Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries

ISO 28560-3:2014 provides a data model and encoding rules for the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for items appropriate for the needs of all types of libraries (including national, academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries). ISO 28560-3:2014 specifies the rules for encoding a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements listed in ISO 28560‑1 into a basic block, and other data elements into extension blocks onto the RFID tag.

Information et documentation -- RFID dans les bibliothèques

Informatika in dokumentacija - RFID v knjižnicah - 3. del: Kodiranje z nespremenljivo dolžino

Ta del standarda ISO 28560 določa podatkovni model in pravila kodiranja za uporabo oznak za radiofrekvenčno prepoznavo (RFID) za elemente, ustrezne za potrebe vseh vrst knjižnic (vključno z nacionalnimi, akademskimi, javnimi, poslovnimi, posebnimi in šolskimi knjižnicami).
Ta del standarda ISO 28560 določa pravila za kodiranje
– podniza podatkovnih elementov, izvzetih iz celotnega niza podatkovnih elementov iz standarda ISO 28560-1 v osnoven blok, in
– drugih podatkovnih elementov v razširitvene bloke na oznako RFID.
Vir dodatnih informacij o vprašanjih glede izvajanja je zagotovljen v dodatku A.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Aug-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
31-Mar-2014
Completion Date
14-Aug-2014

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 28560-3:2014 - Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries
English language
24 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ISO 28560-3:2014
English language
29 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28560-3
Second edition
2014-08-15
Information and documentation —
RFID in libraries —
Part 3:
Fixed length encoding
Information et documentation — RFID dans les bibliothèques —
Partie 3: Encodage de longueur fixe
Reference number
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 RFID air interface .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Data protocol ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 General encoding rules .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Distinguishing from other applications and encodings ....................................................................................... 3

5.2 Writing/reading direction ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Memory area layout ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Strings and integers ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.5 Writing the tag ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 Reading optimization ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.7 Profiling ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Locking ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.9 Migration ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Data blocks ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Types of data blocks ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Basic block .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Special blocks ........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Structured extension blocks .....................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Library extension block ................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Acquisition extension block ......................................................................................................................................................12

7.7 Library supplement block ..........................................................................................................................................................13

7.8 Title block .................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.9 ILL block ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.10 Unstructured extension blocks ..............................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Information about ISO 28560 RFID in libraries .......................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Encoding examples .................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (normative) Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) .....................................................................................................................21

Annex D (informative) Reading optimization ..........................................................................................................................................22

Annex E (informative) Guidelines for regional profiling ..............................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 4, Technical interoperability.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 28560-3:2011), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.

ISO 28560 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information and documentation — RFID

in libraries:
— Part 1: Data elements and general guidelines for implementation
— Part 2: Encoding of RFID data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962
— Part 3: Fixed length encoding
The following parts are under preparation:

— Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned

memory [Technical Specification]
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Introduction

Libraries are implementing radio frequency identification (RFID) as item identification to replace bar

codes. RFID streamlines applications like user self-service, security, and materials handling. A standard

data model for encoding information on RFID tags could increase the cost-effectiveness of the technology

within libraries, particularly through greater interoperability of RFID tags and equipment, and enhance

support for resource sharing between libraries.

Several countries have undertaken preliminary work on standardization. The Netherlands developed

a data model for public libraries and in Denmark “RFID Data Model for Libraries” has been published

(DS/INF 163-1). Finland has adopted the Danish model, but with a few changes. There is a French data

model that differs from the Danish and Dutch models. Other libraries in different parts of the world have

installations based on various proprietary systems offered by technology and library system suppliers.

All of these constitute the installed base of RFID systems, but only account for a small minority of the

total of libraries globally.

There is an opportunity to develop a standard data model, taking into account the lessons learned from

the national schemes and vendor solutions, and provide migration options for those libraries that have

already invested in the technology. Because new items are continually being purchased, a number of

migration options can be adopted based on factors relevant to each library.

