Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Antennas and test sites for radiated disturbance measurements

CISPR 16-1-4:2019 specifies the characteristics and performance of equipment for the measurement of radiated disturbances in the frequency range 9 kHz to 18 GHz. Specifications for antennas and test sites are included.
NOTE In accordance with IEC Guide 107, CISPR 16-1-4 is a basic EMC publication for use by product committees of the IEC. As stated in Guide 107, product committees are responsible for determining the applicability of the EMC standard. CISPR and its sub-committees are prepared to cooperate with product committees in the evaluation of the value of particular EMC tests for specific products.
The requirements of this publication apply at all frequencies and for all levels of radiated disturbances within the CISPR indicating range of the measuring equipment.
Methods of measurement are covered in Part 2-3, further information on radio disturbance is given in Part 3, and uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling are covered in Part 4 of CISPR 16.
This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2010, Amendment 1:2012 and Amendment 2:2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
• provisions are added to address test site validation in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz using the reference site method, to take into account the receive antenna radiation pattern in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 18 GHz, and further details on test site validation using the NSA method with broadband antennas in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz.
Keywords: radiated disturbances, frequency range 9 kHz to 18 GHz

Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques – Antennes et emplacements d’essai pour les mesures des perturbations rayonnées

CISPR 16-1-4:2019 spécifie les caractéristiques et les performances des appareils de mesure de perturbations rayonnées dans la gamme de fréquences de 9 kHz à 18 GHz. Elle comprend les spécifications pour les antennes et les emplacements d'essai.
NOTE Conformément au Guide 107 de l'IEC, la CISPR 16-1-4 est une publication fondamentale en CEM destinée à être utilisée par les comités de produits de l'IEC. Comme indiqué dans le Guide 107, les comités de produits ont la responsabilité de déterminer s'il convient d'appliquer ou non cette norme d'essai en CEM. Le CISPR et ses sous-comités sont prêts à coopérer avec les comités de produits à l'évaluation de la valeur des essais d'immunité particuliers pour leurs produits.
Les exigences de cette publication s'appliquent à toutes les fréquences et à tous niveaux de perturbation rayonnée, dans les limites de la plage de lecture des appareils de mesure du CISPR.
Les méthodes de mesure sont traitées dans la Partie 2-3, des informations supplémentaires sur les perturbations radioélectriques sont données dans la Partie 3 et les incertitudes, les statistiques et la modélisation des limites sont couvertes par la Partie 4 de la CISPR 16.
Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2010, l'Amendement 1:2012 et l'Amendement 2:2017. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
• des dispositions ont été ajoutées pour traiter la validation des emplacements d'essai dans la gamme de fréquences de 30 MHz à 1 000 MHz en utilisant la méthode de site de référence, pour tenir compte du diagramme de rayonnement de l'antenne de réception dans la gamme de fréquences de 1 GHz à 18 GHz, ainsi qu'une description plus détaillée de la validation des emplacements d'essai par la méthode du NSA avec des antennes à large bande dans la plage de fréquences de 30 MHz à 1 000 MHz.
Mots clés : perturbations rayonnées, 9 kHz à 18 GHz

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Jan-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
08-Jan-2019
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CISPR 16-1-4
Edition 4.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INT ERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
C OMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antennas and
test sites for radiated disturbance measurements
Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de
l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques – Antennes et emplacements
d'essai pour les mesures des perturbations rayonnées
CISPR 16-1-4:2019-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
CISPR 16-1-4
Edition 4.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INT ERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
C OMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antennas and
test sites for radiated disturbance measurements
Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de
l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques – Antennes et emplacements
d'essai pour les mesures des perturbations rayonnées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-6261-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – CISPR 16-1-4:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ....................................................................... 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 15

