Information technology -- Sensor networks: Sensor network and its interfaces for smart grid system

ISO/IEC 30101:2014 is for sensor networks in order to support smart grid technologies for power generation, distribution, networks, energy storage, load efficiency, control and communications, and associated environmental challenges. This International Standard characterizes the requirements for sensor networks to support the aforementioned applications and challenges. Data from sensors in smart grid systems is collected, transmitted, published, and acted upon to ensure efficient coordination of the various systems and subsystems. The intelligence derived through the sensor networks supports synchronization, monitoring and responding, command and control, data/information processing, security, information routing, and human-grid display/graphical interfaces. This International standard specifies: - interfaces between the sensor networks and other networks for smart grid system applications, - sensor network architecture to support smart grid systems, - interface between sensor networks with smart grid systems, and - sensor network based emerging applications and services to support smart grid systems.

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Published
Publication Date
11-Nov-2014
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
12-Nov-2014
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 30101
First edition
2014-11-15
Information technology — Sensor
networks: Sensor network and its
interfaces for smart grid system
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux de capteurs: Réseau de
capteurs et ses interfaces pour un réseau électrique intelligent
Reference number
ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
ISO/IEC 2014
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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative References ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and Definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols (and abbreviated terms) ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Smart Grid Reference Models and Architectures ............................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Smart Grid Architectures Adopted for Developing Sensor Network & its Interfaces

for Smart Grid System ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 IEEE 2030 Smart Grid Interoperability Guideline Standard ........................................................................... 4

6 Sensor Network Interface with SG Entities ............................................................................................................................10

7 Sensors in Smart Grid System ..............................................................................................................................................................16

7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2 Sensors in Bulk Generation Domain ..................................................................................................................................18

7.3 Sensors in Transmission Domain.........................................................................................................................................26

7.4 Sensors in Distribution Domain ............................................................................................................................................36

7.5 Sensors in Customer Domain ..................................................................................................................................................45

8 Networks in Smart Grid Domains ....................................................................................................................................................45

9 Sensor Network Architecture Supporting Smart Grid System ...........................................................................47

9.1 Architecture of Sensor Network and its Interfaces for Smart Grid System .....................................47

9.2 SG Domain ................................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.3 Sensing Domain ...................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.4 Network Domain ................................................................................................................................................................................50

9.5 Service Domain ....................................................................................................................................................................................50

9.6 Tasks and Activities in Sensor Networks Enabled by the Domain Functions ................................51

Annex A (informative) Other Smart Grid Reference Models and Architectures...................................................53

Annex B (normative) IEEE 2030 Descriptions of Entities and Interfaces ...................................................................62

Annex C (informative) Type of Sensors in Smart Grid Domains ...........................................................................................84

Annex D (informative) Sensor Network Applications and Services for Smart Grid .........................................89

Annex E (informative) Sensor Network Architecture for ISO/IEC 29182-5 Supporting Smart

Grid System .............................................................................................................................................................................................................99

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................101

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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Introduction

Transitioning the existing Power Grid to Smart Grid is a challenging task over a lengthy period, and all

power needs should be satisfied during the period that this transition takes place. This transition will

likely affect a broad set of stakeholders, e.g., individuals and businesses, and the stakeholders should

properly be informed of the changes taking place and to come. Smart Grid is a large, complex system

which operates at various operation modes ranging from fully automated to handle time critical and

instantaneous responses (sensing and actuation) to human-in-the-loop for response and interaction

(command and control). The transition to Smart Grid will be a gradual migration with the coexistence

of diverse technologies, systems, and equipment from the past, today, and the future. To ensure the

interoperability of the diverse technologies, systems, and equipment without compromising the

performance (e.g., reliability, safety, cyber security, etc.), Smart Grid will require effective standards.

These standards should not be static, but evolve over the transitional time period. These standards

should maintain their integrity to support all technologies, systems, and equipment that are and will be

involved during the transition.

This International Standard does not address standards for Smart Grid (e.g., electrical power system).

This International Standard addresses sensor network and its interfaces to Smart Grid, e.g., various

applications of the sensor network to Smart Grid. The sensor network and its processing algorithms

provide intelligent services to the user, e.g., operators in various domains of Smart Grid including power

utilities and consumers.