This part of ISO 28560 deals with the encoding of a basic set of data elements in a fixed length format

and the rest of the data elements in optional extension blocks. ISO 28560-1 defines the set of mandatory

and optional data elements.

ISO 28560-2 and this part of ISO 28560 are mutually exclusive with respect to an RFID tag being applied

to a loan item. In other words, the RFID tag is encoded according to the rules of this part of ISO 28560, or

to the rules of ISO 28560-2, or to some proprietary rules. Depending on the technologies being used, and

other features of tags that are claiming compliance with ISO 28560-2, the reading system might achieve

a degree of interoperability.

This International Standard provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries.

Ongoing advice needs to be provided because of the evolving nature of RFID technology, and the

opportunities to migrate between different types of legacy system and encoding rules of this

International Standard.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Information and documentation — RFID in libraries —
Part 3:
Fixed length encoding
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28560 provides a data model and encoding rules for the use of radio frequency

identification (RFID) tags for items appropriate for the needs of all types of libraries (including national,

academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).
This part of ISO 28560 specifies the rules for encoding

— a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements listed in ISO 28560-1 into a basic

block, and
— other data elements into extension blocks onto the RFID tag.

A source of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 28560-1, Information and documentation — RFID in libraries — Data elements and general guidelines

for implementation
ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Part 3:

Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC TR 18047-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 28560-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
basic block
data block occupying the first 272 bits of the RFID tag

Note 1 to entry: If the RFID tag is limited to 256 bits (i.e. 32 bytes), the basic block is truncated.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
3.2
byte
8-bit byte
group of eight consecutive bits

Note 1 to entry: A byte can represent one character (3.3) or be part of a representation of a character.

3.3
character
one or more bytes (3.2)
3.4
CRC
cyclic redundancy check
value calculated from the data on the tag
3.5
data block
container for encoding data elements, CRC (3.4), filler, and end mark
3.6
end block

data block (3.5) containing the end mark terminating the information on the RFID tag

3.7
extension block
optional data block (3.5) following the basic block (3.1)
3.8
field
entry in a data block (3.5)
3.9
filler data block

optional data block (3.5) that can be inserted to align other data blocks on page (3.11) boundaries

3.10
fixed length field
field (3.8) of prescribed size in a data block (3.5)
3.11
page
minimum data unit that can be read from or written to a tag
Note 1 to entry: This is measured in bytes (3.2).
3.12
string
sequence of characters (3.3)
3.13
unsigned integer
binary value of a number of consecutive bits
3.14
variable length field
field (3.8) of variable size in a data block (3.5)
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
4 Requirements
4.1 Data elements

The data elements shall be as defined and compliant with those listed in ISO 28560-1.

NOTE There is a degree of flexibility in using locally defined codes that enable enhancements and variations

to be implemented while still complying with the basic set of data elements.
4.2 RFID air interface
4.2.1 Air interface conformance

The air interface for compliant tags shall be in accordance with the specification for Mode 1.

For migration purposes, additional non-compliant air interfaces used in legacy systems can be supported

during a transition period, which is permitted to remain in place for years, as necessary.

The air interface conformance shall be tested in accordance with ISO/IEC TR 18047-3.

4.2.2 Tag performance

Where there are requirements for test tag performance, these shall be performed in accordance with

ISO/IEC 18046-3.
4.3 Data protocol

The fixed length encoding described in this part of ISO 28560 does not require a separate data protocol.

5 General encoding rules
5.1 Distinguishing from other applications and encodings

The value of the application family identifier (AFI) is used to distinguish tags for library applications

from other applications. The values of AFI for library applications are defined in ISO 28560-1.

ISO 28560-1 describes how the data storage format identifier (DSFID), if present in the system memory

as a programmable register, is used to distinguish tags in the library application area, i.e. with the same

AFI.

Tags encoded according to this part of ISO 28560 shall be programmed with the value 3E in the

HEX
DSFID register if the tag contains a programmable DSFID register.

