Protocole d'évaluation de la performance des systèmes d'habillage virtuel

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Publication Date
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FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 20947-2
ISO/TC 133
Performance evaluation protocol for
Secretariat: SABS
digital fitting systems —
Voting begins on:
2020-09-14
Part 2:
Voting terminates on:
Virtual garment
2020-11-09
Protocole d'évaluation de la performance des systèmes d'habillage
virtuel —
Partie 2: Vêtement virtuel
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Lines on virtual pattern and their lengths ...................................................................................................................... 2

4 Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.2 Data import .............................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.3 Digital fitting ..........................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.4 Function to measure lengths of lines ................................................................................................................................19

5 Qualitative evaluation of performance ......................................................................................................................................20

6 Quantitative evaluation of performance ..................................................................................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Import of virtual fit mannequin (fit form) ...................................................................................................................21

6.3 Import of virtual garment pattern and line measurement ............................................................................21

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.3.2 Upper ......................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.4 Import sewing information .......................................................................................................................................................23

6.5 Three-dimensional arrangement of virtual patterns ..........................................................................................23

6.6 Virtual sewing .......................................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7 Measurement of lengths of virtual garment ...............................................................................................................27

6.8 Calculation of difference ..............................................................................................................................................................27

7 Report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

8 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) Format for report: Qualitative evaluation of a digital fitting system .....................28

Annex B (normative) Example of report: Qualitative evaluation of a digital fitting system ....................29

Annex C (informative) Format for report (Upper): Quantitative evaluation of a digital fitting

system ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 133, Clothing sizing systems - size

designation, size measurement methods and digital fittings.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20947 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
Introduction

The use of the digital fitting system, employed to evaluate the suitability of real garments on real

human body with the use of virtual garments on a virtual human body in cyberspace, is growing in

popularity. The system eliminates the need for physical garment production with fabric in product

evaluation. Using computer-generated virtual garment pattern, virtual garment is created and tested

on either a virtual human body or a virtual fit mannequin (fit form). The technology is expected to

improve garment fit and increase productivity. It benefits not only those engaged in garment design

but also consumers at the time of garment purchase, with better fit and wider choice of sizes in mass-

produced products. Such system is useful for designers, manufacturers, educationalists because the

system helps to improve the fit of garments and productivity.

Digital fitting technology is still developing, and there is a wide range of differences in the specification

and performance between digital fitting systems. This makes it difficult for users to select an

appropriate system for their purposes.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
Performance evaluation protocol for digital fitting
systems —
Part 2:
Virtual garment
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for describing the functions and the method for evaluating the

performance of the virtual garment pattern cutting and clothing simulation modules of digital fitting

systems. This document is applicable to fashion designers and pattern technologists (makers) for

generating virtual garment patterns, and testing them on a virtual fit mannequin (fit form).

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General
3.1.1
digital fitting system

simulation of a virtual garment pattern or virtual garment over a virtual fit mannequin (fit form) (3.1.2)

providing qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the fit through analysis of the distribution of,

among other things, surface strain, gap between body and garment, tension map, cross section, surface

wrinkles, garment balance
3.1.2
virtual fit mannequin (fit form)

model used for draping and examining silhouette and fit of a garment in a virtual space used for

digital fitting
3.1.3
virtual garment
three-dimensional clothing in digital form that exists in virtual space
3.1.4
virtual garment pattern

shapes consisting of straight lines and closed curves that mark the area of a digitized pattern used on

the virtual garment (3.1.3)

Note 1 to entry: Each pattern consists of a contoured and multiple internal lines, which are used to express

seams, internal openings, fold lines, and other garment characteristics.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
3.1.5
clothing simulation

creation and drape simulation of a virtual garment on the virtual human body using a virtual garment

pattern (3.1.4), virtual sewing and bounding volume
3.1.6
material properties

physical properties of material, including tensile modulus, bending rigidity, shear resistance,

thickness, weight

Note 1 to entry: These can be simulated for virtual fabrics using cloth simulation models.

