Documentation -- Abstracts for publications and documentation

Presents guidelines for the preparation and presentation of abstracts of documents. Applies to abstracts prepared by the authors of primary documents, and to their publication, because such abstracts can be both helpful to the readers of these documents and reproducible with little or no change in secondary publications and services. The basic guidelines are also suitable for the preparation of abstracts by persons other than the authors. Cancels and replaces ISO Recommendation R 214-1961, of which it constitutes a technical revision.

Documentation -- Analyse pour les publications et la documentation

Dokumentacija - Izvlečki za publikacije in dokumentacijo

Ta mednarodni standard daje smernice za pripravo in objavo izvlečkov dokumentov. Pri tem so pomembni predvsem izvlečki, ki so jih pripravili avtorji primarnih dokumentov, in njihova objava, kar je lahko koristno za bralce dokumentov. Izvlečke je mogoče z manjšimi spremembami ali brez njih ponatisniti v sekundarnih publikacijah in uporabiti v informacijskih službah. Temeljne smernice so namenjene tudi za pripravo izvlečkov, če jih avtorji niso pripravili, zato so vključena tudi posebna navodila za predstavitev izvlečkov v sekundarnih publikacijah in službah.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Feb-1976
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2020

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION NEX~YHAPOJIHAX OPrAHM3AUMR l-i0 ~AHAAPTM3AIJWM .ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Documentation - Abstracts for publications and
documentation
Documentation - Anal yse pour /es publications et la documentation
First edition - 1976-03-01
UDC 002 : 001.814.4 : 655.535.54 Ref. No. IS0 214-1976 (E)
Descriptors : documentation, abstracts, preparation, layout, specifications.
Price based on 6 pages
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------

IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation

of national standards institutes (IS0 Member Bodies). The work of developing
International Standards is carried out through IS0 Technical Committees. Every
Member Body interested in a subject for which a Technical Committee has been set

up has the right to be represented on that Committee. International organizations,

governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

Draft International Standards adopted by the Technical Committees are circulated
to the Member Bodies for approval before their acceptance as International
Standards by the IS0 Council.
International Standard IS0 214 was drawn up by Technical Committee ISOnC 46,
Documentation, and circulated to the Member Bodies in May 1974.
It has been approved by the Member Bodies of the following countries :
India Spain
Australia
I ran Sweden
Austria
Ireland Switzerland
Belgium
Israel Thailand
Brazil
United Kingdom
Bulgaria Italy
Netherlands U.S.A.
Canada
Poland U.S.S.R.
Finland
Portugal Yugoslavia
France
Romania
Germany
Hungary South Africa, Rep. of
No Member Body expressed disapproval of the document.
This International Standard cancels and replaces IS0 Recommendation
R 214-1961, of which it constitutes a technical revision.
0 International Organization for Standardization, 1976 l
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IS0 214-1976 (E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
- Abstracts for publications and
Documentation
documentation
0 INTRODUCTION An abstract should be as informative as is permitted by the
type and style of the document; that is, it should present as
The growing volume of scholarly, scientific, technical, and
much as possible of the quantitative and/or qualitative
other informational and instructional documents makes it
information contained in the document?) Informative
increasingly important that the basic content of each
abstracts are especially desirable for texts describing
document be quickly and accurately identifiable both by
experimental work and documents devoted to a single
readers of the primary literature and by users of secondary
theme. However, some discursive or lengthy texts, such as
services. This ready identification is aided if the author of a
broad overviews, review papers, and entire monographs,
primary document (aided by editors) begins it with a
may permit the preparation of an abstract that is only an
meaningful title and a well-prepared abstract.
indicative or descriptive guide to the type of document, the
principal subjects covered, and the way the facts are
treated. A combined informative-indicative abstract must
often be prepared when limitations on the length of the
1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION
abstract or the type and style of the document make it
necessary to confine informative statements to the primary
This International Standard presents guidelines for the
elements of the document and to relegate other aspects to
preparation and presentation of abstracts of documents.
indicative statements. Se6 examples 1 to 3.
Emphasis is placed on the abstracts prepared by the authors
of primary documents, and on their publication, because
Abstracts should not be confused with related, but distinct,
such abstracts can be both helpful to the readers of these
terms : annotation, extract, and summary. An annotation is
documents and reproducible with little or no change in
a brief comment or explanation about a document or its
secondary publications and services. The basic guidelines
contents, or even a very brief description, usually added as
are also suitable for the preparation of abstracts by persons
a note after the bibliographic citation of the document. An
other than the authors, so specific guidelines are also
extract is one or more portions of a document selected to
included for the presentation of abstracts in secondary
represent the whole. A summary, if one is needed, is a brief
publications and services.
restatement within the document (usually at the end) of its
salient findings and conclusions, and is intended to
complete the orientation of a reader who has studied the
preceding text. (Because other portions of the document,
for example purpose, methodology, are not usually
2 DEFINITIONS
condensed into this type of summary, the term should not
be used synonymously with “abstract ”; i.e. abstract as
In this International Standard, the term abstract signifies an
defined above should not be called a summary, and a
abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a
summary, if used, should not duplicate - should not take
document, without added interpretation or criticism’ ) and

without distinction as to who wrote the abstract.*) on the full scope of - the abstract.)

1) A brief, critical review of a document often takes on much of the character of an informative or informative-indicative abstract, but its

writer is expected to include suitable criticism and interpretation.

2) The word synopsis was formerly used to denote a r&u& prepared by the author, with the term abstract restricted to a condensation

prepared by some other person. Elimination of this distinction, which has largely disappeared, was one of the reasons for revising

ISO/R 214-1961.

3) More-indicative abstracts or even annotations are less expensive to prepare, and may sometimes be all that stringencies in publication

economics will permit. However, governing factors such as economics should not be confused with true standards for the quality of abstracts.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
IS0 214=1976(E)
and are free from copyright restrictions. Such authors’
3 PURPOSE AND USE OF ABSTRACTS
abstracts can also provide suitable bases for the secondary
service that orients its abstracts to a group of users different
3.1 Determining relevance
from those envisaged by the authors. A completely new
A well-prepared abstract enables readers to identify the
abstract usually needs to be written only when brief,

basic content of a document quickly and accurately, to subordinated phases of a document are all that fall within

determine its relevance to their interests, and thus to decide the scope of a secondary publication.

whether they need to read the document in its entirety.
3.6 Use on documentation cards
Obviating reading full text of fringe documents
3.2
Documentation cards can be conveniently prepared or even
Readers for whom the document is of fringe interest often
separated from the “abstract sheets” of journals and
obtain enough information from the abstract to make their
proceedings that include and properly present such pages of
reading of the whole document unnecessary.
abstracts; see IS0 5122, Documentation - Abstract sheets in
serial publicationsJ 1. Also, when documentation cards
3.3 Usefulness for computerized full-text searching
accompany documents such as reports, these cards should
preferably carry the abstracts that these documents
Abstracts are also of value in computerized full-text
contain.
searching for alerting and inform ation retrieval.
3.4 Use in specific primary documents
The following recommendations are for authors and editors
4 TREATMENT OF DOCUMENT CONTENT
of specific documents and publications, such as journals,
reports and theses, monographs and proceedings, and
Readers in many disciplines have become accustomed to an
patents.
abstract that states the purpose, methodology, results, and
conclusions presented in the original document. Most
3.4.1 Journals
documents describing experimental work can be analysed
according to these elements, but their optimum sequence
Include an abstract with every journal article, essay, and
may depend on the audience for which the abstract is
discussion. Notes, short communications, editorials, and
primarily intended. Readers interested in applying new
“letters to the editor” that have substantial technical or
knowledge may gain information more quickly from a
scholarly content should also have brief abstracts.
findings-oriented arrangement in which the most important
results and conclusions are placed first, followed by
3.4.2 Reports and theses
supporting details, other findings, and methodology. See
I ncl ude an abstract in every separately published report,
parts A and B of example 5.
pamphlet, or thesis.
The following rules are optimum for informative abstracts.
Writers of informative-indicative and indicative abstracts
3.4.3 Monographs and proceedings
should follow them to the extent that is practical.
A single abstract may suffice in a book or monograph that
deals with a homogeneous subject. However, a separate
4.1 Purpose
abstract is also necessary for each chapter if the volume
covers different topics or is a collection of papers by
State the primary objectives and scope of the study or the
different authors (for example, the proceedings of a
reasons why the document was written unless these are
meeting or symposium). See example 4.
already clear from the title of the document or can be
derived from the remainder of the abstract. Refer to earlier
3.4.4 Patents
literature only if it is an essential part of the purpose?)
Each patent or application should be accompanied by an
abstract, as required by the rules of the issuing country or
4.2 Methodology
international agency.
Describe techniques or approaches only to the degree
necessary for comprehension. Identify new techniques
3.5 Use in secondary publications and services
and describe the basic methodological
clearly, however,
Secondary publications and services can often make
the range of operation, and the obtainable
principle,
verbatim use of the abstracts provided in primary
accuracy. For documents concerned with non-experimental
documents if these abstracts have been carefully prepared
work, describe data sources and data manipulation.
1) At present at the stage of draft.

2) In this event, an adequate bibliographic citation should be given within parentheses.

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IS0 2144976 (E)
In a separately published report, place the abstract on the
4.3 Results and conclusions
title page (if possible), on the “report documentation page”
Results and conclusions should be clearly presented. They
(if one is included), or on a right-hand page preceding the
may be abstracted jointly to avoid redundancy, but
table of contents.1 )
conjecture must be differentiated from fact.
In a book, monograph, or thesis, place the abstract on the
back of the title page or on the right-hand page following it.
4.3.1 Results
Place separate abstracts of chapters on or preceding their
first pages.
Describe findings as concisely and informatively as
possible. They may be experimental or theoretical results
5.2 Bibliographic information
obtained, data collected, relationships and correlations
noted, effects observed, etc. Make clear whether numerical
In primary publications, include a bibliographic citation of
values are raw or derived and whether they are the results
the document on the same page as the abstract in a suitable
of a single observation or of repeated measurements. When
location, for example in the running head or in the bottom
findings are too numerous for all to be included, some of
margin. In secondary publications, or whenever the abstract
the following should receive priority : new and verified
of document is reproduced separately from it, precede or
events, findings of long-term value, significant discoveries,
follow2) the abstract with the bibliographic citation of
findings that contradict previous theories, or findings that
the original document. Three variations of this practice are
the author knows are relevant to a practical problem.
shown in example 6.
Limits of accuracy and reliability and ranges of validity
should be indicated. For details of citation practices see IS0 690, Docu-
men ta tion - Bibliographical references - Essential and
supplementary elements.
4.3.2 Conclusions
5.3 Documentation cards
Describe the implications of the results and especially how
these relate to the purpose of the investigation or for
Presentation of the abstract and its bibliographic citation in
preparing the document. Conclusions can be associated
a format also suitable for documentation cards is
with recommendations, evaluations, applications, sugges-
particularly desirable. The use of cardboard is preferable,
tions, new relationships, and hypotheses accepted or re-
both for “abstract sheets” and for documentation cards
jected.
accompanying a document, but if printing is on the same
paper as the rest of a publication it should ‘be on one side
only, to permit cutting out and mounting on blank cards.
4.4 Collateral information
Maximum printing dimensions of 64 mm X 95 mm will
Include findings or information incidental to the main
permit use of cards sizes of either 74 mm X 105 mm
purpose of the document but of value outside its major
(IS0 A7) or 75
mm X 125 mm (the size of the inter-
subject area (for example, modifications of methods, new
national library catalogue card).
compounds, newly determined physical constants, and
5.4 Completeness, accuracy, and length
newly discovered documents or data sources). Report these
clearly, but in such a way that they do not distract
Since an abstract must be intelligible to the reader without
attention from the main theme. Do not exaggerate their
reference to the document, make the abstract
relative importance in the abstracted document.
self-contained. Retain the basic information and tone of the
original document. Be as concise as possible while still
fulfilling requirements as to content, but do not be cryptic
or obscure. Cite background information sparingly if at all.
5 PRESENTATION AND STYLE
Do not include information or claims not contained in the
document itself.
5.1 Location of the abstract
For most papers and portions of monographs, an abstract
of fewer than 250 words will be adequate. For notes and
Place the abstract (at least one in the language of the
short communications, fewer than 100 words should
original document) as early as possible in each document.
suffice. Editorials and “letters to the editor” often will