The sensor network plays many critical roles in all areas of Smart Grid because: (1) sensors with processing

capability are smart devices and sensor nodes can include actuators, (2) sensor data/information are

transmitted via wired/wireless communication systems and data links, and sensor nodes typically

include communication devices that formulate protocols for the data/information streams, and (3)

sensors monitor and measure their designated environments, collect data from the environments,

analyse the data if they have processing capability, formats the data, and stores them at their local

memory devices; thus, within sensor network, some level of data management is necessary.

Sensor data from Smart Grid in many cases should be secured and cyber security should be in place to

prevent from unauthorized access of sensors and related devices on the sensor network. Certain types

of sensor data, e.g., customer data and information, should be protected from the information security

and privacy point of view.

The sensor network can provide various applications and services during the transitional road to Smart

Grid. The sensor network is expected to become one of the essential and critical players in migrating

the legacy power grid system to Smart Grid. This includes adding and integrating sensor-related and

network-related technologies with power systems and devices from the past, today, and the future.

From the sensor network point of view, the information technology (IT) network is considered as the

information highway or IT backbone providing the pathways for Smart Grid data and information.

Therefore, a study of existing sensor network and power system related standards is necessary to

leverage these standards for the sensor network standard development unique for Smart Grid, smart

grid services and applications during the transitional period and afterward.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor
network and its interfaces for smart grid system
1 Scope

This International Standard is for sensor networks in order to support smart grid technologies for

power generation, distribution, networks, energy storage, load efficiency, control and communications,

and associated environmental challenges. This International Standard characterizes the requirements

for sensor networks to support the aforementioned applications and challenges. Data from sensors in

smart grid systems is collected, transmitted, published, and acted upon to ensure efficient coordination

of the various systems and subsystems. The intelligence derived through the sensor networks supports

synchronization, monitoring and responding, command and control, data/information processing,

security, information routing, and human-grid display/graphical interfaces.
This International standard specifies

— interfaces between the sensor networks and other networks for smart grid system applications,

— sensor network architecture to support smart grid systems,
— interface between sensor networks with smart grid systems, and

— sensor network based emerging applications and services to support smart grid systems.

2 Normative References

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29182-1, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 1: General overview and requirements

ISO/IEC 29182-2, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology

ISO/IEC 29182-3, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 3: Reference architecture views

ISO/IEC 29182-4, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 4: Entity models

ISO/IEC 29182-5, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 5: Interface definitions

IEEE 2030, Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology

Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads

3 Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2 apply.

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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
4 Symbols (and abbreviated terms)
AMI Advanced Metering Infrastructure
BAN Business area Network
CB Circuit Breaker
CMOS Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor
CNT Carbon Nanotube
CPN Customer premises network
CT-IAP Communication Technology Interoperability Architecture Perspective
DSM Demand-Side Management
DER Distributed Energy Resource
EPS Electric Power System
ESI Energy Services Interfaces
FAN Field area networks
GIS Gas Insulated Switchgear
GPS Global Positioning System
HAN Home Area Network
HV High Voltage
IAN Industrial Area Network
IAP Interoperability Architecture Perspective
IED Intelligent Electric Device
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IS International Standards
ISP Internet Service Providers
IT-IAP Information Technology Interoperability Architecture Perspective
LAN Local Area Network
LTC On-Load Tap-Changer
LV Low Voltage
MV Medium Voltage
OHTL Overhead Transmission Line
PD Partial Discharge
PEV Plug-in Electric Vehicle
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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
PMU Phase Measurement Unit
PS# Power System # (Interface Designation in PS-IAP)
PS-IAP Power System Interoperability Architecture Perspective
RH Relative Humidity
RF Radio Frequency
RTO Regional Transmission Organization
RTU Remote Terminal Unit
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SDOs Standard Developing Organizations
SG Smart Grid
SGRM Smart Grid Reference Model
SGRA Smart Grid Reference Architecture
SN&I Sensor Network and its Interface
SNRA Sensor Network Reference Architecture
UGC Underground Cables
UHF Ultra High Frequency
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
UV Ultraviolet
WAN Wide Area Network
5 Smart Grid Reference Models and Architectures
5.1 General

Smart Grid (SG) reference models and architectures are being developed by various standard developing

organizations (SDOs) and industrial consortia/organizations. Sensor network and its interfaces standard

for SG need to be consistent with the reference model and architecture to be useful and realizable. The

sensor network and its interfaces for smart grid system standards should be applicable, adoptable,

and adaptable to varying architectural differences among smart grid architectures to be effective.