This part of ISO 28560 is not able to encode the DSFID if the tag does not contain a programmable DSFID

register. In this case, ISO 28560-2 encodes the DSFID in the first byte of the working area of the tag. To

take this situation into account, the content parameter (see Table 1) shall not take the value 6 on RFID

tags encoded according to this part of ISO 28560.

If and only if the tag does not contain a programmable DSFID register, it is permissible to distinguish tags

encoded according to this part of ISO 28560 from other encodings by verifying the cyclic redundancy

check (CRC) encoded in the basic block (see 7.2).
5.2 Writing/reading direction

Data shall be written to and read from the tag as specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3, Mode 1, such that the first

bit transmitted to or from the tag is the least significant bit of the first field of the basic block. This field

contains the content parameter (see Table 1). From that starting point, bytes are transmitted to or from

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)

the tag in order from left to right, with byte 0 to the left of bytes 1, 2, and 3, as shown in the memory

map in Annex B.
5.3 Memory area layout
5.3.1 Specifications

The memory area shall be encoded starting with a basic block with fixed length encoding of a basic set

of data elements for use in the library.

If the size of the RFID tag is limited to 256 bits (32 bytes), the RFID tag can only contain a truncated

basic block.

If the size of the RFID tag is greater than 256 bits, extension blocks (structured or unstructured) can be

inserted after the basic block up to the capacity of the chip. If extension blocks are inserted, the order of

these is optional. The length of an extension block is determined by the first byte of the block. The type

of extension block is defined in the following two bytes.
Filler data blocks may be inserted between blocks to align to page boundaries.

An end block shall terminate the encoding, unless the basic block and possible extension blocks take up

the whole space on the RFID tag, in which case an end block is not needed.
5.3.2 Layout for tags greater than 32 bytes
The layout for tags greater than 32 bytes (256 bits) shall be as follows:

[()*]*()*()

The end block is mandatory if the tag is not full (see5.3.1). Basic block, filler data block, structured

extension blocks, unstructured extension blocks, and end block are specified in Clause 7.

An example is given in Annex B.
5.3.3 Layout for 32-byte tags
The layout for 32-byte tags shall be as follows:

The truncated basic block is specified in Clause 7.
An example is given in Annex B.
5.4 Strings and integers
5.4.1 String encoding

All strings shall be encoded in UTF-8 in accordance with ISO/IEC 10646, with the first character of the

string stored in the lowest memory location. Note that UTF-8 encoding implies that a character can

occupy more than one byte.
The end of a string can be defined in the following different ways:
— with one byte 00 ;
HEX
— with the length of a fixed length field;
— with the end of a structured extension block.
For fixed length fields, all unused bytes shall be 00 .
HEX
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
For variable length fields, one byte 00 shall be used between each field.
HEX
5.4.2 Integer encoding
Integer-encoded fields shall use 4, 8, or 16 bits unsigned integers.
5.5 Writing the tag
5.5.1 Cyclic redundancy check (CRC)

For RFID tags with only 32 bytes (256 bits) user data space of the basic block is truncated two bytes, but

the CRC shall be calculated for a full-length basic block with the two missing bytes assumed to be 00 .

HEX
See 7.2 and Annex C for a description of CRC.
5.5.2 Unused space

Any unused space in blocks shall be filled with 00 , i.e. a 6-byte primary item identifier encoded in the

HEX

basic block (see 7.2) shall be written as the 6-byte primary item identifier followed by 10 bytes 00 . It

HEX
is very important for reading optimization that this rule be followed.
5.5.3 End of tag

If a data block ends on the last user byte of a tag, no “end block” is required. The length specified in the

last data block shall not indicate a size larger than the tag.
5.6 Reading optimization
Guidelines for reading optimization are given in Annex D.
5.7 Profiling
Guidelines for regional profiling are given in Annex E.
5.8 Locking

It is technically possible to lock parts of the tag, but this part of ISO 28560 does not prescribe any strategy

for locking. Such a strategy is left for regional profiling.
5.9 Migration

The decision to migrate from a legacy implementation to a data model based on this part of ISO 28560

depends on economic and operational considerations that are beyond the scope of this part of ISO 28560.