In a journal, publish the abstract prominently on the first require only a single-sentence abstract. For long documents

such as reports and theses, an abstract generally should be
page of each article or other abstractable item, preferably
less than 500 words and preferably short enough to appear
between its title and author information and the text. It is
on a single page. The contents of the document are often
also desirable to include it on an “abstract sheet” prepared
more significant than its length in determining the length of
in accordance with IS0 5122, Documentation - Abstract
the abstract required.
sheets in serial publications.
foreword and should

1) If a brief foreword is deemed necessary to background information in a report, the abstract should follow the

supply
not repeat its background information.

2) In the latter case, however, the title of the document may optionally precede the abstract.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
IS0 214-1976(E)
5.5 Style passive voice may be used for indicative statements and
even for informative statements in which the receiver of the
Begin the abstract with a topic sentence that is a central
action should be stressed. For example :
statement of the document ’s major theme, unless this is
Say : “I ron-contai ning bauxites sweeten gasolines in the
already well stated in the document ’s title preceding the
presence of air.”
abstract. In abstracts specifically written or modified for
secondary use, state the type of the document early in the
Not : “Gasolines are sweetened iron-containing
abstract when this is not evident from the title or publisher
bauxites in the presence of air.”
of the document or will not be clear from the remainder of
the abstract. Explain either the author ’s treatment of the
But : “The relative adsorption coefficients of ether,
subject or the nature of the document; for example,
water, and acetylene were measured by . . .”
theoretical treatment, case history, state-of-the-art report,
Use the third person unless use of the first person will avoid
historical review, report of original research, “letter to the
cumbersome sentence constructions and lead to greater
editor ”, literature survey, etc.
clarity.
5.5.1 Paragraphing; complete sentences ’
5.5.3 Terminology
Write a short abstract as a single, unified paragraph, but use
Use significant words from the text which will help
more than one paragraph for long abstracts. Write the
computerized text searching.
abstract in complete sentences, especially in informative
abstracts, and use transitional words and phrases for
Avoid unfamiliar terms, acronyms, abbreviations or
coherence. A sequence of keywords for indexing (separated
symbols, or define them the first time they occur in the
by punctuation) may follow the text of the abstract,
abstract. Use IS0 units, symbols, and terminology
however, or may be substituted for it when an indicative
whenever possible, or national standards in their absence.
abstract would otherwise have been employed.
5.5.4 Non-textual material
5.5.2 Use of active verbs and personal pronouns
Include short tables, equations, structural formulas, and
diagrams only when necessary for brevity and clarity and
Use verbs in the active voice whenever possible; they
when no acceptable alternative exists.
contribute to clear, brief, forceful writing. However, the
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
iSO214-1976(E)
ANNEX
EXAMPLES OF ABSTRACTS”

EXAMPLE 1 - Typical informative abstracts PHOSPHATE EQUILIBRIA. II. STUDIES ON THE

SILVER-PHOSPHATE ELECTRODES
The solubility of Ag3P04 was studied at 25 “C in 3M NaC104 by
THE LOW-INCOME FARMER IN A CHANGING SOCIETY’
using glass and Ag electrodes (to measure [H + ] and [Ag +I). The
TO identify some major differences among low-income farmers, and
solubility product of Ag3PO4, KS = [Ag ‘13 [HPO&]/[H ‘1, was
to delineate the group that represents the real core of the
calculated as log KS = - 6,7O +, 0,04. The data give no evidence for
persistently poor, data were obtained from 189 farm operators
another solid phosphate or for a variation in the composition of
representing a stratified random sample in Fayette County,
Ag3P04. They are compatible with small amounts of soluble
Pennsylvania, in 1957. The five main categories of individuals
Ag phosphate complex; the best agreement, though not conclusive,
identified were : (1) the aged, (2) the physically handicapped,
is with a complex AgHPO 4-, with a formation constant (from A$
(3) the farm operator primarily oriented to non-farm opportunities,
and HPO$) log K < 3,18. The equilibrium is relatively rapid. ‘The
(4) the farm operator oriented to commercial agriculture, and
Ag3PO4/Ag electrode may be used to study phosphate complexing
(5) the farm operator oriented to subsistence agriculture. The
with other metal ions..
characteristics of the core of low-income subsistence farmers who
normally do not respond to either welfare or economic-development
efforts were examined in greater detail. It was found that they :
CHROMIUM AS CATALYST IN
(1) retained traditional v al ues while having lost many traditional
AMMONIA SYNTHESIS6
subsistence skills, (2) failed to respond to greater agricultural

efficiency and productivity efforts because commercial success was When a chromium catalyst prepared by the decomposition of

dibenzenechromium was used in the synthesis of ammonia at
not highIy valued, (3) placed extreme emphasis on neighborliness
436,5 OC, the rate constants of ammonia formation for a given
and friendliness as their primary goals, and (4) must respond to an
catalyst surface area were of the same order of magnitude as those
attempt to change prestige orientation if their cycle of poverty is to
on iron. The results confirm the hypothesis that the catalytic action
be broken.
of metallic iron in ammonia synthesis is due to its atomic symmetry,
and that other transition metals having the same symmetry, and
STORAGE OF NATURAL GAS.
similar interatomic distances as the (111) face of iron should also be
FUNDAMENTALS OF A NEW METHOD2
catalytically active. The results also confirm an ammonia synthesis
mechanism in which the initial product is N2H.
A methane absorption method may be more economical for
peakshaving than liquefied natural gas or dry pressurized storage. A
pressure holder containing liquid propane and/or butane precooled
THE FILM-FORMING PROPERTIES OF
to - 76 “F is supplied with cooled gaseous methane from supply
EMULSIFIERS OBTAIN
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Documentation -- Analyse pour les publications et la documentationDocumentation -- Abstracts for publications and documentation01.140.20Informacijske vedeInformation sciencesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ISO 214:1976SIST ISO 214:1996en01-marec-1996SIST ISO 214:1996SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ISO 214:1996

w Y - INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION NEX~YHAPOJIHAX OPrAHM3AUMR l-i0 ~AHAAPTM3AIJWM .ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION Documentation - Abstracts for publications and documentation Documentation - Anal yse pour /es publications et la documentation First edition - 1976-03-01 UDC 002 : 001.814.4 : 655.535.54 Ref. No. IS0 214-1976 (E) Descriptors : documentation, abstracts, preparation, layout, specifications. Price based on 6 pages SIST ISO 214:1996

IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards institutes (IS0 Member Bodies). The work of developing International Standards is carried out through IS0 Technical Committees. Every Member Body interested in a subject for which a Technical Committee has been set up has the right to be represented on that Committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. Draft International Standards adopted by the Technical Committees are circulated to the Member Bodies for approval before their acceptance as International Standards by the IS0 Council. International Standard IS0 214 was drawn up by Technical Committee ISOnC 46, Documentation, and circulated to the Member Bodies in May 1974. It has been approved by the Member Bodies of the following countries : Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Finland France Germany Hungary India I ran Ireland Israel Italy Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania South Africa, Rep. of Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand United Kingdom U.S.A. U.S.S.R. Yugoslavia No Member Body expressed disapproval of the document. This International Standard cancels and replaces IS0 Recommendation R 214-1961, of which it constitutes a technical revision. 0 International Organization for Standardization, 1976 l Printed in Switzerland SIST ISO 214:1996

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IS0 214-1976 (E) Documentation - Abstracts for publications and documentation 0 INTRODUCTION The growing volume of scholarly, scientific, technical, and other informational and instructional documents makes it increasingly important that the basic content of each document be quickly and accurately identifiable both by readers of the primary literature and by users of secondary services. This ready identification is aided if the author of a primary document (aided by editors) begins it with a meaningful title and a well-prepared abstract. 1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION This International Standard presents guidelines for the preparation and presentation of abstracts of documents. Emphasis is placed on the abstracts prepared by the authors of primary documents, and on their publication, because such abstracts can be both helpful to the readers of these documents and reproducible with little or no change in secondary publications and services. The basic guidelines are also suitable for the preparation of abstracts by persons other than the authors, so specific guidelines are also included for the presentation of abstracts in secondary publications and services. 2 DEFINITIONS In this International Standard, the term abstract signifies an abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a document, without added interpretation or criticism’ ) and without distinction as to who wrote the abstract.*) An abstract should be as informative as is permitted by the type and style of the document; that is, it should present as much as possible of the quantitative and/or qualitative information contained in the document?) Informative abstracts are especially desirable for texts describing experimental work and documents devoted to a single theme. However, some discursive or lengthy texts, such as broad overviews, review papers, and entire monographs, may permit the preparation of an abstract that is only an indicative or descriptive guide to the type of document, the principal subjects covered, and the way the facts are treated. A combined informative-indicative abstract must often be prepared when limitations on the length of the abstract or the type and style of the document make it necessary to confine informative statements to the primary elements of the document and to relegate other aspects to indicative statements. Se6 examples 1 to 3. Abstracts should not be confused with related, but distinct, terms : annotation, extract, and summary. An annotation is a brief comment or explanation about a document or its contents, or even a very brief description, usually added as a note after the bibliographic citation of the document. An extract is one or more portions of a document selected to represent the whole. A summary, if one is needed, is a brief restatement within the document (usually at the end) of its salient findings and conclusions, and is intended to complete the orientation of a reader who has studied the preceding text. (Because other portions of the document, for example purpose, methodology, are not usually condensed into this type of summary, the term should not be used synonymously with “abstract”; i.e. abstract as defined above should not be called a summary, and a summary, if used, should not duplicate - should not take on the full scope of - the abstract.) 1) A brief, critical review of a document often takes on much of the character of an informative or informative-indicative abstract, but its writer is expected to include suitable criticism and interpretation. 2) The word synopsis was formerly used to denote a r&u& prepared by the author, with the term abstract restricted to a condensation prepared by some other person. Elimination of this distinction, which has largely disappeared, was one of the reasons for revising ISO/R 214-1961. 3) More-indicative abstracts or even annotations are less expensive to prepare, and may sometimes be all that stringencies in publication economics will permit. However, governing factors such as economics should not be confused with true standards for the quality of abstracts. SIST ISO 214:1996