Note 2 to entry: See Annex C.
3.1.7
sewing information

information necessary to construct a virtual garment from virtual garment patterns, including seam

lines, specific points on a virtual garment pattern such as positions of snaps, hooks, and buttons, notch

marks, grain line, and layer information
3.2 Lines on virtual pattern and their lengths
3.2.1 Upper pattern
3.2.1.1
hem line
line at the hem of front bodice or back bodice

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. Length of the front hem line, length of back hem line, and total length are measured.

a) Front hem line of front bodice
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Back hem line of back bodice
Figure 1 — Hem line
3.2.1.2
armhole line
line at the left and right armhole of front bodice or back bodice

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2. Length of armhole lines, and total length of armhole lines of front bodice and back

bodice are measured.
a) Left armhole line of front bodice or back bodice
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Right armhole line of front bodice or back bodice
Figure 2 — Armhole line
3.2.1.3
sleeve width line

straight line connecting the two ends of a line sewing front bodice and back bodice (left or right)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3. Length of right or left sleeve width line is measured.

a) Left sleeve
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Right sleeve
Figure 3 — Sleeve width line
3.2.1.4
sleeve length line

straight line passing the top of the line sewing front bodice and back bodice and perpendicular to sleeve

width line (bicep line) (left or right)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4. Length is measured from the top of the sleeve crown seam line to sleeve hem line of

the right or left sleeve.
a) Left sleeve
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Right sleeve
Figure 4 — Sleeve length line
3.2.1.5
underarm seam line

lines connecting the edge of line sewing front bodice and back bodice and edge of sleeve hem line along

which a sleeve is stitched to make a tube (left or right)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5. Length is measured from the edge of line sewing front bodice and back bodice to

the edge of sleeve hem line of the right or left sleeve. Either line of the left or right sleeve is measured because

they are the same length.
a) Left underarm
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Right underarm
Figure 5 — Underarm seam line
3.2.1.6
sleeve hem line
line at the lower edge of the sleeve pattern indicating the hem (left or right)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 6. Length is measured for the right or left sleeve hem line.

a) Left sleeve
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Right sleeve
Figure 6 — Sleeve hem line
3.2.2 Upper pattern and one-piece dress
3.2.2.1
bust line
straight line passing the level of the breast point of the pattern and

— perpendicular to the front centre line of the front bodice from the left side line to the right side line

(front bust line), or

— perpendicular to the back centre line of the back bodice from the left side line to the right side line

(back bust line)

Note 1 to entry: Upper pattern, see Figure 7, one-piece dress, see Figure 8. Length of the front bust line, length of

back bust line, and total length are measured.
a) Front bust line of front bodice
8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Back bust line of back bodice
Figure 7 — Bust line (upper pattern)
a) Front bust line of front bodice
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20947-2:2020(E)
b) Back bust line of back bodice
Figure 8 — Bust line (one-piece dress)
3.2.2.2
shoulder line
straight line at the shoulder of front bodice or back bodice
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 20947-2
ISO/TC 133 Secretariat: SABS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-05-28 2019-08-20
Performance evaluation protocol for digital fitting
systems —
Part 2:
Virtual garment
Protocole d'évaluation de la performance des systèmes d'habillage virtuel —
Partie 2: Vêtement virtuel
ICS: 61.020
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.2 Data import .............................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.3 Digital fitting ..........................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.4 Function to measure lengths of lines ................................................................................................................................17

5 Qualitative evaluation of performance ......................................................................................................................................17

6 Quantitative evaluation of performance ..................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Import of virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model ..................................................................................................17

6.3 Import virtual garment pattern and measure the lines ....................................................................................18

6.3.1 Upper ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Import sewing information .......................................................................................................................................................19

6.5 Three-dimensional arrangement of virtual patterns ..........................................................................................20

6.6 Virtual sewing .......................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Measurement of lengths of virtual garment ...............................................................................................................22

6.8 Calculation of difference ..............................................................................................................................................................22

7 Report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

Annex A (informative) Example of measurements in a 3D CAD system ........................................................................24

Annex B (normative) Format for report: Qualitative evaluation of a digital fitting system .....................25

Annex C (informative) Example of report: Qualitative evaluation of a digital fitting system .................26

Annex D (normative) Format for report (Upper): Quantitative evaluation of a digital fitting

system ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex E (informative) Example of report (Upper): Quantitative evaluation of a digital

fitting system .........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex F (normative) Format for report (Lower): Quantitative evaluation of a digital fitting

system ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex G (normative) Format for report (One-piece dress): Quantitative evaluation of a

digital fitting system ......................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 133, Clothing sizing systems - size

designation, size measurement methods and digital fittings.

ISO 20947 consists of three parts, under the general title Performance evaluation protocol for digital

fitting systems.
— Part 1– Accuracy of virtual human body representation
— Part 2 –Virtual garment
— Part 3 –Digital fitting performance

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Introduction

Digital fitting systems are used more frequently for evaluating the fit of garment without making

actual physical patterns or physical garments. In a digital fitting system, a virtual garment is made

using virtual patterns, and the fit of physical garment on a physical human body is assessed by draping

a virtual garment on a virtual body or a virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model. Such system is useful for

designers, manufacturers, educationalists because the system helps to improve the fit of garments and

productivity.