6 Data elements

Table 1 shows for each data element defined in ISO 28560-1 the data block where it is encoded, how it

is encoded, and the values it can take. Note that some data elements can be encoded in different data

blocks. The data blocks are described in Clause 7.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Table 1 — Data elements
Name of data Requirements
a c d e
N Data block Encoding Values
b f
element and remarks

1 Primary item Basic block or If the primary item identifier is Any string If a primary identifier

identifier library extension maximum 16 bytes, it shall be is not assigned yet,
block encoded in the basic block as the string is empty
a string.
Otherwise, it shall be encoded
as a string in the library exten-
sion block.
2 Content param- Basic block 4-bit unsigned integer 1 The value defines a
eter version number.
(14 values are
reserved for future A new version number
use: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, shall be applied if and
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, only if it refers to a
14, 15. To be able to new version of this
distinguish from tags part of ISO 28560,
encoded according which is not back-
to ISO 28560-2, the ward compatible.
value 6 shall not be
used.)

3 Owner institution Basic block or If the ISIL prefix is one or two If the tag is limited The ISIL code

(ISIL) library extension characters and the ISIL unit to 32 bytes, only ISIL is defined in

block identifier is less than or equal codes with a prefix ISO 15511 as
to 11 bytes (or 9 bytes for of a maximum of 32 bytes tags), the string can two characters and identifier>, where
be encoded in the basic block. a unit identifier less shall be
In this case, the string shall than 9 bytes can be either an alpha-2
be formed as the concatena- encoded. country code (two
tion of the prefix and the unit upper-case letters),
If the size of the tag is
identifier. If the prefix is only or another registered
more than 32 bytes,
one character, a blank is added string (non-country
any ISIL code can, in
between the prefix and the code), and where
theory, be encoded.
unit identifier. can
be up to 11 characters
If the prefix is more than two
long.
characters or the unit identi-
fier is longer than 11 bytes,
the string can be encoded in
the library extension block.
In this case, the string shall
be the ISIL code, including the
hyphen.

4 Set information Basic block Two 8-bit unsigned integers, the first specifying can take sists of two parts:
parts in item> and the second the values 0 to 255,
. where 0 indicates an
item> and unspecified number.
part number>
See examples in
ber> can take the
ISO 28560-1.
values 0 to 255, where
0 indicates the first
item in a set, where
not all items have an
RFID tag.

5 Type of usage Basic block or Main qualifier shall be encoded The set of code The data element con-

library extension in basic block as a 4-bit values is specified in sists of two parts:

block unsigned integer. ISO 28560-1.
and
As a supplement, the whole .
data element can be encoded in
the library extension block as
an 8-bit unsigned integer.
6 Shelf location Library supple- String Any string specifying See ISO 28560-1.
ment block the location of the
item
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Name of data Requirements
a c d e
N Data block Encoding Values
b f
element and remarks
7 ONIX media Library supple- String ONIX media descrip- See ISO 28560-1.
format ment block tor of two alphabetic
characters
8 MARC media Library supple- String MARC 21 category of See ISO 28560-1.
format ment block material descriptor

9 Supplier identifier Acquisition exten- String Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.

sion block ing the supplier of the
item

10 Order number Acquisition exten- String Any string identifying See ISO 28560-1.

sion block the order containing
the item
11 ILL borrowing ILL block String Any ISIL code The ISIL code is
institution (ISIL) in the form defined in ISO 15511.
identifier>
12 ILL borrow- ILL block String Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.
ing transaction ing the borrowing
number transaction
13 GS1 product iden- Acquisition exten- String Any GTIN-13 code See ISO 28560-1.
tifier sion block
15 Local data A Unstructured Locally defined Locally defined See ISO 28560-1.
extension blocks
16 Local data B Unstructured Locally defined Locally defined See ISO 28560-1.
extension blocks
17 Title Title block String Any string specifying See ISO 28560-1.
the titles of the item