For this reason, a number of available SG Reference Models and Architectures (SGRMs and SGRAs) are

referenced, and these SG reference models and architectures are included in Annex A of this standard

document. Understanding and leveraging the existing SGRMs and SGRAs is crucial for developing the

sensor network and its interfaces for smart grid system for compatibility and acceptance.

5.2 Smart Grid Architectures Adopted for Developing Sensor Network & its Interfaces

for Smart Grid System

For developing the sensor network and its interfaces for smart grid system, IEEE 2030 Power System

Interoperability Architecture Perspective (PS-IAP) is adopted because this architecture perspective

provides the entities/devices that are physical or logical in the power system for a typical implementation.

Additionally, from the sensor network point of view, the sensors in sensor networks interface with the

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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)

power systems in the seven SG domains, namely, Operations, Service Providers, Customer, Distribution,

Transmission, Bulk Generation, and Market domains (See Annex A.2, NIST Smart Grid Conceptual Model).

Networking and communication allowing sensors and sensor networks within in each domain and

also between the domains is described in IEEE 2030 Communication Technology Interoperability

Architecture Perspective (CT-IAP), and this architecture perspective is adopted for any discussion of

sensor networks and data/information communication routing.

From the data/information contents perspective, IEEE 2030 Information Technology Interoperability

Architecture Perspective (IT-IAP) is adopted for this standard work to describe the data/information

that will be passed between the entities in the same domain and also between the domains.

IEEE 2030 PS-IAP is mainly used for developing this standard because sensors are physically attached to

power systems (e.g., physical interfaces), and these sensor nodes form a sensor network or sensor networks

in a domain communicating data/information from one domain to another domain. The communication

perspective is described in the CT-IAP. From data/information stand point, the IT-IAP is utilized to describe

the data/information contents and context mapping to the physical interfaces in the PS-IAP.

5.3 IEEE 2030 Smart Grid Interoperability Guideline Standard

IEEE 2030 developed Smart Grid Interoperability Guideline Standards. In this standard, smart grid’s

interoperability is categorized by Power System Technology, Communications Technology, and

Information Technology. In each technology, top-level reference architecture is developed, which is

called Interoperability Architecture Perspective (IAP).

IEEE 2030 Power System IAP (PS-IAP) represents a view of the Electric Power System (EPS) that

not only represents Smart Grid but also emphasizes the production, delivery, and consumption of

electrical energy. The CT-IAP emphasizes the communication connectivity among systems, devices, and

applications in the smart grid. The IT-IAP emphasizes the control of processes and data management

flow in the smart grid.

The domains in IEEE 2030 are the same as those in the NIST Conceptual Model. The description of each

domain in IEEE 2030 is comprehensive. Table 1 shows the description of each domain in the IEEE 2030

Interoperability Guideline standard document.
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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Table 1 — IEEE 2030 descriptions of the SG domains
Domain Descriptions

Bulk Generation The bulk generation domain contains any generation and storage that is connected

directly to the transmission system (with no distribution system interface). The genera-

tion and storage can be any size such as large power generation stations, small peaking

generation, and small storage connected to the electrical transmission system. These

facilities may be owned by electric utilities or by independent entities.

The bulk generation domain‘s primary interfaces are with transmission domain entities,

generation and transmission operations control entity, and markets domain. The inter-

face to the markets domain is focused on the operation of the generation and storage

in order to provide economic operation. The rest of the interfaces displayed in Figure 1

(PS-IAP) are focused on efficient and reliable operation.

Transmission The transmission domain includes entities that represent equipment associated with

the electrical transmission system. This equipment is represented by three entities.

The transmission substation entity represents many pieces of equipment in substations

that cannot be classified as transmission protection and control devices nor sensors and

measurement devices.

The transmission domain‘s primary interfaces are with the bulk generation domain and

operations/control domain. The interfaces with the bulk generation domain are focused

on reliable operation. The interconnection with the transmission operation/control

entity in the operations/control domain is the focal point of the centralized control of the

transmission system. This is often under the control of an independent system operator,

Regional Transmission Organization (RTO), or local utility. In addition, there may be

interfaces with the customer domain where the customer may have a transmission-level

connection to the power system, as may be the case with IPP‘s, large industrial facilities,

or large commercial facilities.