The use of the digital fitting system, employed to evaluate the suitability of real garments on real human

body with the use of virtual garments on a virtual human body in cyberspace, is growing in popularity.

The system eliminates the need for physical garment production with fabric in product evaluation.

Using computer-generated virtual garment pattern, virtual garment is created and tested on either a

virtual human body or a virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model. The technology is expected to improve

garment fit and increasing productivity. It benefits not only those engaged in garment design but also

consumers at the time of garment purchase, with better fit and wider choice of sizes in mass-produced

products.

Digital fitting technology is still developing, and there is a wide range of differences in the specification

and performance between digital fitting systems. This makes it difficult for users (designers,

manufacturers, educationalists and retailers of garments) to select an appropriate system for their

purposes.

Notwithstanding, the digital fitting system is still developing, with wide differences among systems

regarding functions and performance description. This makes the choice of the right system extremely

difficult for the system user (garment design and retail).

This international standards addresses the second standard of the series. It explains a protocol

for describing the performance and specification of virtual garment pattern cutting and clothing

simulation. This international standard is intended to be used by fashion designers and pattern

technologists (makers) for generating virtual garment patterns, and testing them on a virtual fit

mannequin (fit form) model or a virtual human body. Additionally, data for the virtual fit mannequin

(fit form) model and virtual garment pattern will be developed as reference, to enable the system user

to reproduce the purported system performance values.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Performance evaluation protocol for digital fitting
systems —
Part 2:
Virtual garment
1 Scope

This standard specifies the method for describing the functions and the method for evaluating

the performance of the virtual garment pattern cutting and clothing simulation modules of digital

fitting systems. This international standard is intended to be used by fashion designers and pattern

technologists (makers) for generating virtual garment patterns, and testing them on a virtual fit

mannequin (fit form) model.

This standard specifies a method for describing the functions and a method for evaluating the

performance of the virtual garment pattern cutting and clothing simulation modules of digital

fitting systems. The performance is evaluated by comparison between the length of 2D pattern and

corresponding length of 3D garment in digital (virtual) space. The standard also requires reporting

format of the functions and the performance. This international standard is intended to be used by

fashion designers and pattern technologists (makers) for generating virtual garment patterns, and

testing them on a virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model or a virtual human body.

A typical design process of virtual pattern cutting and virtual try-on starts from 2D virtual garment

pattern cutting. Then virtual garment patterns are put on a virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model or

a virtual human body in the virtual 3D space. Whereas, some systems enable another design process,

such as direct 3D pattern cutting on a virtual human body with clothing simulation. This international

standard is not limited to the system based on the typical design process. The performance evaluation

method is independent from the design process. The method is developed to assess the performance of

the clothing simulation module.

Intended users of this standard are users those who plan to introduce/renew digital fitting systems.

The user sends material information of specific fabric to multiple developers of digital fitting systems.

Developers assess their systems based on this standard using the specified information, and return the

result report to the user according to this standard.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18163, Clothing — Digital fittings — Vocabulary and terminology used for the virtual garment

ISO 18825-1, Clothing — Digital fittings — Part 1: Vocabulary and terminology used for the virtual

human body

ISO/CD 20947-1, Performance evaluation protocol for digital fitting systems — Part 1: Accuracy of virtual

human body representation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
3.1
Digital fitting system

Digital fitting system provides qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of overall and/or specific

simulation garment fit through analysis of the distribution of surface strain, gap between body and

garment, heat map, cross section, surface wrinkles, garment balance, etc.
3.2
Virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model

Virtual model of a fit mannequin (fit form) in a virtual space used for digital fitting. Fit mannequin (fit

form) model is used for draping and examining silhouette and fit of a garment.

Note 1 to entry: see ISO/WD 20947-1 Performance evaluation protocol for digital fitting systems - Part1 Accuracy

of virtual human body representation
3.3
Virtual garment pattern

Shapes consisting of straight lines and closed curves that mark the area of a digitized pattern to be

used on the virtual garment. Each pattern consists of a contoured and multiple internal lines, which are

used to express seams, internal openings, fold lines, and other garment characteristics.

3.4
Virtual garment
Three-dimensional clothing in digital form that exists in virtual space.
3.5
Clothing simulation

Creation and drape simulation of a virtual garment on the virtual human body using a virtual garment

pattern, virtual sewing and bounding volume.
3.6
Material properties

Physical properties of material include tensile modulus, bending rigidity, shear resistance, thickness,

weight, etc. These can be simulated for virtual fabrics using cloth simulation models eg (see AnnexD).