18 Product identifier Acquisition exten- String Any string specifying See ISO 28560-1.

local sion block the product identifier
of the item

19 Media format Library extension 8-bit unsigned integer 0: Undefined See ISO 28560-1.

(other) block
1: Book
2: CD/DVD
3: Magnetic tape
4: Other
5: Other, careful han-
dling is required
6: Very small item,
special handling is
required

20 Supply chain stage Acquisition exten- 8-bit unsigned integer The set of code values See ISO 28560-1.

sion block are specified in
ISO 28560-1.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Table 1 — (continued)
Name of data Requirements and
a c d e
N Data block Encoding Values
b f
element remarks
21 Supplier invoice Acquisition String Any string identi- See ISO 28560-1.
number extension block fying the invoice
containing the item
22 Alternative item Library exten- String Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.
identifier sion block ing the item

23 Alternative Basic block If the non-ISIL code is less Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.

owner institu- or than or equal to 10 bytes ing the inst
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
01-december-2014
Informatika in dokumentacija - RFID v knjižnicah - 3. del: Kodiranje z
nespremenljivo dolžino

Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries -- Part 3: Fixed length encoding

Information et documentation -- RFID dans les bibliothèques -- Partie 3: Encodage de

longueur fixe
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 28560-3:2014
ICS:
35.040 Nabori znakov in kodiranje Character sets and
informacij information coding
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28560-3
Second edition
2014-08-15
Information and documentation —
RFID in libraries —
Part 3:
Fixed length encoding
Information et documentation — RFID dans les bibliothèques —
Partie 3: Encodage de longueur fixe
Reference number
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 RFID air interface .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Data protocol ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 General encoding rules .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Distinguishing from other applications and encodings ....................................................................................... 3

5.2 Writing/reading direction ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Memory area layout ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Strings and integers ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.5 Writing the tag ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 Reading optimization ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.7 Profiling ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Locking ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.9 Migration ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Data blocks ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Types of data blocks ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Basic block .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Special blocks ........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Structured extension blocks .....................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Library extension block ................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Acquisition extension block ......................................................................................................................................................12

7.7 Library supplement block ..........................................................................................................................................................13

7.8 Title block .................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.9 ILL block ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.10 Unstructured extension blocks ..............................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Information about ISO 28560 RFID in libraries .......................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Encoding examples .................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (normative) Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) .....................................................................................................................21

Annex D (informative) Reading optimization ..........................................................................................................................................22

Annex E (informative) Guidelines for regional profiling ..............................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 4, Technical interoperability.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 28560-3:2011), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.

ISO 28560 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information and documentation — RFID

in libraries:
— Part 1: Data elements and general guidelines for implementation
— Part 2: Encoding of RFID data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962
— Part 3: Fixed length encoding
The following parts are under preparation:

— Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned

memory [Technical Specification]
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Introduction

Libraries are implementing radio frequency identification (RFID) as item identification to replace bar

codes. RFID streamlines applications like user self-service, security, and materials handling. A standard

data model for encoding information on RFID tags could increase the cost-effectiveness of the technology

within libraries, particularly through greater interoperability of RFID tags and equipment, and enhance

support for resource sharing between libraries.

Several countries have undertaken preliminary work on standardization. The Netherlands developed

a data model for public libraries and in Denmark “RFID Data Model for Libraries” has been published

(DS/INF 163-1). Finland has adopted the Danish model, but with a few changes. There is a French data

model that differs from the Danish and Dutch models. Other libraries in different parts of the world have

installations based on various proprietary systems offered by technology and library system suppliers.

All of these constitute the installed base of RFID systems, but only account for a small minority of the

total of libraries globally.

There is an opportunity to develop a standard data model, taking into account the lessons learned from

the national schemes and vendor solutions, and provide migration options for those libraries that have

already invested in the technology. Because new items are continually being purchased, a number of

migration options can be adopted based on factors relevant to each library.