IS0 214=1976(E) 3 PURPOSE AND USE OF ABSTRACTS 3.1 Determining relevance A well-prepared abstract enables readers to identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests, and thus to decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety. 3.2 Obviating reading full text of fringe documents Readers for whom the document is of fringe interest often obtain enough information from the abstract to make their reading of the whole document unnecessary. 3.3 Usefulness for computerized full-text searching Abstracts are also of value in computerized searching for alerting and inform ation retrieval. 3.4 Use in specific primary documents full-text The following recommendations are for authors and editors of specific documents and publications, such as journals, reports and theses, monographs and proceedings, and patents. 3.4.1 Journals Include an abstract with every journal article, essay, and discussion. Notes, short communications, editorials, and “letters to the editor” that have substantial technical or scholarly content should also have brief abstracts. 3.4.2 Reports and theses I ncl ude an abstract pamphlet, or thesis. in every separately published report, 3.4.3 Monographs and proceedings A single abstract may suffice in a book or monograph that deals with a homogeneous subject. However, a separate abstract is also necessary for each chapter if the volume covers different topics or is a collection of papers by different authors (for example, the proceedings of a meeting or symposium). See example 4. 3.4.4 Patents Each patent or application should be accompanied by an abstract, as required by the rules of the issuing country or international agency. 3.5 Use in secondary publications and services Secondary publications and services can often make verbatim use of the abstracts provided in primary documents if these abstracts have been carefully prepared 1) At present at the stage of draft. and are free from copyright restrictions. Such authors’ abstracts can also provide suitable bases for the secondary service that orients its abstracts to a group of users different from those envisaged by the authors. A completely new abstract usually needs to be written only when brief, subordinated phases of a document are all that fall within the scope of a secondary publication. 3.6 Use on documentation cards Documentation cards can be conveniently prepared or even separated from the “abstract sheets” of journals and proceedings that include and properly present such pages of abstracts; see IS0 5122, Documentation - Abstract sheets in serial publicationsJ 1. Also, when documentation cards accompany documents such as reports, these cards should preferably carry the abstracts that these documents contain. 4 TREATMENT OF DOCUMENT CONTENT Readers in many disciplines have become accustomed to an abstract that states the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions presented in the original document. Most documents describing experimental work can be analysed according to these elements, but their optimum sequence may depend on the audience for which the abstract is primarily intended. Readers interested in applying new knowledge may gain information more quickly from a findings-oriented arrangement in which the most important results and conclusions are placed first, followed by supporting details, other findings, and methodology. See parts A and B of example 5. The following rules are optimum for informative abstracts. Writers of informative-indicative and indicative abstracts should follow them to the extent that is practical. 4.1 Purpose State the primary objectives and scope of the study or the reasons why the document was written unless these are already clear from the title of the document or can be derived from the remainder of the abstract. Refer to earlier literature only if it is an essential part of the purpose?) 4.2 Methodology Describe techniques or approaches only to the degree necessary for comprehension. Identify new techniques clearly, however, and describe the basic methodological principle, the range of operation, and the obtainable accuracy. For documents concerned with non-experimental work, describe data sources and data manipulation. 2) In this event, an adequate bibliographic citation should be given within parentheses. 2 SIST ISO 214:1996

IS0 2144976 (E) 4.3 Results and conclusions Results and conclusions should be clearly presented. They may be abstracted jointly to avoid redundancy, but conjecture must be differentiated from fact. 4.3.1 Results Describe findings as concisely and informatively as possible. They may be experimental or theoretical results obtained, data collected, relationships and correlations noted, effects observed, etc. Make clear whether numerical values are raw or derived and whether they are the results of a single observation or of repeated measurements. When findings are too numerous for all to be included, some of the following should receive priority : new and verified events, findings of long-term value, significant discoveries, findings that contradict previous theories, or findings that the author knows are relevant to a practical problem. Limits of accuracy and reliability and ranges of validity should be indicated. 4.3.2 Conclusions Describe the implications of the results and especially how these relate to the purpose of the investigation or for preparing the document. Conclusions can be associated with recommendations, evaluations, applications, sugges- tions, new relationships, and hypotheses accepted or re- jected. 4.4 Collateral information Include findings or information incidental to the main purpose of the document but of value outside its major subject area (for example, modifications of methods, new compounds, newly determined physical constants, and newly discovered documents or data sources). Report these clearly, but in such a way that they do not distract attention from the main theme. Do not exaggerate their relative importance in the abstracted document. 5 PRESENTATION AND STYLE 5.1 Location of the abstract Place the abstract (at least one in the language of the original document) as early as possible in each document. In a journal, publish the abstract prominently on the first page of each article or other abstractable item, preferably between its title and author information and the text. It is also desirable to include it on an “abstract sheet” prepared in accordance with IS0 5122, Documentation - Abstract sheets in serial publications. In a separately published report, place the abstract on the title page (if possible), on the “report documentation page” (if one is included), or on a right-hand page preceding the table of contents.1 ) In a book, monograph, or thesis, place the abstract on the back of the title page or on the right-hand page following it. Place separate abstracts of chapters on or preceding their first pages. 5.2 Bibliographic information In primary publications, include a bibliographic citation of the document on the same page as the abstract in a suitable location, for example in the running head or in the bottom margin. In secondary publications, or whenever the abstract of document is reproduced separately from it, precede or follow2) the abstract with the bibliographic citation of the original document. Three variations of this practice are shown in example 6. For details of citation practices see IS0 690, Docu- men ta tion - Bibliographical references - Essential and supplementary elements. 5.3 Documentation cards Presentation of the abstract and its bibliographic citation in a format also suitable for documentation cards is particularly desirable. The use of cardboard is preferable, both for “abstract sheets” and for documentation cards accompanying a document, but if printing is on the same paper as the rest of a publication it should ‘be on one side only, to permit cutting out and mounting on blank cards. Maximum printing dimensions of 64 mm X 95 mm will permit use of cards sizes of either 74 mm X 105 mm (IS0 A7) or 75 mm X 125 mm (the size of the inter- national library catalogue card). 5.4 Completeness, accuracy, and length Since an abstract must be intelligible to the reader without reference to the document, make the abstract self-contained. Retain the basic information and tone of the original document. Be as concise as possible while still fulfilling requirements as to content, but do not be cryptic or obscure. Cite background information sparingly if at all. Do not include information or claims not contained in the document itself. For most papers and portions of monographs, an abstract of fewer than 250 words will be adequate. For notes and short communications, fewer than 100 words should suffice. Editorials and “letters to the editor” often will require only a single-sentence abstract. For long documents such as reports and theses, an abstract generally should be less than 500 words and preferably short enough to appear on a single page. The contents of the document are often more significant than its length in determining the length of the abstract required. 1) If a brief foreword is deemed necessary not repeat its background information. to supply background information in a report, the abstract should follow the foreword and should 2) In the latter case, however, the title of the document may optionally precede the abstract. 3 SIST ISO 214:1996

IS0 214-1976(E) 5.5 Style Begin the abstract with a topic sentence that is a central statement of the document’s major theme, unless this is already well stated in the document’s title preceding the abstract. In abstracts specifically written or modified for secondary use, state the type of the document early in the abstract when this is not evident from the title or publisher of the document or will not be clear from the remainder of the abstract. Explain either the author’s treatment of the subject or the nature of the document; for example, theoretical treatment, case history, state-of-the-art report, historical review, report of original research, “letter to the editor”, literature survey, etc. 5.5.1 Paragraphing; complete sentences ’ Write a short abstract as a single, unified paragraph, but use more than one paragraph for long abstracts. Write the abstract in complete sentences, especially in informative abstracts, and use transitional words and phrases for coherence. A sequence of keywords for indexing (separated by punctuation) may follow the text of the abstract, however, or may be substituted for it when an indicative abstract would otherwise have been employed. 5.5.2 Use of active verbs and personal pronouns Use verbs in the active voice whenever possible; they contribute to clear, brief, forceful writing. However, the passive voice may be used for indicative statements and even for informative statements in which the receiver of the action should be stressed. For example : Say : “I ron-contai presence of air.” ning bauxites sweeten gasolines in the Not : “Gasolines are sweetened bauxites in the presence of air.” bY iron-containing But : “The relative adsorption coefficients of ether, water, and acetylene were measured by . . .” Use the third person unless use of the first person will avoid cumbersome sentence constructions and lead to greater clarity. 5.5.3 Terminology Use significant words from the text which will help computerized text searching. Avoid unfamiliar terms, acronyms, abbreviations or symbols, or define them the first time they occur in the abstract. Use IS0 units, symbols, and terminology whenever possible, or national standards in their absence. 5.5.4 Non-textual material Include short tables, equations, structural formulas, and diagrams only when necessary for brevity and clarity and when no acceptable alternative exists. SIST ISO 214:1996

iSO214-1976(E) ANNEX EXAMPLES OF ABSTRACTS” EXAMPLE 1 - Typical informative abstracts THE LOW-INCOME FARMER IN A CHANGING SOCIETY’ TO identify some major differences among low-income farmers, and to delineate the group that represents the real core of the persistently poor, data were obtained from 189 farm operators representing a stratified random sample in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in 1957. The five main categories of individuals identified were : (1) the aged, (2) the physically handicapped, (3) the farm operator primarily oriented to non-farm opportunities, (4) the farm operator oriented to commercial agriculture, and (5) the farm operator oriented to subsistence agriculture. The characteristics of the core of low-income subsistence farmers who normally do not respond to either welfare or economic-development efforts were examined in greater detail. It was found that they : (1) retained traditional al v ues while having lost many traditional subsistence skills, (2) failed to respond to greater agricultural efficiency and productivity efforts because commercial success was not highIy valued, (3) placed extreme emphasis on neighborliness and friendliness as their primary goals, and (4) must respond to an attempt to change prestige orientation if their cycle of poverty is to be broken. STORAGE OF NATURAL GAS. FUNDAMENTALS OF A NEW METHOD2 A methane absorption method may be more economical for peakshaving than liquefied natural gas or dry pressurized storage. A pressure holder containing liquid propane and/or butane precooled to - 76 “F is supplied with cooled gaseous methane from supply lines at off-peak periods. The methane is introduced at the bottom of the tank to prevent the lighter liquid (methane absorbed in propane) from affecting further absorption. During peaks, a valve is automatically opened, and the resulting pressure drop brings the methane into the supply lines via a Wobbe-number regulator. In severe peaks, liquefied natural gas can also be used. Optimum conditions for the absorption method would be for 3 to 11,4 million ft3/storage cycle or up to 1,14 billion ft3/season. TUNGSTEN CARBIDE AS ANODE MATERIAL FOR FUEL CELLS3 Stationary potentiostatic current-voltage curves for tungsten carbide and Raney platinum electrodes of equal size in the electrochemical oxidation of 6 M formaldehyde in 3 M sulphuric acid at 70 “C showed that tungsten carbide was superior in the potential range of interest for fuel cell anodes. Current densities after 3 h were 650 mA/g of tungsten carbide using formaldehyde, 500 mA/g using hydrogen, and 160 mA/g using formic acid. Graph. LEAD : X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF A HIGH-PRESSURE POLYMORPH4 An X-ray diffraction study of lead under

