Road vehicles -- Cleanliness of components and systems

This document specifies requirements for applying and documenting methods for determining particulate contamination on functionally-relevant components and systems (cleanliness inspection) of road vehicles. A cleanliness inspection comprises the basis of an assessment of technical cleanliness, which is performed, for example, under the following circumstances: — initial inspection and evaluation; — inspection of incoming and outgoing components; and — quality control or monitoring of manufacturing processes relevant to cleanliness (e.g. cleaning, surface treatment and assembly processes). This document is intended to improve the informative quality and comparability of test results. It also defines the standardized expression of cleanliness specifications and cleanliness test results in the quality chain of the automotive industry. This document does not apply to the following: — detection of filmy contamination (grease, oils, etc.); — application of non-quantifiable particulate detection methods on test components (e.g. visual assessment, wipe test with clean cloth, etc.); and — characterization of operating fluids (fuel, oils, coolants, brake fluid, etc.). This document does not define any cleanliness limit values for specific components or systems. The degree of cleanliness required for a specific component or system is dependent on a number of highly-individual factors. Cleanliness specifications are intended to be undertaken only by specialists who not only know the component concerned but also the system it is built into, the later conditions of use, technically-feasible practices and possible consequences for manufacturing processes and the supply chain. Guidance for deriving limit values can be found in Annex H.

Véhicules routiers -- Propreté des composants et des systèmes

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Oct-2018
Completion Date
12-Dec-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16232
First edition
2018-12
Road vehicles — Cleanliness of
components and systems
Véhicules routiers — Propreté des composants et des systèmes
Reference number
ISO 16232:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO 16232:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16232:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................11

5 Cleanliness inspection principles ....................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Selecting the inspection method ..........................................................................................................................................14

5.3 Start parameters .................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.4 Cleaning mechanism parameters .........................................................................................................................................16

5.5 Staff skills ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Qualification tests and blank level ..................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Qualification tests ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.2 Materials and equipment.......................................................................................................................................18

6.2.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Blank level ................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.3.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................21

6.3.2 Deriving blank levels .................................................................................................................................................22

6.3.3 Materials and equipment.......................................................................................................................................23

6.3.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.4 Exceptional cases ...............................................................................................................................................................................24

7 Extraction methods.........................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2 General requirements of extraction equipment ......................................................................................................25

7.3 Preparatory steps and post-treatment of test components ..........................................................................25

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.3.2 Unpacking ...........................................................................................................................................................................25

7.3.3 Clarifying which surfaces require inspection ......................................................................................25

7.3.4 Preparatory steps .........................................................................................................................................................26

7.3.5 Disassembly ......................................................................................................................................................................26

7.3.6 Demagnetization ...........................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.7 Post-treatment ................................................................................................................................................................27

7.4 Liquid extraction ................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.4.2 Test liquid .................. .................................................... ......................................................................................................27

7.4.3 Pressure-rinsing ............................................................................................................................................................28

7.4.4 Ultrasonic vibration ...................................................................................................................................................30

7.4.5 Internal rinsing ..............................................................................................................................................................34

7.4.6 Agitation ...............................................................................................................................................................................36

7.4.7 Dissolving ............................................................................................................................................................................38

7.5 Air extraction .........................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.2 Air jet extraction ...........................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.3 Air through-flow extraction ................................................................................................................................42

8 Analysis filtration .............................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.2 Selecting the analysis filtration method .........................................................................................................................44

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

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ISO 16232:2018(E)

8.2.2 Chemical resistance ....................................................................................................................................................44

8.2.3 Particle retention capacity ...................................................................................................................................45

8.2.4 Further properties of analysis filters ..........................................................................................................46

8.3 Handling analysis filters ......... ......................................................................................................................................................46

8.4 Materials and equipment ............................................................................................................................................................46

8.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................47

8.6 Verifying particle occupancy on the analysis filter ...............................................................................................48

9 Analysis methods ..............................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.2 Standard analysis ...............................................................................................................................................................................49

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.2.2 Gravimetry .........................................................................................................................................................................49

9.2.3 Light-optical analysis ................................................................................................................................................53

9.3 Extended analysis ..............................................................................................................................................................................68

9.3.1 Further light-optical analyses ............................................................................................................................69

9.3.2 SEM/EDX .............................................................................................................................................................................73

9.3.3 LIBS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................75

9.3.4 Raman spectroscopy ........................................................................................................................................... .......77

9.3.5 IR (infrared spectroscopy) ...................................................................................................................................79

9.3.6 X-ray microtomography ..........................................................................................................................................81

9.4 Shortened analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................83

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................83

9.4.2 Liquid particle counter ............................................................................................................................................83

9.4.3 Filter-blocking (optical)..........................................................................................................................................85