Distribution The distribution system domain includes entities located throughout the electrical dis-

tribution system. The distribution substation entity represents many components that

cannot be assigned to the distribution protection and control devices entity nor the sen-

sors and measurement devices entity. In addition, the distributed energy resource (DER)

entity represents generation and storage of all kinds that are connected to the electric

distribution system except those at customers’ facilities.

The distribution domain‘s primary interface is with the distribution operation and con-

trol entity in the control and operations domain. This interface reflects the centralized

control of the distribution system from the distribution control centre. The distribution

domain may also have an interface to the transmission substation entity in the trans-

mission domain. This interface usually reflects only protection and control systems.

The distribution domain may also have an interface with the generation operation and

control entity in the control domain in order to provide direct dispatch of distribution

connected DER.
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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Domain Descriptions

Customer The customer domain includes many types of customers that are connected to the

electrical distribution system or electrical transmission system. These customers could

be residential, commercial, or industrial. The customer domain may include customers

with only loads and customers with any combination of loads, generation, and storage.

The customer domain includes all loads whether they are connected at the transmission

or distribution level, but it does not consider generation and storage connected at the

transmission level. If generation and storage is connected at the transmission level, that

generation or storage is considered part of the bulk generation domain.

Each type of customer may have several different entities employed in its application.

These entities are dependent on the size and type of customer as well as its connections

to the EPS. The DER entity includes all distribution system-connected generation and

storage and may require an interface with the market domain. A plug-in electric vehicle

may have the characteristics of a load or customer DER.

The customer domain can have interfaces to the distribution domain, markets domain,

and the distribution operations/control entity of the operations/control domain. These

interfaces handle the customer requirements with the exception of facilities that have a

substation connected to the electrical transmission system. In this case, the substation

has interfaces to the transmission domain and to the transmission operations/control

entity of the operations/control domain. Transmission operations will often have control

over customer substations since customer substations may have direct influence on

operations of the transmission system. In some instances, customer DER will be directly

dispatched by the generation or transmission operation and control entities.

Control and Opera- The control and operations domain includes three distinctive operation and control enti-

tions ties. These entities are control generation, transmission, and distribution. They are the

controlling mechanisms that, from an EPS viewpoint, keep the grid up and running.

The primary interface of each entity in the control and operations domain is to its

appropriate domain in the electrical power system. These primary interfaces include the

distribution operation and control entity to the distribution domain, the transmission

operation and control entity to the transmission domain, and the generation operation

and control entity to the bulk generation domain. In addition, the distribution operation/

control entity has some interface to the customer domain for applications where the

customer has controllable loads, generation, and/or storage. The transmission operation

and control entity has an interface with the customer substation entity in the customer

domain for those circumstances where a customer connects directly to the transmission

system instead of through the distribution system. In some instances, customer DER will

be directly dispatched by the generation or transmission operation and control entities.

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ISO/IEC 30101:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Domain Descriptions

Market The markets domain reflects market operations associated with electric utilities and

regional entities.

The markets domain is logically connected with any of the generation, load control, and

storage entities. Control by markets can be done directly at generation, load control, and

storage, but it can also be done via the operations/control domain. Additionally, as new

markets emerge, the customer may seek to interact directly with the marketplace.

Service Provider The service provider domain contains third-parties and utilities that provide electrical

power-related services. The service provider domain is the connection between the

electric energy markets and the end users. There are many models for potential electric

service providers, but the most common model in use today is that of the electric utility

as service provider. Some locations have third-party service providers who aggregate

electric power for consumption by end users.

Electric service providers may also provide additional electric power-related services.

These services may include additional power supply options, such as discounts for less

consumption during peak hours. They may also include demand-side management and
services such as protection against lightning and voltage excursions.

Some electric service providers may also provide services such as monitoring electrical

equipment for maintenance and troubleshooting purposes. The equipment monitored

could include generation, storage, substation equipment, and equipment located on elec-

tric distribution or transmission lines.
5.3.1 Power System Interoperability Architecture Perspective (PS-IAP)

The Power System Interoperability Architecture Perspective (PS-IAP) shown in Figure 1 is a logical

representation
...

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