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NORME INTERNATIONALE

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANOARDIZATION .WEK(il>HAPO,IHAR OPr4HM34UMR no Cr4H14PTM34UMM .ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE 3E NORWAilSAT,G\

Documentation - Analyse pour les publications et la
I documentation
Documentation - Abstracts for publications and documentation
Premiere edition - 1976-03-01
Ref. no : IS0 214-1976 (F)
CDU 002 : 001.814.4 : 655.535.54
- U
Descripteun : documentation, rbsumb, prbparation, disposition, sp4cification.
Prix base sur 6 pages
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
AVA NT-P ROPOS
L’ISO (Organisation lnternationale de Normalisation) est une federation mondiale
d’organismes nationaux de normalisation (Comites Membres ISO). L’elaboration de
Normes lnternationales est confiee aux Comites Techniques ISO. Chaque Comite
Membre interesse par une etude a le droit de faire partie du Cornit6 Technique
correspondant. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non
gouvernementales, en liaison avec I’ISO, participent Bgalement aux travaux.
Les Projets de Normes lnternationales adopt& par les Comites Techniques sont
soumis BUX Comites Membres pour approbation, avant leur acceptation comme
Normes lnternationales par le Conseil de I‘ISO.
La Norme lnternationale IS0 214 a et6 etablie par le Comite Technique lSO/TC 46,
Documentation, et soumise aux Comites Membres en mai 1974.
Elle a kt6 approuvee par les Comites Membres des pays suivants :
Afrique du Sud, Rep. d‘ France Roumanie
Allemagne Hongrie Roy aume- U ni
Australie I nde Suede
Autriche Iran Suisse
lrlande T h a’il a nde
Belgique
Bresil Israel U.R.S.S.
Bu lgarie ltalie U.S.A.
Canada Pays- B as Yougoslavie
Pologne
Espagne
Finlande Portugal
Aucun Cornit6 Membre n‘a desapprouve le document.
Cette Norme lnternationale annule et remplace la Recommandation
ISO/R 214-1961, dont elle constitue une revision technique.
0 Organisation lnternationale de Normalisation, 1976 0
Imprim6 en Suisse
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NORM E I NTE R N AT I ONA LE IS0 214-1976 (F)
Documentation - Analyse pour les publications et la
documentation
0 INTRODUCTION Une analyse devrait dtre aussi informative que I‘autorisent
le genre et le style du document, ce qui veut dire qu’elle
L‘accroissement du volume de documents emanant de
devrait representer autant que possible I‘information quan-
sociktbs savantes, de documents scientifiques, techniques, et
titative ou qualitative, ou les deux, contenue dans le docu-
autres documents d‘information ou d‘enseignement, rend
ment.3) Les analyses informatives sont specialement utiles
plus importante encore pour les lecteurs de la
pour les textes dkcrivant un travail experimental et pour les
documentation primaire et pour les utilisateurs des services
documents consacres B un seul theme. Cependant, quelques
secondaires, la necessite d‘identifier le plus rapidement et le
textes discursifs ou Btendus, tels que des vues d’ensemble,
plus exactement possible le contenu mdme de chaque
des critiques et des monographies completes peuvent
document. Cette identification rapide est facilitee si
permettre la preparation d’une analyse qui n’est qu‘un
I’auteur du document (aid6 par les Bditeurs) la fait prkceder
guide indicatif ou descriptif du genre du document, des
d’un titre significatif et d’une analyse bien prkparee.
principaux sujets couverts, et de la maniere dont les faits
II se peut qu’une analyse B la fois informative
sont traitb.
et indicative soit effectuee quand les limites de la longueur
de I’analyse, ou le type et le style du document, exigent de
limiter les elements informatifs aux elements primaires du
1 OBJET ET DOMAINE D’APPLICATION
document et de releguer les autres aspects dans les 618ments
indicatifs. Voir exemples 1 et 2.
La presente Norme Internationale prescrit des regles pour la
preparation et la presentation des analyses de documents.
Les analyses ne doivent pas &tre confondues avec les termes
les analyses preparees par les auteurs
Elle met I’accent sur
suivants, connexes mais distincts : annotation, extrait et
de documents primaires, et sur leur publication, car de
resume. Une annotation est un bref commentaire ou
telles analyses peuvent &tre utiles aux lecteurs de ces
explication d‘un document ou de son contenu, ou mdme
documents tout en Btant reproductibles avec peu ou pas de
une tres breve description, habituellement ajoute en note
modifications dans les services et publications secondaires.
apres la reference bibliographique du document. Un extrait
Les principes de base s’appliquent Bgalement B la
se compose d‘une ou de plusieurs parties d’un document
preparation des analyses par d’autres personnes que les
choisies pour representer le tout. Un resume, s’il est
auteurs; aussi des regles specif iques sont-elles prevues pour
necessaire d’en faire un, est un second et bref expose dans
la presentation des analyses dans les publications et services
un document (genkralement place B la fin de ce document)
secondai res.
de ses decouvertes et de ses conclusions caracteristiques, et
a pour but de completer I’orientation du lecteur qui a
Btudie le texte precedent. (Etant donne que les autres
parties importantes du document, par exemple le but ou la
methodologie, ne sont generalement pas condensees dans ce
2 DEFINITIONS
genre de resume, le terme ne saurait &re assimile B

Dans la presente Norme Internationale, le terme analyse I’ccanalyse)), c’est-8-dire qu‘une analyse telle qu’elle est

signifie une representation abregee et precise du contenu definie precedemment ne doit pas &re appelee un resume,

d‘un document, sans interpretation ou critique1 ) et sans et qu’un resume, si I’on en fait un, ne doit pas reproduire

distinction de I’auteur de I’analyse.2) - reprendre I’objet de - I’analyse.)

1 I Une breve analyse critique rev& souvent les caracteristiques de I’analyse informative, ou de I’analyse informative-indicative, rnais I‘on attend

de son auteur qu‘il y inclue des valeurs de critique et d’interprbtation appropriees.

2) Le mot synopsis Btait autrefois utilise pour definir un r6surnB prepare par I’auteur, le terrne analyse etant reserve B un condense prepare par

une autre personne. La suppression de cette distinction, qui a en grande partie disparu, est une des raisons de la revision de I’ISO/R 214-1961.

3) Des analyses plus indicatives ou merne des annotations sont rnoins co0teuses. dans la mesure permise par les contingences intervenant dans

1’6conornie de la publication. Des facteurs fondarnentaux tels que I‘bconomie ne doivent cependant pas etre confondus avec de vhritables

norrnes regissant la qualit6 des analyses.
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IS0 214-1976 (F)
3 BUT ET UTILISATION DES ANALYSES
3.5 Utilisation dans les publications et services secondaires
Les publications et les services secondaires peuvent souvent
3.1 Determination de la pertinence
employer mot pour mot les analyses Blaborees dans les
documents primaires, si ces analyses ont et6 soigneusement
Une analyse bien prkparbe permet aux lecteurs d'identifier
preparees, et si elles ne sont pas touchees par les restrictions
rapidement et d'une manihre precise le contenu
du droit d'auteur. De telles analyses d'auteurs peuvent
fondamental d'un document, afin de determiner I'intCrkt
fournir des bases au service secondaire qui oriente les
qu'il presente pour eux, et ainsi de decider s'ils ont besoin
analyses en vue d'un groupe d'utilisateurs differents de ceux
de le lire en entier.
imagines par les auteurs. I1 n'est besoin de rediger une
analyse entierement nouvelle que si des elements sommaires
3.2 Lecture facultative de I'ensemble d'un texte de
et accessoires du document correspondent au domaine
documents marginaux
couvert par la publication secondaire.
Les lecteurs pour lesquels le document est d'un interet
marginal tirent souvent assez d'information de I'analyse
3.6 Utilisation dans les fiches bibliographiques
pour rendre inutile la lecture de tout le document.
Les fiches bibliographiques peuvent etre sans inconvenient
preparees ou m&me separees des ((pages de sommaires
3.3 Utilite pour la selection par ordinateur de textes
analytiques)) des revues et actes qui comportent de tels
integraux
sommaires; voir IS0 51 22, Documentation - Sommaires

i Les analyses servent aussi I la selection mecanisee du texte analytiques dans les publications en s6rie. 1 ) De m&me,

integral pour la recherche de I'information. quand les fiches bibliographiques accompagnent des

documents tels que les rapports, ces fiches doivent de
preference porter les analyses que contiennent ces
3.4 Utilisation dans des documents primaires spkifiques
documents.
Les presentes recommandations concernent les auteurs et
les redacteurs de documents et de publications spkcifiques,
tels que les revues, rapports et th6ses, monographies et
actes, et brevets d'invention.
4 TRAITEMENT DU CONTENU DU DOCUMENT
Les lecteurs dans de nombreuses disciplines se sont habitues
3.4.1 Revues
?I une analyse exposant le but, la methodologie, les resultats
Elles doivent comporter une analyse pour chaque article de
et les conclusions presentes dans le document original. La
revue, essai et discussion. Les notes, communications travail experimental
plupart des documents decrivant un

brhes, Bditoriaux, et ctlettres I 1'6diteur)) d'un intbret ces elements, mais leur

peuvent &re analyses selon
technique ou scientifique evident, devraient Bgalement
succession optimale peut dependre des utilisateurs pour

contenir de brkes analyses. lesquels I'analyse a Bte en premier lieu effectuke. Les

lecteurs interessbs par I'application d'une connaissance
nouvelle, peuvent obtenir plus rapidement une information
3.4.2 Rapports et th&ses
I partir d'un systeme orient6 vers les nouveautes, ob I'on

On doit inclure une analyse dans chaque rapport, brochure trouvera en premier lieu les resultats les plus importants et

ou these publies sBparBment. accompagnes de details complementaires,
les conclusions,
d'autres nouveautes et de la methodologie. Voir les parties
A et B de I'exemple 4.
3.4.3 Monographies et actes
Les r6gles suivantes sont celles qui conviennent le mieux
Une simple analyse peut suffire dans un livre ou dans une
aux analyses informatives. Les redacteurs d'analyses
monographie dont le sujet est homoghe. Cependant, une
informatives-indicatives et indicatives doivent les respecter
analyse sBpar6e est Bgalement necessaire pour chaque
dans la mesure oir elles leur apparaissent pratiques.
chapitre si le volume couvre differents sujets, ou s'il
represente une collection de communications presentees par
diffbrents auteurs (par exemple les actes d'une reunion ou 4.1 But
d'un symposium). Voir exemple 3.
L'analyse doit situer les objectifs primordiaux et le sujet de
I'etude ou les raisons pour lesquelles le document a et6
3.4.4 Brevets d'invention
Bcrit, I moint que cela ne soit deji rendu evident, soit par le
titre du document, soit par la suite de I'analyse. L'analyse
Chaque brevet ou demande de brevet doit 6tre accompagne
ne doit se referer I une bibliographie anterieure que si elle
d'une analyse, conformkment aux rhgles du pays d'origine
fait partie integrante du but propose. 2,
et de I'agence internationale.
1) Actuellement au stade de projet.

