Conductor resistance ..................................................................................... 21

7.5.5 Optimum current ............................................................................................ 21

7.5.6 Optimum conductor size ................................................................................ 22

7.5.7 Energy reduction related to the use phase of the cable .................................. 22

7.6 Example................................................................................................................ 23

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IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

8 Environment-related communication .............................................................................. 24

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

8.2 General principles ................................................................................................. 24

8.3 Composition and compliancy to legislation on substances ..................................... 25

8.4 Life cycle assessment ........................................................................................... 25

8.5 End of life ............................................................................................................. 25

Annex A (informative) Checklist for the checklist approach .................................................. 26

A.1 Preliminary considerations .................................................................................... 26

A.2 Design considerations ........................................................................................... 26

A.3 Production considerations ..................................................................................... 26

A.4 Considerations for use and end of life phase ......................................................... 27

Annex B (informative) Example for ECSO ............................................................................ 28

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Cable data ............................................................................................................ 28

B.3 Calculation condition ............................................................................................. 28

B.4 Initial cost ............................................................................................................. 29

B.4.1 Initial investment ........................................................................................... 29

B.4.2 Conversion of CO emissions during material/cable production, removal,

transportation and disposal to cost ................................................................ 29

B.4.3 Initial cost (sum) ............................................................................................ 29

B.4.4 Conductor resistance ..................................................................................... 30

B.5 Calculation of running costs .................................................................................. 30

B.5.1 Costs for Joule losses during anticipated life time .......................................... 30

B.5.2 Costs for CO emission during anticipated life time ....................................... 30

B.6 Life cycle cost ....................................................................................................... 31

B.7 Optimum current ................................................................................................... 31

B.8 Efficiency .............................................................................................................. 32

B.8.1 Calculation of energy efficiency ..................................................................... 32

B.9 Life cycle cost versus service life .......................................................................... 33

Annex C (informative) Example of environmental communication ......................................... 34

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 35

Figure 1 – Life cycle phases ................................................................................................. 13

Figure 2 – Life cycle costs for conductor size for a certain current ........................................ 19

Figure 3 – Optimum current range for minimizing life cycle cost ............................................ 19

Table B.1 – Life cycle cost versus service life ....................................................................... 33

Table B.2 – Life cycle cost versus service life, relative to 3C 70 mm ................................... 33

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– 4 – IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS SPECIFIC TO
INSULATED ELECTRICAL POWER AND CONTROL CABLES
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62125 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 20: Electric

cables.

This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TR 62125, published in 2007. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to

IEC TR 62125:2007:
a) development of the document from TR to international standard;
b) inclusion of a methodology for LCA;
c) inclusion of a methodology for conductor size optimization.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
20/1876/FDIS 20/1881/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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– 6 – IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION

The cable sector has, for many years, considered the impact of electric cables on the

environment with respect to their operating conditions. Transmission system operators,

distribution system operators, manufacturers, installers/contractors, users and authorities

have considerably increased their requirements to take into account the environmental impact

of electric cables.

IEC TC 20 regularly reviews its approach to the incorporation of environmental aspects into

standards for electric cables and their components. Environmental considerations should be

included in both design and redesign work with respect to the raw materials used, energy

consumption, emissions and generation of waste during production, end of life recycling or

disposal, and in-service performance.

This document supersedes IEC TR 62125 published 2007, which intended to give assistance

to writers of standards within IEC Technical Committee 20, to take into account the relevant

environmental aspects that are specific to electric cables in normal use.

This document is addressed to writers of standards, manufacturers and users of power cables

to provide guidance when evaluating:
– the qualitative environmental impact (checklist approach), or
– the quantitative environmental impact (LCA approach), and
– the environmental and energy cost-based conductor size optimization (ECSO).
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IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS SPECIFIC TO
INSULATED ELECTRICAL POWER AND CONTROL CABLES
1 Scope
This document provides methodologies addressing environmental evaluation and
communication related to cables in normal use.

It includes an environmental checklist for power cables, the method for life cycle assessment

(LCA) and a methodology for conductor size optimization.

The results obtained by applying such methodologies can be used for external communication.

Environmental communication can also include other topics, such as material declaration.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60287-3-2:2012, Electric cables – Calculation of the current rating – Part 3-2: Sections on

operating conditions – Economic optimization of power cable size

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and

framework

ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and

guidelines
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a

product system throughout its life cycle
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.2]
3.1.2
life cycle inventory
LCI

phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and

outputs for a product throughout its life cycle
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.3]
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– 8 – IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019
3.1.3
life cycle impact assessment
LCIA

phase of life cycle assessment aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and

significance of the potential environmental impacts for a product system throughout the life

cycle of the product
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.4]
3.1.4
life cycle thinking
LCT

consideration of all relevant environmental aspects during the entire lifecycle of products

[SOURCE: IEC 62430:2009, 3.11]
3.1.5
reference flow

measure of the outputs from processes in a given product system required to fulfil the function

expressed by the functional unit
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.29]
3.1.6
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.20]
3.1.7
environment

surroundings in which a product or system exists, including air, water, land, natural resources,

flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation

Note 1 to entry: "Environment" in this document means ecological environment. It does not refer to surrounding

factors influencing the cable (such as humidity or temperature), nor to the business environment.

