Biomimetics — Integrating problem- and function-oriented approaches applying the TRIZ method

This document describes prototypes of a database for developing biomimetic products with innovative problem-solving methods (TRIZ). The database has a mechanism to obtain the idea of technical problem-solving using the problem- and function-oriented approaches. This document focuses on the use and value of the database, but also describes its design principles.

Biomimétique — Intégration des approches centrées sur les problèmes et des approches centrées sur les fonctions en appliquant la méthode TRIZ

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jul-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
06-Nov-2021
Completion Date
14-Jul-2022
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 23847
First edition
2022-07
Biomimetics — Integrating problem-
and function-oriented approaches
applying the TRIZ method
Reference number
ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Current status of patents for biomimetics ............................................................................................................................... 1

5 Theory of database ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 TRIZ .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Bio-TRIZ method ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Biomimetics-integrating problem- and function-oriented approaches applying TRIZ ......... 4

6 Structure of biomimetics-integrating problem-and function-oriented approaches

applying TRIZ .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Problem-oriented approach — Search from technical contradiction matrix ................................ 4

6.2 Function-oriented approach — Search from function........................................................................................ 7

6.3 Inventory of biomimetic products ........................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Example using a fan .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Problem-oriented approach for fans ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Function-oriented approach for fans .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Inventory of biomimetic products for fans ................................................................................................................ 10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 266, Biomimetics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
Introduction

Building on the success of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable

Development (the 2030 Agenda) is a set of international development goals to be met by 2030, adopted

by the UN Sustainable Development Summit held in September 2015.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be the impetus for change as the manufacturing and

processing industries around the world are in need of new technology for the development of

environmentally-friendly materials and processes. For that purpose, it is indispensable to realize low-

energy and highly efficient manufacturing. Living things have a special technology for this aim.

In recent years, researchers have been expanding their work on biomimetic engineering (biomimetics),

[2-6]

a field focused on introducing high efficiency and performance biofunctions into material design.

Biofunction is a development in engineering technology that elucidates the processes of activities

related to the functions and life phenomena of animals, plants, and microorganisms, and makes them

useful in real life. More and more articles on biomimetic engineering have been reported every year,

and expectations that the industry will develop practical applications for such are likewise on the

rise. Numerous well-known applications of biomimetics can be cited, e.g. self-cleaning paints based

on lotus leaves, easy-to-peel-off tapes inspired by the microstructures in the soles of a gecko's foot,

nonreflective films structured like the compound eyes of a moth, shark skin-patterned high-speed

swimwear, automobile designs that incorporate ideas taken from a boxfish's skeleton, and labels

that use the structural colours of the morpho butterfly. The ranks of companies whose interest in

developing materials based on biomimetic engineering principles sparked by news reports about

[2]

such developments likewise has been increasing. There are more than 7,8 million species of living

beings in the world, with an enormous number of distinct functions and behaviours. Whatever

biofunction attracts our attention, it is unclear as to which ones will be useful toward developing

innovative technologies and materials and lead to an optimal material design. In short, most engineers

and researchers are challenged by their inability to focus on a single target owing to the excess of

options. Thus, case-by-case material design is the mainstream in biomimetic engineering today. Only

a portion of the limitless number of biofunctions are being put to use, and there are no effective means

for extracting those technological elements that may be necessary. Furthermore, with ISO/TC 266

currently studying a variety of regulations regarding biomimetic engineering, there is demand for

biomimetic products to be created that conform to international standards. According to ISO 18458,

developing biomimetic biometric products requires they go through the following process: (1) identify

issues with existing technologies and materials, (2) search for biofunctions that can resolve those

issues, (3) extract and generalize the principles behind the biofunctions that have been discovered, and

(4) create and optimize new technologies and materials. The question also arises of the best approach

to take for identifying the functions among the 7,8 million living things said to exist and for optimizing

them. This document introduces the database that will support the creation of biomimetics products

according to ISO 18458.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)
Biomimetics — Integrating problem- and function-
oriented approaches applying the TRIZ method
1 Scope

This document describes prototypes of a database for developing biomimetic products with innovative

problem-solving methods (TRIZ). The database has a mechanism to obtain the idea of technical

problem-solving using the problem- and function-oriented approaches. This document focuses on the

use and value of the database, but also describes its design principles.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 23845, Biomimetics — Ontology-Enhanced Thesaurus (OET) for biomimetics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 23845 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
TRIZ

problem-solving, analysis and forecasting method derived from the study of patterns of invention in

patent literature

Note 1 to entry: The theory of inventive problem-solving was invented by Genrich Altshuller, who while

president of the Inventor’s Association of Russia in 1946, discovered that the evolution of technical ideas followed

predictable patterns.
3.2
problem-oriented approach

approach used to search for biological functions based on 40 principles using the TRIZ (3.1) matrix

method
3.3
function-oriented approach

approach used to reach biomimetic solutions from the 40 TRIZ (3.1) principles by utilizing a combination

of two elements, desired function and state
4 Current status of patents for biomimetics

The Japan Patent Office's Survey Report on Technology Trends in Patent Applications gives us a picture of