2) Dans ce cas, une citation bibliographique suffisante doit etre donn6e entre parenthsses.

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IS0 214-1976 (F)
4.2 MBthodologie 5 PRESENTATION ET STYLE
Les techniques ou les travaux d'approche ne doivent 6tre
5.1 Emplacement de I'analyse
decrits que dans la mesure nbcessaire B la comprehension du
texte. Cependant, iI convient d'identifier avec prbcision les
L'analyse (au moins dans la langue du document original)
techniques nouvelles, et de decrire le principe
t6te que
doit 6tre plac6e dans chaque document aussi en
methodologique fondamental, I'ordre des operations, et le
possible.
degre de precision. Pour les documents relatifs au travail
non experimental, I'analyse doit dbcrire les sources des
Dans une revue, I'analyse doit figurer bien en vue en
donnees et leur manipulation.
premiere page de chaque article ou autre rubrique analysee,
de preference entre le titre et le titre de !'auteur et le texte.

4.3 RBsultats et conclusions II est kgalement souhaitable de l'inclure dans les pages

de soinmaires analytiques prkparkes d'apres I'ISO 51 22,
Les resultats et les conclusions doivent Btre clairement
Documentation - Sommaires analytiques dans les
prbsentes. IIs peuvent &tre analyses ensemble afin d'bviter
publications en serie.
toute redondance, mais la conjecture doit Btre differencibe
du fait. Dans un rapport publie sbparbment, I'analyse doit Btre
placbe sur la page de titre (si possible), sur la page de
sommaire analytique du rapport (s'il en comporte une) ou
4.3.1 Resultats
sur la page de droite prbcedant la table des matiGres.1)
Les elements nouveaux doivent Btre decrits d'une manikre
Dans un livre, une monographie ou une thkse, I'analyse doit
aussi concise qu'informative. Ces elements peuvent 6tre des
la page de titre ou sur la page suivante.
Btre placee au dos de
resultats obtenus d'une maniere experimentale ou
Les analyses separkes des chapitres doivent figurer sur leur
theorique, peuvent consister en donndes recueillies,
premikre page ou avant celle-ci.
relations ou correlations notees, effets observes, etc. II
convient de preciser si les valeurs numeriques sont brutes ou
derivbes, si elles sont le resultat d'une seule observation ou
5.2 Information bibliographique
de mesures repCtCes. Lorsque les nouveautes sont trop
nombreuses pour Btre toutes incluses dans I'analyse, elles
Dans les publications primaires, la rbfbrence bibliographique
doivent apparaitre en priorite : faits nouveaux et verifies,
du document doit figurer sur la m&me page que I'analyse,
nouveautes ayant une valeur B long terme, decouvertes
dans un endroit approprie, par exemple en haut ou en bas
significatives, nouveautes contredisant des theories
de page. Dans les publications secondaires ou chaque fois
antbrieures, nouveautbs que l'auteur sait se rapporter B un
est reproduite skparbment, il
que I'analyse d'un document
problkme pratique. On doit Bgalement indiquer les limites
faut faire precbder ou suivre2)
I'analyse de la reference
de precision et de fiabilite et les degres de validit6 de ces
bibliographique du document original. Les trois variantes
rbsultats.
apparaissent dans I'exemple 6.
Pour les details concernant les rbfbrences bibliographiques,
4.3.2 Conclusions
on peut se reporter B I'ISO 690, Documentation -
Re'ferences bibliographiques - Elements essentiels et
L'analyse doit decrire les consequences des resultats et
complemen taires.
specialement la manikre dont ils se raportent au but de la
recherche ou de la preparation du document. Les
conclusions peuvent s'associer aux recommandations,
5.3 Fiches bibliographiques
evaluations, applications, suggestions, nouvelles relations
hypotheses acceptees ou rejetkes.
La prbsentation de I'analyse et de son information
bibliographique est particulierement souhaitable dans un
format adapt6 aux fiches bibliographiques. L'emploi de
4.4 Information marginale
bristol est preferable, B la fois pour les sommaires

Doivent figurer dans I'objet de I'analyse les elements analytiques et les fiches bibliographiques accompagnant un

nouveaux ou I'information fortuite n'ayant pas trait document, mais si I'analyse est imprimee sur le mBme

directement au sujet principal (par exemple : modifications papier que le reste de la publication, elle doit I'6tre d'un

apportees B des methods, composes nouveaux, constantes seul cBt6, de facon qu'elle puisse ltre dhcoupbe et collee sur

physiques nouvellement determinbes, documents et sources des fiches blanches. Une composition typographique

maximale de 64 mm X 95 mm doit permettre I'utilisation
de donnees nouvellement dbcouverts). II faut les exposer

clairement, mais de manikre qu'ils ne detournent pas des fiches d'un des deux formats suivants :

74 mm X 105 mm (IS0 A7) ou 75 mm X 125 mm (format
I'attention du theme principal. Leur importance relative
international 1.
dans le document analyse ne doit pas 6tre exaghree.

1) Si l'on estime necessaire d'inserer un avant-propos afin de fournir une information preliminaire dans un rapport, I'analyse doit suivre

I'avant-propos et ne pas repeter cette information.

2) Dans ce dernier cas, cependant, le titre du document peut ou non preceder I'analyse.

----
...

NORME INTERNATIONALE 214

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION *ME'XJ>HAPOJHAR OPrAHM34UMR no CT4HIAPTM34UMH aORGANISATlOY 'YTERNATIONALE DE NORUALISATI04

Documentation - Analyse pour les publications et la
I documentation
Documentation - Abstracts for publications and documentation
Premiere edition - 1976-03-01
Ref. no : IS0 214-1976 (F)
CDU 002 : 001.814.4 : 655.535.54
Descripteun : documentation, rbsumb, prbparation, disposition, sp6cification.
Prix base sur 6 pages
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
AVA NT-P ROPOS
L'ISO (Organisation lnternationale de Normalisation) est une federation mondiale
d'organismes nationaux de normalisation (Comites Membres ISO). L'elaboration de
Normes lnternationales est confiee aux Comites Techniques ISO. Chaque Comite
Membre interesse par une etude a le droit de faire partie du Comite Technique
correspondant. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non
gouvernementales, en liaison avec I'ISO, participent Bgalement aux travaux.
Les Projets de Normes lnternationales adopt& par les Comites Techniques sont
soumis aux Comites Membres pour approbation, avant leur acceptation comme
Normes lnternationales par le Conseil de I'ISO.
La Norme lnternationale IS0 214 a Btb Btablie par le Comitb Technique lSO/TC 46,
Documentation, et soumise aux Comites Membres en mai 1974.
Elle a et6 approuvee par les Comitbs Membres des pays suivants :
Afrique du Sud, Rep. d' France Roumanie
Allemagne Hongrie Roy aume- U n i
Austral ie I nde Suede
Autriche I ran Suisse
Belgique lrlande Tha'ilande
Israel U.R.S.S.
Brdsil
I tal ie U.S.A.
Bulgarie
Pays- Bas Yougoslavie
Canada
Espagne Pologne
Finlande Portugal
Aucun Comitk Membre n'a dbsapprouvk le document.
Cette Norme lnternationale annule et remplace la Recommandation
ISO/R 214-1961, dont elle constitue une revision technique.
0 Organisation Internationale de Normalisation, 1976 0
Imprim6 en Suisse
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE IS0 214-1976 (F)
Documentation - Analyse pour les publications et la
documentation
0 INTRODUCTION Une analyse devrait dtre aussi informative que I’autorisent
le genre et le style du document, ce qui veut dire qu’elle
L‘accroissement du volume de documents emanant de
devrait reprksenter autant que possible I’information quan-
societks savantes, de documents scientifiques, techniques, et
titative ou qualitative, ou les deux, contenue dans le docu-
autres documents d’information ou d‘enseignement, rend
ment.3) Les analyses informatives sont spkcialement utiies
plus importante encore pour les lecteurs de la
pour les textes decrivant un travail expkrimental et pour les
documentation primaire et pour les utilisateurs des services
documents consacres B un seul thime. Cependant, quelques
secondaires, la necessite d’identifier le plus rapidement et le
textes discursifs ou Btendus, tels que des vues d’ensemble,
plus exactement possible le contenu mime de chaque
des critiques et des monographies completes peuvent
document. Cette identification rapide est facilitee si
permettre la preparation d’une analyse qui n’est qu’un
I‘auteur du document (aid6 par les Bditeurs) la fait preceder
guide indicatif ou descriptif du genre du document, des
d‘un titre significatif et d‘une analyse bien prkparbe.
principaux sujets couverts, et de la maniire dont les faits
sont traitks. II se peut qu’une analyse B la fois informative
et indicative soit effectuke quand les limites de la longueur
de I’analyse, ou le type et le style du document, exigent de
limiter les elements informatifs aux elements primaires du
1 OBJET ET DOMAINE D’APPLICATION
document et de relkguer les autres aspects dans les klernents
indicatifs. Voir exemples 1 et 2.
La presente Norme Internationale prescrit des rigles pour la
preparation et la presentation des analyses de documents.
Les analyses ne doivent pas &tre confondues avec les termes
Elle met I‘accent sur les analyses preparees par les auteurs
suivants, connexes mais distincts : annotation, extrait et
de documents primaires, et sur leur publication, car de
resume. Une annotation est un bref commentaire ou
telles analyses peuvent dtre utiles aux lecteurs de ces
explication d‘un document ou de son contenu, ou mdme
documents tout en Btant reproductibles avec peu ou pas de
une tris breve description, habituellement ajoute en note
modifications dans les services et publications secondaires.
apris la reference bibliographique du document. Un extrait
Les principes de base s’appliquent kgalement B la
se compose d‘une ou de plusieurs parties d‘un document
prkparation des analyses par d’autres personnes que les
choisies pour representer le tout. Un resume, s’il est
auteurs; aussi des rigles specifiques sont-elles prkvues pour
nkessaire d’en faire un, est un second et bref expose dans
la presentation des analyses dans les publications et services
un document (genbralement place B la fin de ce document)
secondai res.
de ses decouvertes et de ses conclusions caractbristiques, et
a pour but de completer l‘orientation du lecteur qui a
Btudie le texte precedent. (Etant donne que les autres
parties importantes du document, par exemple le but ou la
methodologie, ne sont generalement pas condensees dans ce
2 D~FINITIONS
genre de resum6, le terme ne saurait dtre assimile B

Dans la prksente Norme Internationale, le terme analyse I’ccanalyse)), c’est-B-dire qu‘une analyse telle qu‘elle est

signifie une representation abregee et precise du contenu definie precbdemment ne doit pas dtre appelbe un resume,

d’un document, sans interpretation ou critiquel) et sans et qu‘un r6sum6, si I‘on en fait un, ne doit pas reproduire

distinction de I’auteur de I’analyse.2) - reprendre I’objet de - I’analyse.)

