Electric and hybrid electric road vehicles - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers below 30 MHz

CISPR 36:2020 defines limits for 3 m measurement distance and methods of measurement that are designed to provide protection for off-board receivers (at 10 m distance) in the frequency range of 150 kHz to 30 MHz when used in the residential environment.
NOTE Protection of receivers used on board the same vehicle as the disturbance source(s) is covered by CISPR 25.
This document applies to the emission of electromagnetic energy which might cause interference to radio reception and which is emitted from electric and hybrid electric vehicles propelled by an internal traction battery (see 3.2 and 3.3) when operated on the road. This document applies to vehicles that have a traction battery voltage between 100 V and 1 000 V.
Electric vehicles to which CISPR 14-1 applies are not in the scope of this document. This document applies only to road vehicles where an electric propulsion is used for sustained speed of more than 6 km/h. Vehicles where the electric motor is only used to start up the internal combustion engine (e.g. "micro hybrid") and vehicles where the electric motor is used for additional propulsion only during acceleration (e.g. "48 V mild hybrid vehicles") are not in the scope of this document. The radiated emission requirements in this document are not applicable to the intentional transmissions from a radio transmitter as defined by the ITU including their spurious emissions. Annex C lists work being considered for future revisions.

Véhicules routiers électriques et hybrides électriques - Caractéristiques de perturbations radioélectriques - Limites et méthodes de mesure pour la protection des récepteurs extérieurs en dessous de 30 MHz

CISPR 36:2020 définit les limites pour une distance de mesure de 3 m et des méthodes de mesure visant à assurer la protection des récepteurs extérieurs (à une distance de 10 m) dans la plage de fréquences comprise entre 150 kHz et 30 MHz et dans le cadre d'une utilisation dans un environnement résidentiel.
NOTE Pour la protection des récepteurs installés dans le même véhicule que les sources de perturbation, la CISPR 25 s'applique.
Le présent document concerne le rayonnement d'énergie électromagnétique qui peut brouiller la réception des radiocommunications et qui est produit par les véhicules électriques et hybrides électriques dont la propulsion est assurée par une batterie de traction interne (voir 3.2 et 3.3) lorsqu'ils circulent sur la route. Le présent document s'applique aux véhicules dont la tension de la batterie de traction est comprise entre 100 V et 1 000 V.
Les véhicules électriques auxquels la CISPR 14-1 s'applique ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document . Le présent document s'applique uniquement aux véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique dont la vitesse soutenue en rampe est supérieure à 6 km/h. Les véhicules dont le moteur électrique ne sert qu'à démarrer le moteur à combustion interne ("micro hybride", par exemple) et les véhicules dont le moteur électrique assure une propulsion supplémentaire au moment de l'accélération uniquement (les "véhicules à motorisation semi-hybride de 48 V", par exemple) ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document.
Les exigences relatives aux émissions rayonnées du présent document ne s'appliquent pas aux transmissions intentionnelles à partir d'un émetteur radio tel que défini par l'UIT, y compris leurs rayonnements non essentiels. L'Annexe C énumère les travaux étudiés pour des révisions futures.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jul-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Jul-2020
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CISPR 36
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INT ERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
C OMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
Electric and hybrid electric road vehicles – Radio disturbance characteristics –
Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers
below 30 MHz
Véhicules routiers électriques et hybrides électriques – Caractéristiques de
perturbations radioélectriques – Limites et méthodes de mesure pour la
protection des récepteurs exterieurs en dessous de 30 MHz
CISPR 36:2020-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
CISPR 36
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INT ERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
C OMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
Electric and hybrid electric road vehicles – Radio disturbance characteristics –
Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers
below 30 MHz
Véhicules routiers électriques et hybrides électriques – Caractéristiques de
perturbations radioélectriques – Limites et méthodes de mesure pour la
protection des récepteurs exterieurs en dessous de 30 MHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-8655-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Limits of radiated disturbances ........................................................................................ 9

4.1 Determination of conformance of vehicle with limits ................................................ 9

4.2 Quasi-peak detector limits....................................................................................... 9

5 Methods of measurement .............................................................................................. 10