This part of ISO 28560 deals with the encoding of a basic set of data elements in a fixed length format

and the rest of the data elements in optional extension blocks. ISO 28560-1 defines the set of mandatory

and optional data elements.

ISO 28560-2 and this part of ISO 28560 are mutually exclusive with respect to an RFID tag being applied

to a loan item. In other words, the RFID tag is encoded according to the rules of this part of ISO 28560, or

to the rules of ISO 28560-2, or to some proprietary rules. Depending on the technologies being used, and

other features of tags that are claiming compliance with ISO 28560-2, the reading system might achieve

a degree of interoperability.

This International Standard provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries.

Ongoing advice needs to be provided because of the evolving nature of RFID technology, and the

opportunities to migrate between different types of legacy system and encoding rules of this

International Standard.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Information and documentation — RFID in libraries —
Part 3:
Fixed length encoding
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28560 provides a data model and encoding rules for the use of radio frequency

identification (RFID) tags for items appropriate for the needs of all types of libraries (including national,

academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).
This part of ISO 28560 specifies the rules for encoding

— a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements listed in ISO 28560-1 into a basic

block, and
— other data elements into extension blocks onto the RFID tag.

A source of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 28560-1, Information and documentation — RFID in libraries — Data elements and general guidelines

for implementation
ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Part 3:

Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC TR 18047-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 28560-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
basic block
data block occupying the first 272 bits of the RFID tag

Note 1 to entry: If the RFID tag is limited to 256 bits (i.e. 32 bytes), the basic block is truncated.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
3.2
byte
8-bit byte
group of eight consecutive bits

Note 1 to entry: A byte can represent one character (3.3) or be part of a representation of a character.

3.3
character
one or more bytes (3.2)
3.4
CRC
cyclic redundancy check
value calculated from the data on the tag
3.5
data block
container for encoding data elements, CRC (3.4), filler, and end mark
3.6
end block

data block (3.5) containing the end mark terminating the information on the RFID tag

3.7
extension block
optional data block (3.5) following the basic block (3.1)
3.8
field
entry in a data block (3.5)
3.9
filler data block

optional data block (3.5) that can be inserted to align other data blocks on page (3.11) boundaries

3.10
fixed length field
field (3.8) of prescribed size in a data block (3.5)
3.11
page
minimum data unit that can be read from or written to a tag
Note 1 to entry: This is measured in bytes (3.2).
3.12
string
sequence of characters (3.3)
3.13
unsigned integer
binary value of a number of consecutive bits
3.14
variable length field
field (3.8) of variable size in a data block (3.5)
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
4 Requirements
4.1 Data elements

The data elements shall be as defined and compliant with those listed in ISO 28560-1.

NOTE There is a degree of flexibility in using locally defined codes that enable enhancements and variations

to be implemented while still complying with the basic set of data elements.
4.2 RFID air interface
4.2.1 Air interface conformance

The air interface for compliant tags shall be in accordance with the specification for Mode 1.

For migration purposes, additional non-compliant air interfaces used in legacy systems can be supported

during a transition period, which is permitted to remain in place for years, as necessary.

The air interface conformance shall be tested in accordance with ISO/IEC TR 18047-3.

4.2.2 Tag performance

Where there are requirements for test tag performance, these shall be performed in accordance with

ISO/IEC 18046-3.
4.3 Data protocol

The fixed length encoding described in this part of ISO 28560 does not require a separate data protocol.

5 General encoding rules
5.1 Distinguishing from other applications and encodings

The value of the application family identifier (AFI) is used to distinguish tags for library applications

from other applications. The values of AFI for library applications are defined in ISO 28560-1.

ISO 28560-1 describes how the data storage format identifier (DSFID), if present in the system memory

as a programmable register, is used to distinguish tags in the library application area, i.e. with the same

AFI.

Tags encoded according to this part of ISO 28560 shall be programmed with the value 3E in the

HEX
DSFID register if the tag contains a programmable DSFID register.