1) Une breve analyse critique revet souvent les caracteristiques de I’analyse informative, ou de I’analyse informative-indicative, mais l’on attend

de son auteur qu’il y inclue des valeurs de critique et d’interprdtation appropribes.

2) Le mot Jynopsis Btait autrefois utilise pour definir un resum6 prepare par I’auteur, le terme analyse etant reserve B un condense prepare par

une autre personne. La suppression de cette distinction, qui a en grande partie disparu, est une des raisons de la revision de I’ISO/R 214-1961.

3) Des analyses plus indicatives ou rnhe des annotations sont rnoins cooteuses, dans la mesure permise par les contingences intervenant dans

I’bconornie de la publication. Des facteurs fondamentaux tels que I’lconomie ne doivent cependant pas etre confondus avec de veritables

normes regissant la qualit6 des analyses.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
IS0 214-1976 (F)
3 BUT ET UTILISATION DES ANALYSES
3.5 Utilisation dans les publications et services secondaires
Les publications et les services secondaires peuvent souvent
3.1 Determination de la pertinence
employer mot pour mot les analyses Blaborees dans les
documents primaires, si ces analyses ont et6 soigneusement
Une analyse bien pr8part.e permet aux lecteurs d'identifier
preparbes, et si elles ne sont pas touchBes par les restrictions
rapidement et d'une maniere precise le contenu
du droit d'auteur. De telles analyses d'auteurs peuvent
fondamental d'un document, afin de determiner I'intkrit
fournir des bases au service secondaire qui oriente les
qu'il presente pour eux, et ainsi de decider s'ils ont besoin
analyses en vue d'un groupe d'utilisateurs differents de ceux
de le lire en entier.
imagines par les auteurs. II n'est besoin de rediger une
analyse entierement nouvelle que si des elements sommaires
3.2 Lecture facultative de I'ensemble d'un texte de
et accessoires du document correspondent au domaine
documents marginaux
couvert par la publication secondaire.
Les lecteurs pour lesquels le document est d'un int6r&t
marginal tirent souvent assez d'information de I'analyse
3.6 Utilisation dans les fiches bibliographiques
pour rendre inutile la lecture de tout le document.
Les fiches bibliographiques peuvent &tre sans inconvenient
preparees ou mgme separees des ((pages de sommaires
3.3 Utilite pour la selection par ordinateur de textes
analytiques)) des revues et actes qui comportent de tels
intkgraux
sommaires; voir IS0 51 22, Documentation - Sommaires

Les analyses servent aussi B la selection mecanisbe du texte analytiques dans ies publications en s6rie.l ) De mgme,

integral pour la recherche de I'information. quand les fiches bibliographiques accompagnent des

documents tels que les rapports, ces fiches doivent de
preference porter les analyses que contiennent ces
3.4 Utilisation dans des documents primaires spkifiques
documents.
Les presentes recommandations concernent les auteurs et
les redacteurs de documents et de publications specifiques,
tels que les revues, rapports et theses, monographies et
actes, et brevets d'invention.
4 TRAITEMENT DU CONTENU DU DOCUMENT
Les lecteurs dans de nombreuses disciplines se sont habitues
3.4.1 Revues
B une analyse exposant le but, la methodologie, les resultats
Elles doivent comporter une analyse pour chaque article de
et les conclusions present& dans le document original. La
essai et discussion. Les notes, communications
revue, plupart des documents decrivant un travail experimental

breves, Bditoriaux, et ctlettres B I'bditeur)) d'un inter& peuvent &tre analyses selon ces elements, mais leur

technique ou scientifique Bvident, devraient Bgalement succession optimale peut dependre des utilisateurs pour

lesquels I'analyse a Bte en premier lieu effectuke. Les
contenir de breves analyses.
lecteurs interesses par I'application d'une connaissance
nouvelle, peuvent obtenir plus rapidement une information
3.4.2 Rapports et thises
B partir d'un systeme orient6 vers les nouveautes, ob l'on
On doit inclure une analyse dans chaque rapport, brochure
trouvera en premier lieu les resultats les plus importants et
ou thBse publies s6parBment. accompagnes de details complementaires,
les conclusions,
d'autres nouveautes et de la methodologie. Voir les parties
A et B de I'exemple 4.
3.4.3 Monographies et actes
Les rigles suivantes sont celles qui conviennent le mieux
Une simple analyse peut suffire dans un livre ou dans une
aux analyses informatives. Les redacteurs d'analyses
monographie dont le sujet est homogine. Cependant, une
informatives-indicatives et indicatives doivent les respecter
analyse separee est Bgalement necessaire pour chaque
dans la mesure ob elles leur apparaissent pratiques.
chapitre si le volume couvre differents sujets, ou s'il
reprgsente une collection de communications presentees par
differents auteurs (par exemple les actes d'une reunion ou 4.1 But
d'un symposium). Voir exemple 3.
L'analyse doit situer les objectifs primordiaux et le sujet de
I'btude ou les raisons pour lesquelles le document a BtB
3.4.4 Brevets d'invention
Bcrit, B moint que cela ne soit deji rendu Bvident, soit par le
titre du document, soit par la suite de I'analyse. L'analyse
Chaque brevet ou demande de brevet doit 6tre accompagne
ne doit se referer B une bibliographie antkrieure que si elle
d'une analyse, conformbment aux rigles du pays d'origine
fait partie integrante du but propos6.2)
et de I'agence internationale.
1) Actuellement au stade de projet.

2) Dans ce cas, une citation bibliographique suffisante doit etre donnee entre parenthhes.

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IS0 214-1976 (F)
4.2 Mbthodologie 5 PRESENTATION ET STYLE
Les techniques ou les travaux d'approche ne doivent btre
5.1 Emplacement de I'analyse
decrits que dans la mesure necessaire i la comprehension du
texte. Cependant, iI convient d'identifier avec precision les
L'analyse (au moins dans la langue du document original)
techniques nouvelles, et de decrire le principe
doit btre plache dans chaque document aussi en tbte que
methodologique fondamental, I'ordre des operations, et le
possible.
degre de precision. Pour les documents relatifs au travail
non experimental, I'analyse doit decrire les sources des
Dans une revue, I'analyse doit figurer bien en vue en
donnees et leur manipulation.
premiere page de chaque article ou autre rubrique analysbe,
de preference entre le titre et le titre de l'auteur et le texte.

4.3 Rbsultats et conclusions II est Bgalement souhaitable de l'inclure dans les pages

de soinmaires analytiques preparees d'apris I'ISO 51 22,
et les conclusions doivent btre clairement
Les resultats
Documen tation - Sommaires analytiques dans les
presentes. IIs peuvent btre analyses ensemble afin d'eviter
publications en se'rie.
toute redondance, mais la conjecture doit btre differenciee
du fait. Dans un rapport publib separement, I'analyse doit &tre
placee sur la page de titre (si possible), sur la page de
sommaire analytique du rapport (s'il en comporte une) ou
4.3.1 Re'sultats
sur la page de droite precedant la table des matiires.1)
Les elements nouveaux doivent btre decrits d'une maniere
Dans un livre, une monographie ou une these, I'analyse doit
aussi concise qu'informative. Ces elements peuvent btre des
&re placee au dos de la page de titre ou sur la page suivante.
resultats obtenus d'une maniire experimentale ou
Les analyses separees des chapitres doivent figurer sur leur
thkorique, peuvent consister en donnees recueillies,
premiere page ou avant celle-ci.
relations ou correlations notees, effets observes, etc. II
convient de preciser si les valeurs numeriques sont brutes ou
derivkes, si elles sont le resultat d'une seule observation ou
5.2 Information bibliographique
de mesures repbtees. Lorsque les nouveautes sont trop
nombreuses pour btre toutes incluses dans !'analyse, elles
Dans les publications primaires, la reference bibliographique
doivent apparaltre en priorite : faits nouveaux et verifies,
du document doit figurer sur la m&me page que I'analyse,
nouveautes ayant une valeur i long terme, decouvertes
dans un endroit approprie, par exemple en haut ou en bas
significatives, nouveautes contredisant des theories
de page. Dans les publications secondaires ou chaque fois
antbrieures, nouveautes que I'auteur sait se rapporter i un
que I'analyse d'un document est reproduite separbment, il
problime pratique. On doit Bgalement indiquer les limites
faut faire preceder ou suivre2) I'analyse de la reference
de precision et de fiabilite et les degres de validit6 de ces
bibliographique du document original. Les trois variantes
resultats.
apparaissent dans I'exemple 6.
Pour les details concernant les references bibliographiques,
4.3.2 Conclusions
on peut se reporter I'ISO 690, Documentation -
Re' fe'rences bibliographiques - Ele'ments essentiels et
L'analyse doit decrire les consequences des resultats et
cornple'men taires.
specialement la maniere dont its se raportent au but de la
recherche ou de la preparation du document. Les
conclusions peuvent s'associer aux recommandations,
5.3 Fiches bibliographiques
evaluations, applications, suggestions, nouvelles relations et
hypotheses acceptees ou rejetbes.
La prbsentation de I'analyse et de son information
bibliographique est particuliirement souhaitable dans un
format adapt6 aux fiches bibliographiques. L'emploi de
4.4 Information marginale
bristol est preferable, b la fois pour les sommaires

Doivent figurer dans I'objet de I'analyse les elements analytiques et les fiches bibliographiques accompagnant un

nouveaux ou I'information fortuite n'ayant pas trait document, mais si I'analyse est imprimee sur le mbme

directement au sujet principal (par exemple : modifications papier que le reste de la publication, elle doit I'btre d'un

apporthes 2 des mkthodes, composes nouveaux, constantes seul c6t6, de facon qu'elle puisse &re decoupee et collee sur

physiques nouvellement determinees, documents et sources des fiches blanches. Une composition typographique

de donnees nouvellement decouverts). II faut les exposer maximale de 64 mm X 95 mm doit permettre I'utilisation

clairement, mais de maniire qu'ils ne detournent pas des fiches d'un des deux formats suivants :

74 mm X 105 mm (IS0 A7) ou 75 mm X 125 mm (format
I'attention du theme principal. Leur importance relative
international 1.
dans le document analyse ne doit pas btre exagerke.