5.1 Measurement instruments ..................................................................................... 10

5.1.1 Measuring receiver ........................................................................................ 10

5.1.2 Magnetic field antenna ................................................................................... 11

5.1.3 Measurement instrumentation uncertainty ...................................................... 11

5.2 Measuring site requirements ................................................................................. 11

5.2.1 Outdoor test site (OTS) requirements ............................................................ 11

5.2.2 Alternative test site requirements ................................................................... 12

5.3 Test setup for measurement antenna .................................................................... 13

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Distance ........................................................................................................ 13

5.3.3 Position ......................................................................................................... 13

5.3.4 Height ............................................................................................................ 15

5.4 Test object conditions ........................................................................................... 15

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.4.2 Vehicles ........................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (normative) Measurement instrumentation uncertainty ........................................... 16

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 16

A.2 Radiated disturbance measurements at an OTS or in an ALSE in the

frequency range 150 kHz to 30 MHz ..................................................................... 16

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

A.2.2 easurand ....................................................................................................... 17

A.2.3 Input quantities to be considered for radiated disturbance

measurements ............................................................................................... 17

Annex B (Informative) Uncertainty budgets for radiated disturbance measurements of

magnetic field strength .......................................................................................................... 20

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

B.2 Typical CISPR 36 uncertainty budgets .................................................................. 20

B.3 Receiver’s frequency step ..................................................................................... 21

Annex C (informative) Items under consideration ................................................................. 23

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

C.2 Plug-in charging mode and WPT charging mode ................................................... 23

C.3 Correlation between OTS, OATS and ALSE measurements .................................. 23

C.4 Measurement distance of 10 m ............................................................................. 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Limit of magnetic field disturbance (quasi-peak detector) at 3 m antenna

distance ................................................................................................................................ 10

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Figure 2 – Measuring site (OTS) for vehicles ........................................................................ 12

Figure 3 – Magnetic field measurement – transverse loop orientation ................................... 14

Figure 4 – Magnetic field measurement – radial loop orientation ........................................... 14

Figure 5 – Magnetic field antenna height – Elevation view (radial loop orientation) ............... 15

Figure A.1 – Sources of measurement instrumentation uncertainty ....................................... 17

Figure B.1 – Example of measurement for frequency step uncertainty evaluation ................. 22

Table 1 – Limit of disturbance (quasi-peak detector at 3 m antenna distance) ......................... 9

Table 2 – Spectrum analyser parameters .............................................................................. 11

Table 3 – Scanning receiver parameters ............................................................................... 11

Table A.1 – Input quantities to be considered for radiated disturbance measurements .......... 18

Table B.1 – Typical uncertainty budget – 3 m distance – loop antenna .................................. 20

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
____________
ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC ROAD VEHICLES –
RADIO DISTURBANCE CHARACTERISTICS –
LIMITS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR
THE PROTECTION OF OFF-BOARD RECEIVERS BELOW 30 MHz
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard CISPR 36 has been prepared by CISPR subcommittee D:

Electromagnetic disturbances related to electric/electronic equipment on vehicles and internal

combustion engine powered devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
CISPR/D/462/CDV CISPR/D/464A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
INTRODUCTION

There is a specific need for documents to define acceptable low frequency performance of all

electrical/electronic products. CISPR 36 has been developed to serve the electric and hybrid

electric road vehicle and related industries with test methods and limits that provide satisfactory

protection for radio reception.

Compliance with this document is sometimes insufficient for the protection of receivers used in

the residential environment nearer than 10 m to the vehicle. It also sometimes does not provide

sufficient protection for new types of radio transmissions.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC ROAD VEHICLES –
RADIO DISTURBANCE CHARACTERISTICS –
LIMITS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR
THE PROTECTION OF OFF-BOARD RECEIVERS BELOW 30 MHz
1 Scope

This document defines limits for 3 m measurement distance and methods of measurement that

are designed to provide protection for off-board receivers (at 10 m distance) in the frequency

range of 150 kHz to 30 MHz when used in the residential environment.

NOTE Protection of receivers used on board the same vehicle as the disturbance source(s) is covered by CISPR 25.