4 Antennas for measurement of radiated radio disturbance ............................................... 16

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

4.2 Physical parameter (measurand) for radiated disturbance measurements .............. 16

4.3 Antennas for the frequency range 9 kHz to 150 kHz ............................................... 17

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 17

4.3.2 Magnetic field antenna ................................................................................. 17

4.3.3 Shielding of loop antenna ............................................................................. 17

4.4 Antennas for the frequency range 150 kHz to 30 MHz ............................................ 17

4.4.1 Electric field antenna .................................................................................... 17

4.4.2 Magnetic field antenna ................................................................................. 18

4.4.3 Balance and electric field discrimination of antennas .................................... 18

4.5 Antennas for the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz ........................................ 18

4.5.1 General ........................................................................................................ 18

4.5.2 Low-uncertainty antenna for use if there is an alleged non-compliance

to the electric disturbance field strength limit .................................................. 18

4.5.3 Antenna characteristics ................................................................................ 18

4.5.4 Balance of antenna ...................................................................................... 20

4.5.5 Cross-polar response of antenna .................................................................. 22

4.6 Antennas for the frequency range 1 GHz to 18 GHz ............................................... 23

4.6.1 General ........................................................................................................ 23

4.6.2 Receive antenna .......................................................................................... 23

4.7 Special antenna arrangements – large-loop antenna system .................................. 25

5 Test sites for measurement of radio disturbance field strength for the frequency

range of 9 kHz to 30 MHz ............................................................................................... 25

6 Test sites for measurement of radio disturbance field strength for the frequency

range of 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz ....................................................................................... 26

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

6.2 OATS .................................................................................................................... 26

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................ 26

6.2.2 Weather-protection enclosure ....................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Obstruction-free area ................................................................................... 26

6.2.4 Radio-frequency ambient environment of a test site ...................................... 27

6.2.5 Ground plane ............................................................................................... 28

6.3 Suitability of other test sites ................................................................................... 28

6.3.1 Other ground-plane test sites ....................................................................... 28

6.3.2 Test sites without ground plane (FAR) .......................................................... 28

6.4 Test site validations .............................................................................................. 29

6.4.1 General ........................................................................................................ 29

6.4.2 Overview of test site validations ................................................................... 30

6.5 Basic parameters of the NSA method for OATS and SAC ...................................... 30

6.5.1 General equation and table of theoretical NSA values ................................... 30

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CISPR 16-1-4:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –

6.5.2 Antenna calibration ...................................................................................... 34

6.6 Reference site method for OATS and SAC ............................................................ 34

6.6.1 General ........................................................................................................ 34

6.6.2 Antennas not permitted for RSM measurements ........................................... 35

6.6.3 Determination of the antenna pair reference site attenuation on a

REFTS ........................................................................................................... 35

6.6.4 Determination of the antenna pair reference site attenuation using an

averaging technique on a large OATS ............................................................ 36

6.7 Validation of an OATS by the NSA method ............................................................ 39

6.7.1 Discrete frequency method ........................................................................... 39

6.7.2 Swept frequency method .............................................................................. 40

6.8 Validation of a weather-protection-enclosed OATS or a SAC .................................. 41

6.9 Possible causes for exceeding site acceptability limits ........................................... 43

6.10 Site validation for FARs ......................................................................................... 44

6.10.1 General ........................................................................................................ 44

6.10.2 RSM for FAR sites ....................................................................................... 48

6.10.3 NSA method for FAR sites ............................................................................ 50

6.10.4 Site validation criteria for FAR sites .............................................................. 52

6.11 Evaluation of set-up table and antenna tower ......................................................... 52

6.11.1 General ........................................................................................................ 52

6.11.2 Evaluation procedure for set-up table influences ........................................... 53

7 Test sites for measurement of radio disturbance field strength for the frequency

range 1 GHz to 18 GHz .................................................................................................. 54

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 54

7.2 Reference test site ................................................................................................ 55

7.3 Test site validation ................................................................................................ 55

7.3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 55

7.3.2 Acceptance criterion for site validation.......................................................... 56

7.4 Antenna requirements for S standard test procedure .................................... 56

VSWR

7.4.1 General ........................................................................................................ 56