1) Si I'on estime necessaire d'inserer un avant-propos afin de fournir une information preliminaire dans un rapport, I'analyse doit suivre

I'avant-propos et ne pas repeter cette information.

21, Dans ce dernier cas, cependant, le titre du document peut ou non preceder I'analyse.

----------------------
...

SLOVENSKI SIST ISO 214
STANDARD marec 1996
Dokumentacija – Izvlečki za publikacije in dokumentacijo
Documentation – Abstracts for publications and documentation
Documentation – Analyse pour les publications et la documentation

Deskriptorji: dokumentacija, izvlečki, priprava, razporeditev besedila, specifikacije

Referenčna oznaka
ICS 01.140.20 SIST ISO 214:1996 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh od 2 do 20

© 2011-09 Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST ISO 214 (sl), Dokumentacija – Izvlečki za publikacije in dokumentacijo, 1996, ima

status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten mednarodnemu standardu ISO 214 (en), Documentation

– Abstracts for publications and documentation, prva izdaja, 1976-03-01.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard ISO 214:1976 je pripravil tehnični odbor Mednarodne organizacije za

standardizacijo ISO/TC 46 Informatika in dokumentacija. Slovenski standard SIST ISO 214:1996 je

prevod mednarodnega standarda ISO 214:1976. Slovenski standard SIST ISO 214:1996 je pripravil

tehnični odbor SIST/TC IDO Informatika in dokumentacija (sedaj SIST/TC IDT Informatika,

dokumentacija in splošna terminologija). V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda je

odločilen izvirni mednarodni standard v angleškem jeziku.

Odločitev za izdajo tega standarda je dne 25. januarja 1996 sprejel SIST/TC IDO Informatika in

dokumentacija.
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– Privzem standarda ISO 214:1976
OPOMBE

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz “mednarodni standard”, v SIST ISO 214:1996

to pomeni “slovenski standard”.

– Nacionalni uvod, nacionalni predgovor, vsebinsko kazalo in slovar niso sestavni del standarda.

Definicije pojmov so povzete po mednarodnih standardih ISO 1087, Terminologija – Slovar, in

ISO 5127, Informatika in dokumentacija – Slovar.

– V besedilu SIST ISO 214 sta v točkah 3.6, 5.1, 5.2 in v dodatku navedena mednarodna

standarda ISO 690 in ISO 5122. Pri tem je vedno mišljena njuna zadnja izdaja.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
VSEBINA Stran

0 Uvod .....................................................................................................................................................4

1 Predmet standarda in področje uporabe..............................................................................................4

2 Definicije ...............................................................................................................................................4

3 Namen in uporaba izvlečkov ................................................................................................................5

3.1 Določitev ustreznosti .........................................................................................................................5

3.2 Opuščanje branja celotnega besedila obrobnih dokumentov ...........................................................5

3.3 Uporabnost za računalniško poizvedovanje s polnimi besedili.........................................................5

3.4 Uporaba v posebnih primarnih dokumentih ......................................................................................5

3.4.1 Časopisi..........................................................................................................................................5

3.4.2 Raziskovalna poročila in disertacije ...............................................................................................5

3.4.3 Monografije in zborniki s srečanj/zborovanj oz. posvetovanj.........................................................5

3.4.4 Patenti ............................................................................................................................................5

3.5 Uporaba v sekundarnih publikacijah in službah................................................................................5

3.6 Uporaba na dokumentacijskih kraticah .............................................................................................5

4 Obravnavanje vsebine dokumenta.......................................................................................................6

4.1 Namen ...............................................................................................................................................6

4.2 Metodologija ......................................................................................................................................6

4.3 Rezultati in sklepi...............................................................................................................................6

4.3.1 Rezultati..........................................................................................................................................6

4.3.2 Sklepi..............................................................................................................................................6

4.4 Vzporedne informacije.......................................................................................................................6

5 Predstavitev in stil.................................................................................................................................7

5.1 Umestitev izvlečka.............................................................................................................................7

5.2 Bibliografske informacije ...................................................................................................................7

5.3 Dokumentacijske kartice ...................................................................................................................7

5.4 Popolnost, natančnost in dolžina ......................................................................................................7

5.5 Stil......................................................................................................................................................8

5.5.1 Deljenje na odstavke; popolni stavki ..............................................................................................8

5.5.2 Uporaba tvornih glagolskih oblik in osebnih zaimkov ....................................................................8

5.5.3 Terminologija..................................................................................................................................8

5.5.4 Nebesedilno gradivo.......................................................................................................................8

Dodatek: Primeri izvlečkov .......................................................................................................................9

Bibliografski navedki k primerom izvlečkov............................................................................................16

Slovar (definicije)....................................................................................................................................17

Slovensko-angleški slovar......................................................................................................................19

Angleško-slovenski slovar......................................................................................................................20

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
Dokumentacija – Izvlečki za publikacije in dokumentacijo
0 Uvod

Zaradi rastočega obsega raziskovalnih, znanstvenih, tehničnih in drugih informacijskih ter učnih

dokumentov je vedno bolj pomembno, da je temeljna vsebina vsakega dokumenta hitro in natančno

razpoznavna tako za bralce primarne literature kot za uporabnike sekundarnih služb. Razpoznavanje je

hitrejše, če avtor (s pomočjo urednikov) da primarnemu dokumentu razumljiv naslov in ga opremi z dobro

pripravljenim izvlečkom.
1 Predmet standarda in področje uporabe

Ta mednarodni standard daje smernice za pripravo in objavo izvlečkov dokumentov. Pri tem so

pomembni predvsem izvlečki, ki so jih pripravili avtorji primarnih dokumentov, in njihova objava, kar je

lahko koristno za bralce dokumentov. Izvlečke je mogoče z manjšimi spremembami ali brez njih

ponatisniti v sekundarnih publikacijah in uporabiti v informacijskih službah. Temeljne smernice so

namenjene tudi za pripravo izvlečkov, če jih avtorji niso pripravili, zato so vključena tudi posebna

navodila za predstavitev izvlečkov v sekundarnih publikacijah in službah.
2 Definicije

V tem mednarodnem standardu izraz izvleček označuje okrajšan, natančen prikaz vsebine

1) 2)

dokumenta brez dodanih razlag in kritike in ne glede na to, kdo je izvleček napisal.

Izvleček naj bo toliko informativen, kolikor to dopuščata tip in stil dokumenta, tj. v največji možni meri

naj se predstavijo količinske in/ali kakovostne informacije iz dokumenta. Informativni izvlečki so še

posebej zaželeni za besedila, ki opisujejo eksperimentalno delo, in dokumente, posvečene eni sami

temi. Za nekatera dolga besedila ali besedila, ki prehajajo s predmeta na predmet, kot so daljši okvirni

pregledi, recenzije in celotne monografije, pa se lahko oblikujejo izvlečki, v katerih se vrsta

dokumenta, glavne obdelane teme in način obravnave dejstev samo indikativno ali opisno

predstavijo. Pogosto je treba pripraviti kombinirani informativno-indikativni izvleček, in sicer kadar je

treba glede na dolžino izvlečka ali tip in stil dokumenta informativne navedbe omejiti na glavne

sestavine dokumenta, druga gledišča pa uvrstiti med indikativne navedbe. Glej primere 1 do 3.

Izraz izvleček se ne sme zamenjevati z naslednjimi sorodnimi, toda pomensko različnimi izrazi:

anotacija, iztržek/odlomek in povzetek. Anotacija je kratka razlaga, pojasnilo dokumenta ali njegove

vsebine, lahko tudi njegov zelo kratek opis, ponavadi dodan kot opomba za bibliografskim navedkom

dokumenta. Iztržek/odlomek označuje enega ali več delov dokumenta, ki se izberejo z namenom, da

bi se z njimi predstavljalo celotno besedilo. Povzetek, če je potreben, je kratka rekapitulacija

pomembnih ugotovitev in sklepov, navedenih v dokumentu (ponavadi na koncu) z namenom, da

bralca dodatno opozori na bistvene sestavine že prebranega besedila. (Ker drugi deli dokumenta, npr.

namen, metodologija, ponavadi niso zgoščeni v ta tip povzetka, naj se ta izraz ne bi uporabljal kot

sopomenka za "izvleček", tj. izvlečka, kot je bil opredeljen zgoraj, ne bi smeli poimenovati "povzetek",

in povzetek, če se uporabi ta izraz, ne bi smel podvajati oziroma prevzeti celotnega obsega izvlečka.)

Kratek, kritičen pregled dokumenta pogosto privzame značaj informativnega ali informativno-indikativnega izvlečka, vendar se

od njegovega avtorja pričakujeta primerna kritičnost in razlaga.

Besedo sinopsis so prej uporabljali za označitev povzetka besedila, ki ga je pripravil avtor, izraz izvleček pa samo za

zgoščeno predstavitev vsebine, ki jo je napravil nekdo drug. Odprava tega razlikovanja, ki je v glavnem izginilo, je bila eden

od razlogov za revizijo ISO/R 214:1961.

Z manjšimi stroški je seveda mogoče pripraviti bolj indikativne izvlečke ali celo anotacije, kar je včasih tudi edina rešitev glede

na omejitve gospodarnega izdajanja. Vendar takih vplivajočih dejavnikov, kot je gospodarnost, ne bi smeli mešati s pravimi

standardi za kakovost izvlečkov.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
3 Namen in uporaba izvlečkov
3.1 Določitev ustreznosti

Dobro pripravljen izvleček omogoča bralcu, da hitro in natančno ugotovi glavno vsebino dokumenta,

določi njegovo ustreznost za svoje potrebe in se odloči, ali je potrebno, da ga prebere v celoti.

3.2 Opuščanje branja celotnega besedila obrobnih dokumentov

Bralci, za katere je dokument obrobnega pomena, pogosto dobijo iz izvlečka dovolj informacij, da jim

ni treba brati celotnega dokumenta.
3.3 Uporabnost za računalniško poizvedovanje s polnimi besedili

Pri računalniškem poizvedovanju s polnimi besedili se lahko izvlečki koristno uporabljajo za signalno

informiranje in iskanje informacij.
3.4 Uporaba v posebnih primarnih dokumentih

Naslednja priporočila so namenjena avtorjem in urednikom posebnih dokumentov in publikacij, kot so

časopisi, raziskovalna poročila in disertacije, monografije in zborniki ali zapiski srečanj ter patenti.

3.4.1 Časopisi

Izvleček se izdela za vsak časopisni članek, esej in razpravo. Kratke izvlečke naj imajo tudi zapiski,

kratke objave, uvodniki in "pisma uredništvu", ki imajo tehtno strokovno ali poučno vsebino.

3.4.2 Raziskovalna poročila in disertacije
Izvleček se vključi v vsako ločeno objavljeno poročilo, brošuro ali disertacijo.
3.4.3 Monografije in zborniki s srečanj/zborovanj oz. posvetovanj

En sam izvleček lahko zadošča za knjigo ali monografijo, v kateri je obravnavana le ena tematika.