This part of ISO 28560 is not able to encode the DSFID if the tag does not contain a programmable DSFID

register. In this case, ISO 28560-2 encodes the DSFID in the first byte of the working area of the tag. To

take this situation into account, the content parameter (see Table 1) shall not take the value 6 on RFID

tags encoded according to this part of ISO 28560.

If and only if the tag does not contain a programmable DSFID register, it is permissible to distinguish tags

encoded according to this part of ISO 28560 from other encodings by verifying the cyclic redundancy

check (CRC) encoded in the basic block (see 7.2).
5.2 Writing/reading direction

Data shall be written to and read from the tag as specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3, Mode 1, such that the first

bit transmitted to or from the tag is the least significant bit of the first field of the basic block. This field

contains the content parameter (see Table 1). From that starting point, bytes are transmitted to or from

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)

the tag in order from left to right, with byte 0 to the left of bytes 1, 2, and 3, as shown in the memory

map in Annex B.
5.3 Memory area layout
5.3.1 Specifications

The memory area shall be encoded starting with a basic block with fixed length encoding of a basic set

of data elements for use in the library.

If the size of the RFID tag is limited to 256 bits (32 bytes), the RFID tag can only contain a truncated

basic block.

If the size of the RFID tag is greater than 256 bits, extension blocks (structured or unstructured) can be

inserted after the basic block up to the capacity of the chip. If extension blocks are inserted, the order of

these is optional. The length of an extension block is determined by the first byte of the block. The type

of extension block is defined in the following two bytes.
Filler data blocks may be inserted between blocks to align to page boundaries.

An end block shall terminate the encoding, unless the basic block and possible extension blocks take up

the whole space on the RFID tag, in which case an end block is not needed.
5.3.2 Layout for tags greater than 32 bytes
The layout for tags greater than 32 bytes (256 bits) shall be as follows:

[()*]*()*()

The end block is mandatory if the tag is not full (see5.3.1). Basic block, filler data block, structured

extension blocks, unstructured extension blocks, and end block are specified in Clause 7.

An example is given in Annex B.
5.3.3 Layout for 32-byte tags
The layout for 32-byte tags shall be as follows:

The truncated basic block is specified in Clause 7.
An example is given in Annex B.
5.4 Strings and integers
5.4.1 String encoding

All strings shall be encoded in UTF-8 in accordance with ISO/IEC 10646, with the first character of the

string stored in the lowest memory location. Note that UTF-8 encoding implies that a character can

occupy more than one byte.
The end of a string can be defined in the following different ways:
— with one byte 00 ;
HEX
— with the length of a fixed length field;
— with the end of a structured extension block.
For fixed length fields, all unused bytes shall be 00 .
HEX
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
For variable length fields, one byte 00 shall be used between each field.
HEX
5.4.2 Integer encoding
Integer-encoded fields shall use 4, 8, or 16 bits unsigned integers.
5.5 Writing the tag
5.5.1 Cyclic redundancy check (CRC)

For RFID tags with only 32 bytes (256 bits) user data space of the basic block is truncated two bytes, but

the CRC shall be calculated for a full-length basic block with the two missing bytes assumed to be 00 .

HEX
See 7.2 and Annex C for a description of CRC.
5.5.2 Unused space

Any unused space in blocks shall be filled with 00 , i.e. a 6-byte primary item identifier encoded in the

HEX

basic block (see 7.2) shall be written as the 6-byte primary item identifier followed by 10 bytes 00 . It

HEX
is very important for reading optimization that this rule be followed.
5.5.3 End of tag

If a data block ends on the last user byte of a tag, no “end block” is required. The length specified in the

last data block shall not indicate a size larger than the tag.
5.6 Reading optimization
Guidelines for reading optimization are given in Annex D.
5.7 Profiling
Guidelines for regional profiling are given in Annex E.
5.8 Locking

It is technically possible to lock parts of the tag, but this part of ISO 28560 does not prescribe any strategy

for locking. Such a strategy is left for regional profiling.
5.9 Migration

The decision to migrate from a legacy implementation to a data model based on this part of ISO 28560

depends on economic and operational considerations that are beyond the scope of this part of ISO 28560.