7.4.2 Transmit antenna ......................................................................................... 57

7.4.3 Antennas and test equipment for the S reciprocal test procedure ........ 59

VSWR

7.5 Required positions for site validation testing .......................................................... 60

7.5.1 General ........................................................................................................ 60

7.5.2 Descriptions of S measurement positions in a horizontal plane
VSWR

(Figure 23) ..................................................................................................... 60

7.5.3 Descriptions of S additional measurement positions (Figure 24) .......... 61

VSWR

7.5.4 Summary of S measurement positions ................................................ 62

VSWR

7.6 S site validation – standard test procedure ................................................... 65

VSWR
7.7 S site validation – reciprocal test procedure using an isotropic field
VSWR

probe .................................................................................................................... 66

7.8 S conditional measurement position requirements ........................................ 67

VSWR

7.9 S site validation test report .......................................................................... 68

VSWR

7.10 Limitations of the S site validation method ................................................... 68

VSWR

7.11 Alternative test sites .............................................................................................. 69

8 Common mode absorption devices ................................................................................. 69

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 69

8.2 CMAD S-parameter measurements ........................................................................ 69

8.3 CMAD test jig ........................................................................................................ 69

8.4 Measurement method using the TRL calibration..................................................... 70

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – CISPR 16-1-4:2019  IEC 2019

8.5 Specification of ferrite clamp-type CMAD ............................................................... 72

8.6 CMAD performance (degradation) check using spectrum analyzer and

tracking generator ................................................................................................. 73

9 Reverberating chamber for total radiated power measurement ....................................... 75

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 75

9.2 Chamber ............................................................................................................... 75

9.2.1 Chamber size and shape .............................................................................. 75

9.2.2 Door, openings in walls, and mounting brackets ........................................... 75

9.2.3 Stirrers ......................................................................................................... 76

9.2.4 Test for the efficiency of the stirrers ............................................................. 76

9.2.5 Coupling attenuation .................................................................................... 77

10 TEM cells for immunity to radiated disturbance measurement ......................................... 78

Annex A (normative) Parameters of antennas ....................................................................... 79

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 79

A.2 Preferred antennas ............................................................................................... 79

A.2.1 General ........................................................................................................ 79

A.2.2 Calculable antenna....................................................................................... 79

A.2.3 Low-uncertainty antennas ............................................................................. 79

A.3 Simple dipole antennas ......................................................................................... 80

A.3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 80

A.3.2 Tuned dipole ................................................................................................ 81

A.3.3 Shortened dipole .......................................................................................... 81

A.4 Broadband antenna parameters ............................................................................. 82

A.4.1 General ........................................................................................................ 82

A.4.2 Antenna type ................................................................................................ 83

A.4.3 Specification of the antenna ......................................................................... 83

A.4.4 Antenna calibration ...................................................................................... 84

A.4.5 Antenna user information ............................................................................. 84

Annex B (XXX) (Void) ........................................................................................................... 85

Annex C (normative) Large-loop antenna system for magnetic field induced-current

measurements in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 30 MHz ..................................................... 86

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 86

C.2 Construction of an LLAS ........................................................................................ 86

C.3 Construction of a large-loop antenna (LLA) ............................................................ 86

C.4 Validation of an LLA .............................................................................................. 91

C.5 Construction of the LLAS verification dipole antenna .............................................. 92

C.6 Conversion factors ................................................................................................ 93

Annex D (normative) Construction details for open area test sites in the frequency

range of 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz (see Clause 6) ....................................................................... 96

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 96

D.2 Ground plane construction ..................................................................................... 96

D.2.1 Material ........................................................................................................ 96

D.2.2 Roughness ................................................................................................... 96

D.3 Services to EUT .................................................................................................... 97

D.4 Weather-protection enclosure construction ............................................................ 97

D.4.1 Materials and fasteners ................................................................................ 97

D.4.2 Internal arrangements .................................................................................. 98

D.4.3 Size ............................................................................................................. 98