[SOURCE: IEC Guide 109:2012, 3.3, modified – Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.1.8
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or

generation from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.1.9
environmental impact of a product

change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from

the life cycle of a product
3.1.10
unit process

smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis for which input and output

data are quantified
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.34]
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IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
3.2 Symbols
temperature coefficient of conductor resistance at
α 1/K
20 °C (for copper: 0,003 93, for aluminium: 0,004 03)
θ maximum rated conductor operating temperature °C
θ ambient average temperature °C
θ mean operating conductor temperature °C
temperature rise of conductor Δθ = (θ − 20 °C)
Δθ °C
µ loss load factor, see IEC 60853-1 –
cu/km
cost for ancillary materials and installation materials
(like conduits)
cu/km
cable cost including transportation
initial cost of the cable being considered cu/km
cu/km
cost for CO emission during mining, manufacturing,
I(CO )
transportation, installation and final disposal for a
certain conductor size
C initial cost of the next smaller standard size of cu/km
conductor
cost for CO emission during mining, manufacturing, cu/km
I1(CO )
transportation, installation and final disposal for the
next smaller size of conductor
C initial cost of the next larger standard size of cu/km
conductor
cost for CO emission during mining, manufacturing, cu/km
C 2
I2(CO )
disposal for the
transportation, installation and final
next larger size of conductor
C present value of the cost of joule losses during N cu/km
years
present value of the costs for CO emission during cu/km
J(CO )
anticipated life time due to Joule losses
cable installation (including laying, removal and cu/km
disposal) cost
life cycle cost cu/km
life cycle cost for the next smaller size of conductor cu/km
life cycle costs for the next larger size of conductor cu/km
arbitrary currency unit
CO emission of the cable of conventional size per CO -kg/year
2 2
CONV
year during use phase
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– 10 – IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019
CO emission of the cable of optimum size per year CO -kg/year
2 2
OPTI
during use phase
F auxiliary quantity defined by Formula (8) cu/W
load factor
power factor (= cos φ, φ being the phase angle
between voltage and current)
maximum load current A
max
upper limit of I A
max
upper
lower limit of I A
max
lower
CO emissions during mining, manufacturing, CO -kg/km
2 2
transportation, installation and final disposal
CO emission for generation of unit power to be CO -kg/kWh
2 2
adjusted to the national situation
k Coefficient based on wiring system, e.g. 3 phase-3
wire kw = √3, for DC cables kw = 1
cable length km
coefficient for converting CO emissions to cost CO -cu/kg
2 2
to be adjusted to the national situation
service life, a synonym (anticipated life time) year
N number of loaded phase conductors –
P cost of one kilowatt-hour at relevant voltage level cu/kWh
R conductor resistance of conductor per length
Ω/km
(considered to be a constant value at an average
operating temperature)
R conductor resistance per length of the next smaller
Ω/km
standard conductor size
R conductor resistance per length of the next larger
Ω/km
standard conductor size
conductor resistance at 20 °C per length, (ohm/km)
Ω/km
AC resistance per length of the cable with
Ω/km
conv
conventional size for AC system and DC resistance
per length of the cable with conventional size for DC
system
AC resistance per length of the cable with optimum
Ω/km
opti
size for AC system and DC resistance per length of
the cable with optimum size for DC system
S cross-sectional area of a cable conductor
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IEC 62125:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –
S cross-sectional area of the next smaller standard
conductor size
S cross-sectional area of the next larger standard
conductor size
U system voltage V
W amount of power consumption per year kWh/year
distribution losses with the cable of conventional size kWh/year
conv
distribution losses of the cable with optimum size kWh/year
opti
annual operating days days
4 General principles

The environmental impact of an electric cable shall be considered throughout all life cycle

phases: from design till end of life. This is called the concept of life cycle thinking.

There are various tools for the environmental evaluation of the products, for example:

– a checklist approach, which is a qualitative consideration of the environmental aspects

related to the life cycle steps of the product, i.e. use of the checklist in accordance with

Clause 5 and Annex A, that is based on IEC Guide 109 and specifically focused on power

cables;

– life cycle assessment (LCA), which is a scientific tool providing a quantitative evaluation of

the environmental impact occuring during the whole life cycle of the product, i.e. use of

the life cycle assessment in accordance with Clause 6 for assessment of the
environmental impacts of a product.

The use of LCA methodology is recommended, as it provides quantified and detailed

information on product environmental impact. Nevertheless, considering the knowledge and

resources required to perform LCA studies, the checklist might be acceptable, for instance if

certain aspects are considered without determining the complete environmental impact. This

choice has to be made depending on objectives and knowledge and resources available.

Apart from life cycle thinking, other approaches can be used, such as:

– ECSO, a tool (described in Clause 7) to evaluate and optimize the conductor size by

combining environmental and energy costs. ECSO is the optimization of the conductor

size so that the sum of the total costs and the conversion costs of CO emissions
throughout the life phases (defined in 6.2.4) of the cable is minimized.

Environmental improvement shall be balanced against other factors, such as product function,

performance, health and safety, cost, marketability and quality, legal and regulatory

requirements and other standards.
5 Environmental checklist approach
5.1 What is the checklist approach?
The checklist approach is a simple method without quantification of the complete

environmental impact. It is a working aid to evaluate the cable design and the cable choice for

a certain application so as to find environmentally related aspects that may require

consideration. The lists in 5.2 and Annex A address key factors that have an impa

...

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