10 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................87

10.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................87

10.2 General information ........................................................................................................................................................................88

10.3 Information about the test component ...........................................................................................................................89

10.4 Information about preparatory steps ..............................................................................................................................89

10.5 Information about the extraction ........................................................................................................................................89

10.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................89

10.5.2 Pressure-rinsing ............................................................................................................................................................90

10.5.3 Ultrasonic vibration ...................................................................................................................................................91

10.5.4 Internal rinsing ..............................................................................................................................................................91

10.5.5 Agitation ...............................................................................................................................................................................92

10.5.6 Air jet extraction ...........................................................................................................................................................92

10.5.7 Air through-flow extraction ................................................................................................................................93

10.6 Information about filtration .....................................................................................................................................................93

10.7 Information about the analysis ..............................................................................................................................................94

10.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................94

10.7.2 Standard analysis .........................................................................................................................................................94

10.7.3 Extended analysis (informative) .....................................................................................................................95

10.7.4 Shortened analysis (informative) ...................................................................................................................95

10.8 Reporting of the inspection results ....................................................................................................................................95

10.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................95

10.8.2 Gravimetric analysis ..................................................................................................................................................95

10.8.3 Light-optical analysis ................................................................................................................................................96

10.8.4 Extended analysis ........................................................................................................................................................98

10.8.5 Shortened analysis ......................................................................................................................................................99

10.8.6 Optional coding (informative)...........................................................................................................................99

10.9 Description of content of the various documents ...............................................................................................102

10.9.1 Inspection specification .......................................................................................................................................102

10.9.2 Qualification report .................................................................................................................................................102

10.9.3 Inspection report .......................................................................................................................................................103

11 Handling components cleanly .........................................................................................................................................................103

11.1 Principles ...............................................................................................................................................................................................103

11.2 Selected measures and recommendations ...............................................................................................................104

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ISO 16232:2018(E)

11.2.1 Staff ........................................................................................................................................................................................104

11.2.2 Packaging..........................................................................................................................................................................104

11.2.3 Storage and transport ............................................................................................................................................104

11.2.4 Facilities for inspecting cleanliness ...........................................................................................................105

11.3 Exclusion from an inspection — invalid inspection ......... .................................................................................105

11.3.1 Deviations from required state on delivery ........................................................................................105

11.3.2 Deviations and errors in the inspection procedure .....................................................................105

12 Designation .........................................................................................................................................................................................................106

Annex A (informative) Selecting contamination extraction and analysis procedures ..............................107

Annex B (normative) Qualification tests and blank level ........................................................................................................117

Annex C (informative) Recovering test particles ..............................................................................................................................121

Annex D (normative) Extraction ........................................................................................................................................................................123

Annex E (informative) Filtration ........................................................................................................................................................................137

Annex F (normative) Analysis methods .....................................................................................................................................................143

Annex G (informative) Documentation .......................................................................................................................................................154

Annex H (informative) Cleanliness specification..............................................................................................................................158

Annex I (informative) Technical cleanliness — Interpretation and reaction .....................................................168

Annex J (informative) Staff training................................................................................................................................................................170

Annex K (informative) Work safety and protection of the environment .................................................................171

Annex L (informative) Summary on updates included in this document ................................................................176

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................178

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16232:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain, and powertrain fluids.

This edition of ISO 16232 cancels and replaces the entire ISO 16232:2007 series (all parts) which have

been technically revised and consolidated into a single document.
The main changes are described in Annex L.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16232:2018(E)
Introduction

In order to achieve reliable performance of components and systems, control over the amount of

particles introduced during the build phase is necessary, and measurement of particulate contaminants

is the basis of control.

Based on a world-wide broadening and ongoing development of technical cleanliness issues this

document is intended to:
— further improve the comparability of cleanliness inspection results;
— include new (extraction and analysis) techniques; and

— provide information on how to define cleanliness specifications and explain how to react when

cleanliness limit values are exceeded.

This document has been prepared to fulfil the requirements of the automotive industry, since the

function and performance of modern automotive components and systems are sensitive to the presence

of a single or a few critically sized particles. Consequently, this document deals with the analysis of the

total volume of extraction liquid and of all contaminants collected using an approved extraction method.

To be able to compare inspection results the same extraction procedure, the same test fluid and also

same parameter settings for the analysis instruments are intended to be used.

This document is based on existing International Standards such as those developed by ISO/TC 131/

SC 6. They have been extended, modified and new ones have been developed to produce a comprehensive

suite of International Standards to measure and report the cleanliness levels of components and

systems fitted to road vehicles.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16232:2018(E)
Road vehicles — Cleanliness of components and systems
1 Scope

WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and

equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated

with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety

and health practices and to determine the applicability of any other restrictions prior to its use.

This document specifies requirements for applying and doc
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