D.4.4 Uniformity with time and weather .................................................................. 98

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
CISPR 16-1-4:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –

D.5 Turntable and set-up table ..................................................................................... 98

D.6 Receive antenna mast installation ......................................................................... 99

Annex E (xxx) (Void) .......................................................................................................... 100

Annex F (informative) Basis for ± 4 dB site acceptability criterion (see Clause 6) ................ 101

F.1 General ............................................................................................................... 101

F.2 Error analysis ...................................................................................................... 101

Annex G (informative) Examples of uncertainty budgets for site validation of a COMTS

using RSM with a calibrated antenna pair (see 6.6) .............................................................. 103

G.1 Quantities to be considered for antenna pair reference site attenuation

calibration using the averaging technique ............................................................ 103

G.2 Quantities to be considered for antenna pair reference site attenuation

calibration using a REFTS ................................................................................... 104

G.3 Quantities to be considered for COMTS validation using an antenna pair

reference site attenuation .................................................................................... 105

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 106

Figure 1 – Schematic of radiation from EUT reaching an LPDA antenna directly and via

ground reflections at a 3 m site, showing the beamwidth half-angle, ϕ, at the reflected ray ..... 19

Figure 2 – RX antenna E-plane radiation pattern example, with limit area shaded for 3 m

distance and 2 m EUT width .................................................................................................. 24

Figure 3 – Determination of maximum useable EUT width using half-power beamwidth .......... 24

Figure 4 – Determination of maximum useable EUT height using half-power beamwidth ........ 25

Figure 5 – Obstruction-free area of a test site with a turntable (see 6.2.3) .............................. 27

Figure 6 – Obstruction-free area with stationary EUT (see 6.2.3) ........................................... 27

Figure 7 – Test point locations for 3 m and 10 m test distances ............................................. 36

Figure 8 – Paired test point locations for all test distances ..................................................... 38

Figure 9 – Example of paired test point selection for a test distance of 10 m .......................... 38

Figure 10 – Illustration of an investigation of influence of antenna mast on A ................... 39

APR
Figure 11 – Typical antenna positions for a weather-protected OATS or a SAC –

vertical polarization validation measurements ........................................................................ 42

Figure 12 – Typical antenna positions for a weather-protected OATS or a SAC –

horizontal polarization validation measurements .................................................................... 42

Figure 13 – Typical antenna positions for a weather-protected OATS or a SAC –

vertical polarization validation measurements for a smaller EUT ............................................ 43

Figure 14 – Typical antenna positions for a weather-protected OATS or a SAC –

horizontal polarization validation measurements for a smaller EUT ........................................ 43

Figure 15 – Measurement positions for FAR site validation .................................................... 46

Figure 16 – Example of one measurement position and antenna tilt for FAR site

validation .............................................................................................................................. 48

Figure 17 – Typical quasi free-space test site reference SA measurement set-up................... 50

Figure 18 – Theoretical free-space NSA as a function of frequency for different

measurement distances [see Equation (16)] .......................................................................... 52

Figure 19 – Position of the antenna relative to the edge above a rectangle set-up table

(top view) .............................................................................................................................. 54

Figure 20 – Antenna position above the set-up table (side view) ........................................... 54

Figure 21 – Transmit antenna E-plane radiation pattern example (this example is for

informative purposes only) .................................................................................................... 58

Figure 22 – Transmit antenna H-plane radiation pattern (this example is for informative

purposes only) ...................................................................................................................... 59

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – CISPR 16-1-4:2019  IEC 2019
Figure 23 – S measurement positions in a horizontal plane (see 7.5.2 for
VSWR

description) ........................................................................................................................... 60

Figure 24 – S positions (height requirements) .............................................................. 62

VSWR

Figure 25 – S conditional measurement position requirements ..................................... 68

VSWR

Figure 26 – Definition of the reference planes inside the test jig ............................................. 70

Figure 27 – The four configurations for the TRL calibration .................................................... 72

Figure 28 – Limits for the
...

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