6 Data elements

Table 1 shows for each data element defined in ISO 28560-1 the data block where it is encoded, how it

is encoded, and the values it can take. Note that some data elements can be encoded in different data

blocks. The data blocks are described in Clause 7.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Table 1 — Data elements
Name of data Requirements
a c d e
N Data block Encoding Values
b f
element and remarks

1 Primary item Basic block or If the primary item identifier is Any string If a primary identifier

identifier library extension maximum 16 bytes, it shall be is not assigned yet,
block encoded in the basic block as the string is empty
a string.
Otherwise, it shall be encoded
as a string in the library exten-
sion block.
2 Content param- Basic block 4-bit unsigned integer 1 The value defines a
eter version number.
(14 values are
reserved for future A new version number
use: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, shall be applied if and
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, only if it refers to a
14, 15. To be able to new version of this
distinguish from tags part of ISO 28560,
encoded according which is not back-
to ISO 28560-2, the ward compatible.
value 6 shall not be
used.)

3 Owner institution Basic block or If the ISIL prefix is one or two If the tag is limited The ISIL code

(ISIL) library extension characters and the ISIL unit to 32 bytes, only ISIL is defined in

block identifier is less than or equal codes with a prefix ISO 15511 as
to 11 bytes (or 9 bytes for of a maximum of 32 bytes tags), the string can two characters and identifier>, where
be encoded in the basic block. a unit identifier less shall be
In this case, the string shall than 9 bytes can be either an alpha-2
be formed as the concatena- encoded. country code (two
tion of the prefix and the unit upper-case letters),
If the size of the tag is
identifier. If the prefix is only or another registered
more than 32 bytes,
one character, a blank is added string (non-country
any ISIL code can, in
between the prefix and the code), and where
theory, be encoded.
unit identifier. can
be up to 11 characters
If the prefix is more than two
long.
characters or the unit identi-
fier is longer than 11 bytes,
the string can be encoded in
the library extension block.
In this case, the string shall
be the ISIL code, including the
hyphen.

4 Set information Basic block Two 8-bit unsigned integers, the first specifying can take sists of two parts:
parts in item> and the second the values 0 to 255,
. where 0 indicates an
item> and unspecified number.
part number>
See examples in
ber> can take the
ISO 28560-1.
values 0 to 255, where
0 indicates the first
item in a set, where
not all items have an
RFID tag.

5 Type of usage Basic block or Main qualifier shall be encoded The set of code The data element con-

library extension in basic block as a 4-bit values is specified in sists of two parts:

block unsigned integer. ISO 28560-1.
and
As a supplement, the whole .
data element can be encoded in
the library extension block as
an 8-bit unsigned integer.
6 Shelf location Library supple- String Any string specifying See ISO 28560-1.
ment block the location of the
item
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28560-3:2014
ISO 28560-3:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Name of data Requirements
a c d e
N Data block Encoding Values
b f
element and remarks
7 ONIX media Library supple- String ONIX media descrip- See ISO 28560-1.
format ment block tor of two alphabetic
characters
8 MARC media Library supple- String MARC 21 category of See ISO 28560-1.
format ment block material descriptor

9 Supplier identifier Acquisition exten- String Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.

sion block ing the supplier of the
item

10 Order number Acquisition exten- String Any string identifying See ISO 28560-1.

sion block the order containing
the item
11 ILL borrowing ILL block String Any ISIL code The ISIL code is
institution (ISIL) in the form defined in ISO 15511.
identifier>
12 ILL borrow- ILL block String Any string identify- See ISO 28560-1.
ing transaction ing the borrowing
number transaction
13 GS1 product iden- Acquisition exten- String Any GTIN-13 code See ISO 28560-1.
tifier sion block
15 Local data A Unstructured Locally defined Locally defined See ISO 28560-1.
extension blocks
16 Local data B Unstructured Locally defined Locally defined See I
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.