3.7
Sewing information

Information necessary to construct a virtual garment from virtual garment patterns. Sewing

information includes seam lines, specific points on a virtual garment pattern such as positions of snaps,

hooks, and buttons, notch marks, grain line, and layer information.
3.8
Lines on virtual pattern and their lengths
3.8.1
General

Lengths are measured on lines of the virtual garment pattern and described in clause 3.8. For lines that

may be measured on either side of virtual garment pattern or virtual garment, it should be indicated

on which side the length was measured. The virtual garment pattern that is used for evaluating the

performance of digital fitting systems does not have easing or stretching at any lines or darts. Darts

are not included in the length measurement. In order to evaluate the performance of a digital fitting

system using an asymmetrical virtual garment pattern or lines including easing or stretching, it is

recommended that any additional lengths are measured.
3.8.2
Upper pattern
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
3.8.2.1
Bust line

Straight line passing the level of the breast point of the pattern and perpendicular to the front centre

line of the front bodice from the left side line to the right side line (front bust line), or perpendicular to

the back centre line of the back bodice from the left side line to the right side line (back bust line). See

Figure 1. Length of the front bust line, length of back bust line, and total length are measured.

Figure 1 — Bust line
3.8.2.2
Shoulder line

Straight line at the shoulder of front bodice or back bodice along which the front bodice and back bodice

are stitched together. See Figure 2. Length of shoulder lines are measured.
Figure 2 — Shoulder line
3.8.2.3
Armhole line

Lines at the armhole of front bodice or back bodice. See Figure 3. Length of armhole lines, and total

length of armhole lines of front bodice and back bodice are measured.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Figure 3 — Armhole line
3.8.2.4
Neck line

Lines at the neck of front bodice or back bodice. See Figure 4. Length of front neck line, length of back

neck line, and total length are measured.
Figure 4 — Neck line
3.8.2.5
Side seam line

Lines at the side of front bodice or back bodice along which the front bodice and back bodice are stitched

together. See Figure 5. Length of side lines (right or left of front or back side lines) are measured.

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Figure 5 — Side line
3.8.2.6
Centre front line

Straight line passing the centre of front neck line and perpendicular to the bust line. See Figure 6. Length

is measured from neck line to hem line.
Figure 6 — Centre front line
3.8.2.7
Centre back line

Straight line passing the centre of back neck line and perpendicular to the bust line. See Figure 7. Length

is measured from neck line to hem line.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20947-2:2019(E)
Figure 7 — Centre back line
3.8.2.8
Hem line

Line at the hem of front bodice or back bodice. See Figure 8. Length of the front hem line, length of back

hem line, and total length are measured.
Figure 8 — Hemline
3.8.2.9
Sleeve crown cap seam line

Line of the garment pattern of sleeve along which the sleeve and front bodice or sleeve and back bodice

are stitched together. See Figure 9. Length of right or left sleeve crown seam line is measured.

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Figure 9 — Sleeve crown seam line
3.8.2.10
Sleeve width line

Straight line connecting the two ends of a sleeve crown seam line. See Figure 10. Length of right or left

sleeve width line is measured.
Figure 10 — Sleeve width line
3.8.2.11
Sleeve length line

Straight line passing the top of the sleeve crown seam line and perpendicular to sleeve width line (bicep

line). See Figure 11. Length is measured from the top of the sleeve crown seam line to sleeve hem line of

the right or left sleeve.
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Figure 11 — Sleeve length line
3.8.2.12
Underarm seam line

Lines connecting the edge of sleeve crown seam line and edge of sleeve hem line along which a sleeve is

stitched to make a tube. See Figure 12. Length is measured from the edge of the sleeve crown seam line

to the edge of sleeve hem line of the right or left sleeve. Either of two lines of the left or right sleeves are

measured because the lengths are the same.
Figure 12 — Underarm seam line
3.8.2.13
Sleeve hem line

Line at the lower edge of the sleeve pattern indicating the hem. See Figure 13. Length is measured for

the right or left sleeve hem line.
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Figure 13 — Sleeve hem line
3.8.3
Lower pattern
3.8.3.1
Waist line (top of band)

Line that corresponds to the waist line in pattern design. (Figure 14). The lengths of the front and of the

back waist lines and the total of the lengths are measured.
Figure 14 — Waist line (top of band)
3.8.3.2
Seam between the belt and pants (belt side)