[7]

current tendencies in regard to patents focused on biofunctions. It can be inferred from a review of

the data for products that are mainly related to biomimetics that at present the number of instances in

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ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)

which a patent has been commoditized is limited regardless of country or region. The main products

can be broken down as belonging to one the following three broad categories.

a) Products related to molecules and materials. Examples include hydrophilic and hydrophobic

materials (e.g. water-repellent paints, tile-related building materials, and water-repellent glass);

structural coloration materials (e.g. chemical fibers); optical materials (e.g. antireflective film and

displays); adhesive and gummed materials (e.g. adhesive tape, carpet tile, and cyclone vacuum

cleaners); medical and biocompatible materials (e.g. injection needles and cosmetics); low-value

resistance and low-friction materials (e.g. competition swimwear, fuselage paint for airplanes, and

ship-coating materials); and antifouling materials (e.g. antifouling coating for ship bottoms).

b) Products meant to reduce the resistivity of a structure (e.g. cooling fans, washing machines, mixers,

and the shape of the noses on bullet trains) or save weight (e.g. automobile wheels).

c) Products related to robots (e.g. robots patterned after dragonflies, elephant noses) or machine

controls (e.g. sensors and software for controlling smart grids).

In Japan, numerous products related to the molecular and materials fields exist, e.g. hydrophilic and

hydrophobic materials, optical materials, and adhesive and gummed materials. In the US and Europe, in

contrast, more products in the machine field are encountered. Much work was once being done in Japan

in the areas of biomimetic chemistry and robotics, and it was a leader in molecular scale biomimetics.

However, researchers and engineers have not been able to keep pace with the new currents that emerged

in material-related biomimetics in this century. Broadly speaking, this is because in Japan collaborations

between different fields such as biology and engineering never took place owing to preconceptions in

Japanese research and academic settings about interdisciplinary interactions. R. Kosaka et al. reviewed

and analysed the latest trends related to biomimetics and innovations. It is followed by the comparative

analysis of biomimetics-related patents versus the number of related scientific articles in Japan, the

USA and European contexts. From the analysis, it is pointed out that the trends of research and patents

are predominantly correlated in the USA and Europe. Japan has a relatively small number of patents

[8,9]

and articles but has comparatively more activity in patent applications than in article publications.

Additionally, it is believed that the materials field will become the primary destination for application

of biomimetics. If more products are to be brought to market in these areas, it will be necessary to

develop even more technologies in the area of microstructure fabrication techniques in order to reduce

manufacturing costs and improve durability. Furthermore, if the biomimetics market is to expand,

would-be producers will need to adopt a “biomimetic” way of thinking in the control and processing

fields. In particular, observers have highlighted the importance of autonomous distributed control

systems, and the expectations of people involved in the field for advances in the development and

practical application of such systems are high.

These reports concluded that biomimetics is applied to technical fields completely different from

molecules/materials, structures, machines, and processes, and its application industry is extremely

wide. In order to match with applied industries, it is necessary to overcome existing technical and

industrial barriers. Therefore, it can be said that a biomimetics database that links knowledge from

different technical fields and applied industries is essential.
5 Theory of database
5.1 TRIZ

There are a variety of approaches to solving engineering problems. Researchers and engineers have

found success in wielding such approaches as a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

(SWOT) analysis, which applies a business framework to the problem; "logic" (or "issue") trees; Osborn's

checklist; mind maps; quality control methodology; and the Taguchi method. Among these methods is

one that has been applied in a variety of fields since 1990 as a means for generating ideas for material

design in mechanical engineering. This is the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, usually known by

its Russian acronym TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadach, Теориярешенияизобретат

ельскихзадач). TRIZ was developed by Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (1926-1998), who worked as a

[10-14]

clerk in a Russian patent office. Altshuller came up with TRIZ as a set of "principles for performing

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ISO/TR 23847:2022(E)

creative problem solving" that applied a system to the regularities he uncovered in his examinations of

some 1,5 million patents. The distinguishing feature of this method is that it presents a set of rules and

principles for solving issues in engineering technology. The main feature of the TRIZ method is that its

principles and the principles for solving engineering technology are presented, and by patterning the

problem that needs to be solved, hints for problem solving are obtained regardless of research field.

There are several usages such as (1) principle, (2) prediction, and (3) effects.

40 principles for problem-solving is one of the methods in category (1) principle in TRIZ, a technique to

settle a problem from an invention principle of 40 by an inconsistent matrix way. The merit of the TRIZ

method is that it presents a set of rules and principles for solving issues in engineering technology. It

does this by looking for the patterns in the problems for which solutions are being sought, thus making

it possible to get ideas about how to solve those problems regardless of the field of research. There is

any number of ways to apply it based for example on principles, predictions, or effects. Here, we will

focus on problem solving methods that make effective use of the 40 problem-solving principles the

theory proposes. The principle-based approach entails taking the physical characteristics spanning

the 39 parameters shown below and using them to create a 39-by-39 matrix comprising "parameters

wish to improve" and "problems that will arise when improvement is made". The goal is to resolve the

technological contradictions represented by the intersections between those parameters an inventor

seeks to improve and those parameters that will change for the worse.
The 39 features of
...

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