Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services — Crisis management of water utilities

ISO 24518:2015 provides general guidance to water utilities to develop and implement a crisis management system. ISO 24518:2015 may be applicable to all sizes of public or private water utilities that want to prepare, respond, and recover from a crisis.

Activités relatives aux services de l'eau potable et de l'assainissement — Gestion de crise des services publics de l'eau

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Aug-2015
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
29-Jun-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24518
First edition
2015-08-01
Activities relating to drinking water
and wastewater services — Crisis
management of water utilities
Activités relatives aux services de l’eau potable et de
l’assainissement — Gestion de crise des services publics de l’eau
Reference number
ISO 24518:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24518:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to “plan” .................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Terms relating to “do” ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms relating to “check” ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Terms relating to “act” ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Context of the organization ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Understanding the organization and its context ....................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties .............................................................. 5

4.3 Determining the scope of the crisis management system ................................................................................. 5

4.4 Crisis management system ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.2 Phases and activities over the course of a crisis ................................................................................... 5

5 Leadership .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Leadership and commitment ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Structural organization for responding to crisis situations ............................................................................. 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Tasks and structure of the crisis management team ........................................................................ 8

5.4 Organization roles, responsibilities and authorities .............................................................................................. 8

6 Planning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Elements of the crisis management plan — Pre-Crisis phase .....................................................................10

6.3 Crisis objectives and planning to achieve them .......................................................................................................10

7 Support ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 Resources ..................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Competence ............................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Awareness ................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.2 Crisis management system communications — Internal ..........................................................12

7.4.3 Crisis management system communications — External .........................................................12

7.5 Documented information ............................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.2 Creating and updating ..............................................................................................................................................13

7.5.3 Control of documented information ............................................................................................................14

8 Operation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Operational planning and control .......................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Response ...................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.2 Activating the crisis management team ....................................................................................................15

8.2.3 Work flow of the crisis management team .............................................................................................16

8.2.4 Communications and cooperation ................................................................................................................17

8.3 Recovery to normal operation ................................................................................................................................................17

9 Performance evaluation ............................................................................................................................................................................18

9.1 Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation ............................................................................................18

9.1.1 Monitoring and review of the implementation of the crisis

management system ..................................................................................................................................................18

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ISO 24518:2015(E)

9.2 Internal audit .........................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.3 Management review ........................................................................................................................................................................20

10 Improvement .........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.1 Nonconformity and corrective action ..............................................................................................................................20

10.2 Continual improvement ...............................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 224, Service activities relating to drinking water

supply systems and wastewater systems — Quality criteria of the service and performance indicators.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
Introduction

Water is the source of life, without which humans, as well as other species, cannot survive. In many

countries, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the crisis management of drinking water and

wastewater services.

Impairment of the drinking water service would change the quality of life of the affected population in

the immediate period while in the medium-term period it could affect their ability to survive; therefore,

the continuous and orderly supply of drinking water is of paramount importance for the population. On

the other hand, the collection and safe disposal of sanitary wastewater and drainage storm-water is also

important if epidemics and general poisoning by contamination as well as urban inundation are to be

prevented and in order to protect the environment.

This guideline describes the fundamentals of a crisis management system, including relevant

recommendations for water utilities.

This guideline deals with situations where the normal supply of potable water or collection and

treatment of wastewater are interrupted because of a crisis situation. It enumerates steps that should

be taken in preparing the organization for a crisis situation (pre-crisis phase). It then provides general

International Standards as to how a crisis should be dealt with (the crisis phase). Guidelines on re-

establishing services (post-crisis phase) and on drawing conclusions and revising procedures for future

events follow.

This guideline follows the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) approach to crisis management. This is a

continuous process of ascertaining whether any organization has at its disposal the means for responding

successfully to any crisis.

The approach of an organization when preparing for any crisis should encompass all pertinent aspects

of water supply and the collection and treatment of wastewater. The organization needs to cooperate

with all relevant authorities concerned with the crisis. Efficient crisis management should ensure that

the actions taken before, during, and after the crisis should consider the natural environment as well as

the impact on the health and wellbeing of the population. Effective communications with the public are

necessary to mitigate or prevent panic and to establish trust in the organization by disclosing important

information appropriately in the area affected by a crisis or in neighbouring areas.

This International Standard is complemented with an International Standard named “Activities relating

to drinking water and wastewater services — Crisis management of water utilities — Good practice for

technical aspects” to be published.

The objective of this International Standard is not to lay down systems or specifications supporting

direct certification of conformity, but to provide International Standards for crisis management in water

utilities. The use of this International Standard is voluntary in accordance with rules.

vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24518:2015(E)
Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater
services — Crisis management of water utilities
1 Scope

This International Standard provides general guidance to water utilities to develop and implement a

crisis management system.

This International Standard may be applicable to all sizes of public or private water utilities that want

to prepare, respond, and recover from a crisis.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24510, Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services — Guidelines for the assessment

and for the improvement of the service to users

ISO 24511, Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services — Guidelines for the management

of wastewater utilities and for the assessment of wastewater services

ISO 24512, Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services — Guidelines for the management

of drinking water utilities and for the assessment of drinking water services
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24510, ISO 24511, ISO 24512

and the following apply.

NOTE Where there are conflicting terms and definitions, the terms and definitions given in this International

Standard should be used.
3.1 Terms relating to “plan”
3.1.1
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives (3.1.6)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of this International Standard the organization will usually be a water utility.

3.1.2
interested party
stakeholder

person or organization (3.1.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a

decision or activity
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
3.1.3
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and interested

parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.
3.1.4
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.1) at the highest level

Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the

organization.

Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.2.1) covers only part of an organization then top

management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.

Note 3 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.

3.1.5
policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.1) as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.4)

3.1.6
objective
result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental

goals) and can apply at different levels [such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product and process (3.2.4)].

Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational

criterion, as a crisis (3.1.8) objective or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target).

Note 4 to entry: In the context of crisis management systems crisis (3.1.8) objectives are set by the organization,

consistent with the crisis management policy, to achieve specific results.
3.1.7
risk
effect of uncertainty

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected — positive or negative.

Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to understanding or

knowledge of an event, its consequence, or likelihood.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (ISO Guide 73, 3.5.1.3) and

consequences (ISO Guide 73, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these.

Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including

changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (ISO Guide 73, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence.

3.1.8
crisis

event or situation which affects or is likely to affect the organization or its provided services which

requires more than the usual means of operation and/or organizational structures to deal with it

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ISO 24518:2015(E)
3.2 Terms relating to “do”
3.2.1
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.1) to establish policies (3.1.5) and

objectives (3.1.6) and processes (3.2.4) to achieve those objectives

Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines.

Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning,

operation, etc.

Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system may include the whole of the organization, specific and

identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more

functions across a group of organizations.
3.2.2
competence
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
3.2.3
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.1) and the medium on

which it is contained

Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media and from any source.

Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to
— the management system (3.2.1), including related processes (3.2.4);
— information created in order for the organization to operate (documentation);
— evidence of results achieved (records).
3.2.4
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

3.2.5
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.2.4), products (including

services), systems or organizations (3.1.1).
3.2.6
outsource
verb

make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1.1) performs part of an organization’s function

or process (3.2.4)

Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.2.1), although the

outsourced function or process is within the scope.
3.2.7
alternative water supplies
AWS

water provided to customers by means other than through the normal treatment and distribution system

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ISO 24518:2015(E)
3.2.8
alternative wastewater services
AWWS

wastewater services provided to customers by means other than through the normal collection and

treatment system
3.2.9
crisis management plan

document specifying which procedures and associated resources should be applied by whom and where

to a particular type of crisis
3.2.10
recovery

the provision of policies, procedures and processes that are necessary to restore operations critical to

the resumption of service

Note 1 to entry: Recovery represents the last stage to be carried out during the crisis phase and the post-crisis

phase prior the routine operations.
3.3 Terms relating to “check”
3.3.1
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
3.3.2
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process (3.2.4) or an activity

Note 1 to entry: To determine the status there may be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

3.3.3
measurement
process (3.2.4) to determine a value
3.3.4
audit

systematic, independent and documented process (3.2.4) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it

objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled

Note 1 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an external audit (second party or third party),

and it can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).
Note 2 to entry: “Audit evidence” and “audit criteria” are defined in ISO 19011.
3.3.5
conformity
fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.3)
3.3.6
nonconformity
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.3)
3.4 Terms relating to “act”
3.4.1
correction
action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (3.3.6)
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
3.4.2
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.3.6) and to prevent recurrence

3.4.3
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.2.5)
4 Context of the organization
4.1 Understanding the organization and its context

The organization should determine external and internal issues that are relevant to its purpose and that

affect its ability to achieve the intended outcome(s) of its crisis management system.

4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
The organization should determine the following:
— the interested parties that are relevant to the crisis management system;
— the requirements of these interested parties.
4.3 Determining the scope of the crisis management system

The organization should determine the boundaries and applicability of the crisis management system

to establish its scope.
When determining this scope, the organization should consider the following:
— the external and internal issues referred to in 4.1;
— the requirements referred to in 4.2.
The scope should be available as documented information.
4.4 Crisis management system

The organization should establish, implement, maintain and continually improve a crisis management

system, including the processes needed and their interactions, in accordance with the guidance of this

International Standard.
4.4.1 General

The crisis management preparedness approach and the ongoing process of continual improvement

is consistent with the principle of the (PDCA) approach defined in the process approach of

ISO 24510/ISO 24511/ISO 24512.
4.4.2 Phases and activities over the course of a crisis

Crisis management should start before the onset of a crisis and requires comprehensive preparation during

routine operations. Crisis management is a process that can be subdivided into the following phases:

— pre-crisis;
— crisis;
— post-crisis.
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ISO 24518:2015(E)
Key
intensity of activity
a ascertaining the failure
b declaring state of crisis
c declaring the end of a crisis
d changeover to routine operation

Figure 1 — Example of relationships of pre-crisis activities and the following response,

recovery and restoration

NOTE Figure 1 illustrates that recovery activities will commence during the crisis phase as the opportunity

occurs to begin restoring service to parts of the system.
5 Leadership
5.1 Leadership and commitment

Top management should demonstrate leadership and commitment with respect to the crisis

management system by

— ensuring that the crisis management policy and crisis objectives are established and are compatible

with the strategic direction of the organization,
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ISO 24518:2015(E)

— ensuring the integration of the crisis management system requirements into the organization’s

business processes,

— ensuring that the resources needed for the crisis management system are available,

— communicating the importance of effective crisis management and of conforming to the crisis

management system requirements,
— ensuring that the crisis management system achieves its intended outcome(s),

— directing and supporting persons to contribute to the effectiveness of the crisis management system,

— promoting continual improvement, and

— supporting other relevant management roles to demonstrate their leadership as it applies to their

areas of responsibility.

NOTE Reference to “business” in this International Standard should be interpreted broadly to mean those

activities that are core to the purposes of the organization’s existence.
5.2 Policy
Top management should establish a crisis management policy that
— is appropriate to the purpose of the organization,
— provides a framework for setting crisis objectives,
— includ
...

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