Line on the belt side at which the front and back belt and the front left and front right pant legs and back

left and back right pant legs are sewn together (Figure 15). Lengths of the front and back lines and the

total of the lengths are measured.
Figure 15 — Seam bbetween belt and pant leg (belt side)
3.8.3.3
Seam between the belt and pant legs (pant side)

Line on the pant pants side at which the front and back belt and the front left and front right pant legs

and back left and back right pant legs are sewn together (Figure 16). Lengths of the front and back lines

and the total of the lengths are measured.
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Figure 16 — Seam between belt and pant legs (pant side)
3.8.3.4
Outside seam line

Seam line corresponding to the outer sides of the front left and front right of the pant legs and the back

left and back right of the pant legs. (Figure 17). The length of the outside seam line on either the left or

right front pant leg is measured.
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Figure 17 — Outside seam line
3.8.3.5
Inseam line

The inside line of the pant legs (below the crotch). (Figure 18). Length of inseam lines are measured.

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Figure 18 — Inseam line
3.8.4
One-piece dress
3.8.4.1
Bust line

Straight line passing the level of the breast point of the pattern and perpendicular to the front centre

line of the front bodice from the left side line to the right side line (front bust line), or perpendicular to

the back centre line of the back bodice from the left side line to the right side line (back bust line). See

Figure 19. Length of the front bust line, length of back bust line, and total length are measured.

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Figure 19 — Bust line
3.8.4.2
Shoulder line

Line at the shoulder of front bodice or back bodice along which the front bodice and back bodice are

stitched together. See Figure 20. Length of shoulder lines are measured.
Figure 20 — Shoulder line
3.8.4.3
Neck line

Line at the neck of front bodice or back bodice. See Figure 21. Length of front neck line, length of back

neck line, and total length are measured.
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Figure 21 — Neck line
3.8.4.4
Centre front line

Straight line passing the centre of front neck line and perpendicular to the bust line. See Figure 22.

Length is measured from neck line to hem line.
Figure 22 — Centre front line
3.8.4.5
Centre back line

Curve line passing the centre of back neck line to centre of back seam line. See Figure 23. Length is

measured from neck line to hem line.
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Figure 23 — Centre back line
3.8.4.6
Side seam line

Line at the side of front bodice or back bodice along which the front bodice and back bodice are stitched

together. See Figure 24. Length of side lines (right or left of front or back side lines) are measured.

Figure 24 — Side seam line
3.8.4.7
Inseam line (front)

The inside lines of the front. See Figure 25. Length of inseam lines are measured.

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Figure 25 — Inseam line (front)
3.8.4.8
Inseam line (Back)

The inside lines of the front. See Figure 26. Length of inseam lines are measured.

Figure 26 — Inseam line (back)
4 Functions
4.1 General
Digital fitting systems shall have functions as described in clause 4.2 to 4.4.
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4.2 Data import

a) Function to import three-dimensional virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model in file format;

b) Function to import two-dimensional virtual garment pattern in file format;
c) Function to import three-dimensional virtual body;
d) Function to specify the material properties of cloth;
e) Function to specify the layers; and
f) Function to specify the sewing information.
4.3 Digital fitting

Qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of overall and/or specific simulation garment fit through

analysis of the distribution of surface strain, gap between body and garment, heat map, cross section,

surface wrinkles, garment balance, etc.
4.4 Function to measure lengths of lines

Function to measure lengths of lines of two-dimensional virtual garment patterns as shown in Table 1.

Function to measure lengths of lines of three-dimensional virtual garment draped fitted on the virtual

fit mannequin (fit form) model as shown in Table 1.
5 Qualitative evaluation of performance

Performance of digital fitting systems are qualitatively evaluated by examining having or not having

functions listed in clause 4.
6 Quantitative evaluation of performance
6.1 General

The quantitative performance of a digital fitting system is evaluated as given in 6.2 to 6.8.

6.2 Import of virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model

A physical fit mannequin (fit form) for which the 3D CAD data is openly available should be used. See

Figure 27.

Import the three-dimensional shape information of the virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model to the

digital fitting system to be evaluated.
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Figure 27 — Example of 3D fit mannequin (fit form)
6.3 Import virtual garment pattern and measure the lines

A garment pattern whose shape and lengths of lines information are openly available shall be used. The

size of the garment pattern shall be appropriate for fit the imported virtual fit mannequin (fit form) model

6.3.1 Upper

Figure 16 shows an example of garment pattern for the upper body whose shape and lengths of lines

information are openly available for this purpose.
Figure 28 — Example of virtual pattern for performance evaluation
Import the
...

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