This document applies to the emission of electromagnetic energy which might cause

interference to radio reception and which is emitted from electric and hybrid electric vehicles

propelled by an internal traction battery (see 3.2 and 3.3) when operated on the road.

This document applies to vehicles that have a traction battery voltage between 100 V and

1 000 V.

Electric vehicles to which CISPR 14-1 applies are not in the scope of this document.

This document applies only to road vehicles where an electric propulsion is used for sustained

speed of more than 6 km/h.

Vehicles where the electric motor is only used to start up the internal combustion engine

(e.g. "micro hybrid") and vehicles where the electric motor is used for additional propulsion only

during acceleration (e.g. "48 V mild hybrid vehicles") are not in the scope of this document.

The radiated emission requirements in this document are not applicable to the intentional

transmissions from a radio transmitter as defined by the ITU including their spurious emissions.

Annex C lists work being considered for future revisions.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

CISPR 16-1-1:2015, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1-1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Measuring

apparatus

CISPR 16-1-4:2019, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antennas and test

sites for radiated disturbance measurements

CISPR 16-2-3:2016, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 2-3: Methods of measurement of disturbances and immunity – Radiated

disturbance measurements
CISPR 16-2-3:2016/AMD1:2019
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
absorber lined shielded enclosure
ALSE

shielded enclosure in which the ceiling and walls are covered with material that absorbs

electromagnetic energy (i.e. RF absorber)
3.2
electric vehicle

vehicle propelled exclusively by electric motor(s) powered by on-board traction battery or

batteries

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles equipped with an additional power source (e.g. auxiliary combustion engine, fuel cell)

used to provide electric power to the electric motor/traction battery only, without contributing to the mechanical

propulsion of the vehicle, are considered as electric vehicles for the purposes of this document.

3.3
hybrid electric vehicle
vehicle propelled by electric motor(s) and internal combustion engine

Note 1 to entry: The two propulsion systems can operate individually or in a combined mode depending on the

hybrid system.
3.4
open-area test site
OATS

facility for measurements and calibrations in which the ground reflection is made reproducible

by a large flat electrically conducting ground plane

Note 1 to entry: An OATS can be used for radiated disturbance measurements, where it is also designated as a

COMTS. An OATS can also be used for antenna calibrations, where it is designated as a CALTS.

Note 2 to entry: An OATS is an uncovered outdoor site, and is far enough away from buildings, electric lines, fences,

trees, underground cables, pipelines, and other potentially reflective objects, so that the effects due to such objects

are negligible. See CISPR 16-1-4 for guidance on the construction of an OATS.
[SOURCE CISPR 16-2-3:2016, 3.1.20]
3.5
outdoor test site
OTS

measurement site similar to an open-area test site as specified in CISPR 16-1-4, but without

any type of metallic ground plane and with different dimensions
Note 1 to entry: Specific requirements are defined in this document.
3.6
residential environment

environment having a 10 m protection distance between the source and the point of radio

reception

Note 1 to entry: Examples of a residential environment include rooming houses, private dwellings, entertainment

halls, theatres, schools, public streets, shopping centres / malls, etc.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
3.7
traction battery
battery used for the propulsion of electric vehicle or hybrid electric vehicle
3.8
vehicle
machine operating on land which is intended to carry persons or goods

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles include, but are not limited to, cars, trucks, buses and mopeds.

4 Limits of radiated disturbances
4.1 Determination of conformance of vehicle with limits

The vehicle shall comply with the quasi-peak detector magnetic field strength limits specified in

4.2, when it is in "Propulsion" mode of operation, as per 5.4.2.2.
The limits given in this document take into account uncertainties.
4.2 Quasi-peak detector limits

The limit for emissions measured with quasi-peak detector at 3 m antenna distance is given in

Table 1 and is shown graphically in Figure 1. It is expressed in dB(µA/m). For more accurate

determination, the formula given in Table 1 shall be used.
Table 1 – Limit of disturbance (quasi-peak detector at 3 m antenna distance)
Frequency H field
MHz dB(µA/m)
0,15 to 4 26,11 − 15,64 × lg(f )
MHz
4 to 15 33,17 − 27,35 × lg(f )
MHz
15 to 30 16,63 − 13,29 × lg(f )
MHz
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
Figure 1 – Limit of magnetic field disturbance (quasi-peak detector)
at 3 m antenna distance
5 Methods of measurement
5.1 Measurement instruments
5.1.1 Measuring receiver
5.1.1.1 General

The measuring receiver (including FFT-based measurement instruments) shall comply with the

requirements of CISPR 16-1-1:2015. Either manual or automatic frequency scanning may be

used.

A preamplifier can be used between the antenna and measuring receiver in order to achieve

the 6 dB noise floor requirements (see 5.2.1.2). If a preamplifier is used to achieve the 6 dB

noise floor requirement, the laboratory should establish a procedure to avoid overload of the

preamplifier, such as using a step attenuator. The laboratory should also ensure the receiver is

not overloaded in all measurement scenarios, with or without an external preamplifier.

5.1.1.2 Spectrum analyser parameters

The scan rate of the spectrum analyser shall be adjusted for the CISPR frequency band and

detection mode used. The maximum scan rate shall comply with the requirements of
CISPR 16-2-3.

Spectrum analysers may be used for performing compliance measurements to this document

providing the precautions cited in CISPR 16-1-1:2015 on the use of spectrum analysers are

adhered to and that the broadband emissions from the product being tested have a repetition

frequency greater than 20 Hz.
The minimum scan time and resolution bandwidth (RBW) are listed in Table 2.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
Table 2 – Spectrum analyser parameters
Quasi-peak detector
Frequency range
MHz
RBW at −6 dB Scan time
0,15 to 30 9 kHz 200 s/MHz

When a spectrum analyser is used for measurements, the video bandwidth shall be at least

three times the RBW.
5.1.1.3 Scanning receiver parameters

The measurement time of the scanning receiver shall be adjusted for the CISPR frequency band

and detection mode used. The minimum measurement time, maximum step size and bandwidth

(BW) are listed in Table 3.
Table 3 – Scanning receiver parameters
Quasi-peak detector
Frequency range
Minimum
MHz
BW at −6 dB Step size measurement
time
0,15 to 30 9 kHz 5 kHz 1 s
5.1.2 Magnetic field antenna

For measuring the magnetic field, an electrically-screened loop antenna shall be used (see

CISPR 16-1-4:2019, 4.4.2).
5.1.3 Measurement instrumentation uncertainty

The measurement instrumentation uncertainty shall be calculated as described in Annex A.

Measurement instrumentation uncertainty shall not be taken into account in the determination

of compliance.
Examples of uncertainty budgets are given in Annex B. If the calculated expanded

measurement instrumentation uncertainty exceeds that of the corresponding example in

Annex B, the value of the expanded uncertainty shall be documented in the test report.

NOTE The provisions for measurement instrumentation uncertainty (MIU) in this document do not follow

CISPR 16-4-2 for considering MIU. The deviation from policy is justified due to the missing site validation method

which will be covered in a future revision of CISPR 36. An estimation of the uncertainty contribution caused by site

imperfections cannot be made without site validation criterion.
5.2 Measuring site requirements
5.2.1 Outdoor test site (OTS) requirements
5.2.1.1 OTS for vehicles

The test site shall be a clear area, free from electromagnetic reflecting surfaces (except the

floor) within a circle of minimum radius of 20 m measured from a point midway between the

vehicle and the antenna. As an exception, the measuring equipment and test hut or vehicle in

which the measuring equipment is located (when used) may be within the test site, but only in

the permitted region indicated by the crosshatched area of Figure 2.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – CISPR 36:2020 © IEC 2020
Dimensions in metres
Figure 2 – Measuring site (OTS) for vehicles
5.2.1.2 Ambient magnetic field requirements

To ensure that there is no extraneous noise or signals of sufficient magnitude or density to

affect materially the vehicle measurement, ambient measurements shall be taken before and

after the main test, but without the vehicle under test running. In both of these measurements,

the ambient noise shall be at least 6 dB below the limits of d
...

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