Vendar je potreben tudi za vsako poglavje, Če so v knjigi obravnavane različne teme ali gre za zbirko

znanstvenih razprav različnih avtorjev (npr. s strokovnega zborovanja ali simpozija, tj. t. i. kongresni

zbornik), je treba pripraviti tudi za vsako poglavje poseben izvleček. Glej 4. primer.

3.4.4 Patenti

Vsak patent ali patentno prijavo naj spremlja izvleček, kot to zahtevajo pravila dežele založnice ali

mednarodne agencije.
3.5 Uporaba v sekundarnih publikacijah in službah

Sekundarne publikacije in službe lahko pogosto uporabijo nespremenjene izvlečke, s katerimi so opremljeni

primarni dokumenti, če so ti skrbno pripravljeni in njihov ponatis ni prepovedan. Takšni avtorski izvlečki so

lahko tudi primerna podlaga za sekundarno službo, ki svoje izvlečke usmerja k skupini uporabnikov, ki je

različna od tistih, s katerimi se soočajo avtorji. Popolnoma nov izvleček je treba ponavadi napisati samo

takrat, kadar so kratke, manj pomembne faze nekega dokumenta vse, kar je predmet sekundarne

publikacije.
3.6 Uporaba na dokumentacijskih karticah

Dokumentacijske kartice so lahko priročno pripravljene ali celo ločene od "listov z izvlečki" v časopisih

in zbornikih, ki vključujejo in pravilno oblikujejo take strani izvlečkov; glej ISO 5122, Dokumentacija –

Strani z izvlečki v serijskih publikacijah . Kadar so dokumentacijske kartice priložene dokumentom,

kot so na primer raziskovalna poročila, naj bodo na njih enaki izvlečki kot v samih dokumentih.

V pripravi.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
4 Obravnavanje vsebine dokumenta

Bralci literature z različnih strokovnih področij so se navadili na izvleček, iz katerega so razvidni

namen, metodologija, izid in sklepi, predstavljeni v izvirnem dokumentu. Večino dokumentov, ki

opisujejo eksperimentalno delo, je mogoče analizirati po teh sestavinah, pri čemer je lahko njihovo

optimalno zaporedje odvisno od občinstva/uporabnikov, ki jim je izvleček predvsem namenjen. Bralci,

ki jih zanima uporaba novega znanja, lahko informacije dobijo hitreje, če so te navedene v zaporedju,

ko so najprej našteti najpomembnejši rezultati in sklepi, šele tem sledijo podrobnosti, ki jih podpirajo,

druge ugotovitve in metodologija. Glej dela A in B 5. primera.

Naslednja pravila so optimalna za sestavo informativnih izvlečkov. Pisci informativno-indikativnih in

indikativnih izvlečkov naj jih upoštevajo v razumnem, praktično izvedljivem obsegu.

4.1 Namen

Navedejo se glavni cilji in področje študije ali razlogi, zakaj je bil dokument napisan, razen če ti že niso

razvidni iz naslova dokumenta ali jih je mogoče izpeljati iz preostale vsebine izvlečka. Že objavljeno

literaturo o predmetu je treba navesti le, če je bistven del namena.
4.2 Metodologija

Tehnike in pristopi se opišejo samo do stopnje, potrebne za razumevanje. Kljub temu naj se jasno

identificirajo nove tehnike, opišejo osnovna metodološka načela, meje delovanja in dosegljiva

natančnost. Za dokumente, ki se ne ukvarjajo z eksperimentalnim delom, se opišejo viri podatkov in

ravnanje z njimi.
4.3 Rezultati in sklepi

Rezultati in sklepi naj bodo jasno oblikovani. Povzeti so lahko skupno, s čimer se izognemo

nepotrebnemu podvajanju v predstavitvi, vendar je pri tem treba ločiti domneve od dejstev.

4.3.1 Rezultati

Ugotovitve je treba opisati kolikor mogoče jedrnato in informativno. Ugotovitve so lahko doseženi

eksperimentalni ali teoretični rezultati, zbrani podatki, zabeležene zveze in soodnosnosti, opazovani

učinki itd. Pojasniti je treba, ali so numerične vrednosti izvirne ali izpeljane in ali so izidi enega samega

opazovanja ali ponavljajočih se meritev. Kadar so ugotovitve preštevilne, da bi lahko vključili vse, naj

imajo prednost nekatere od naslednjih: novi in preverjeni dogodki, dolgoročno veljavne ugotovitve,

pomembna odkritja, ugotovitve, ki spodbijajo predhodne teorije, ali ugotovitve, za katere avtor ve, da

so pomembne za nek praktični problem. Naznačene naj bodo meje natančnosti in zanesljivosti in

razpon delovanja.
4.3.2 Sklepi

Opisati je treba posledice rezultatov in predvsem, v kakšni zvezi so z namenom znanstvene raziskave

ali glede na sestavo dokumenta. Sklepom so lahko priložena priporočila, ocene, uporabe, predlogi,

nove zveze in sprejete ali zavržene hipoteze.
4.4 Vzporedne informacije

Vključiti je treba ugotovitve ali informacije, ki so glede na glavni namen dokumenta postranskega

pomena, pač pa imajo vrednost zunaj njegovega glavnega predmetnega področja (na primer

spremembe metod, nove spojine, na novo določene fizikalne konstante, na novo odkriti dokumenti ali

viri podatkov). Predstaviti jih je treba jasno, vendar na način, da ne bodo odvrnile pozornosti od glavne

teme. Njihov sorazmerni pomen se v povzetem dokumentu ne sme preveč poudarjati.
V tem primeru se v oklepaju doda ustrezen bibliografski navedek.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
5 Predstavitev in stil
5.1 Umestitev izvlečka

Izvleček (vsaj tisti v jeziku izvirnika) naj bo umeščen čim bolj na začetku vsakega dokumenta.

V časopisu je treba objaviti izvleček vidno na prvi strani vsakega članka ali drugega sestavka,

primernega za povzemanje, po možnosti med naslovom z informacijo o avtorju in besedilom.

Zaželeno ga je tudi vključiti v "list z izvlečki", sestavljen v skladu z ISO 5122, Dokumentacija – Strani z

izvlečki v periodičnih publikacijah.

Pri ločeno objavljenem raziskovalnem poročilu se izvleček umesti na naslovno stran (če je mogoče),

na "stran z dokumentacijo o poročilu" (če je vključena) ali na desno stran, ki je pred vsebinskim

kazalom.

V knjigi, monografiji ali disertaciji je treba izvleček umestiti na hrbtu naslovne strani ali na naslednji

desni strani. Ločene izvlečke poglavij je treba umestiti na njihovih prvih straneh ali pred njimi.

5.2 Bibliografske informacije

Pri primarnih publikacijah je treba bibliografski navedek o dokumentu primerno umestiti na isto stran

kot izvleček, na primer v živo pagino ali pod črto. Pri sekundarnih publikacijah ali vedno, kadar je

izvleček dokumenta objavljen ločeno od njega, je bibliografski navedek o dokumentu zapisan pred

izvlečkom ali pa mu sledi. Tri različice tega pravila so prikazane pri 6. primeru.

Za podrobnosti glede pravil navajanja glej ISO 690, Dokumentacija – Bibliografske navedbe –

Vsebina, oblika in zgradba.
5.3 Dokumentacijske kartice

Zaželeno je, da je izvleček z bibliografskim navedkom predstavljen v formatu, ki je primeren tudi za

dokumentacijske kartice. Uporaba lepenke za "liste z izvlečki" in tudi za dokumentacijske kartice, ki

spremljajo dokument, je zaželena; če pa je izvleček natisnjen na istem papirju kot publikacija, naj bo le

na eni strani, tako da ga je mogoče izrezati in namestiti na prazne kartice. Tiskanje na največji

površini 64 mm x 95 mm omogoča uporabo kartic z velikostjo 74 mm x 105 mm (ISO A7) ali 75 mm x

125 mm (velikost mednarodnega knjižničnega kataložnega listka).
5.4 Popolnost, natančnost in dolžina

Izvleček mora biti bralcu razumljiv, ne da bi gledal v dokument – biti mora samozadosten. Ohraniti

mora temeljna obvestila in značaj izvirnega dokumenta. Vsebina naj bo zajeta čim bolj zgoščeno,

vendar tako, da izvleček ne bi postal nerazumljiv ali nejasen. Sekundarne informacije, če se sploh

navedejo, naj bodo skope. Obvestila ali trditve, ki jih dokument sam ne vsebuje, ne smejo biti

vključena.

Za večino znanstvenih razprav in sestavkov v monografijah zadošča izvleček z manj kot 250

besedami. Za beležke in kratka sporočila je dovolj manj kot 100 besed. Uvodniki in "pisma uredništvu"

so lahko opremljena z izvlečkom le v eni povedi. Za daljše dokumente, kot so poročila ter diplomska

dela in disertacije, naj bo izvleček na splošno krajši od 500 besed, po možnosti v obsegu ene strani.

Pri določanju, kako dolg naj bo izvleček, je vsebina dokumenta pogosto pomembnejša od njegove

dolžine.

Če menimo, da je za prikaz sekundarnih informacij potreben kratek predgovor, naj izvleček sledi predgovoru in naj ne

ponavlja sekundarnih informacij.
Vendar je v zadnjem primeru naslov dokumenta lahko pred izvlečkom.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
5.5 Stil

Izvleček je treba začeti s stavkom o predmetu obravnave, ki je osrednja navedba glavne teme

dokumenta, razen če je ta že dobro opredeljena v naslovu dokumenta, navedenim pred izvlečkom. Pri

izvlečkih, ki so napisani ali preoblikovani posebej za sekundarno uporabo, je treba na začetku

izvlečka določiti vrsto dokumenta, kadar to ni razvidno iz njegovega naslova ali iz naslova založnika

dokumenta ali to ni jasno iz preostanka izvlečka. Pojasniti je treba bodisi avtorjevo obravnavo

predmeta ali naravo dokumenta, na primer: teoretska razprava, zgodovina primera, poročilo o stanju

stroke, zgodovinski pregled, poročilo o izvirni raziskavi, "pismo uredništvu", pregled literature itd.

5.5.1 Deljenje na odstavke; popolni stavki

Kratek izvleček je treba napisati kot en sam, enoten odstavek, pri dolgih izvlečkih pa se besedilo lahko

razčleni tudi v več odstavkov. Izvlečke, posebno informativne, je treba napisati s popolnimi stavki in za

zvezo uporabljati povezovalne besede in fraze. Besedilu izvlečka lahko sledi niz ključnih besed za

indeksiranje (ločenih z ločili); z njimi se izvleček lahko celo nadomesti, vendar samo v primeru, ko gre

za indikativno različico.
5.5.2 Uporaba tvornih glagolskih oblik in osebnih zaimkov

Kjerkoli je mogoče, je treba uporabljati glagole v tvornem načinu – prispevajo k jasnemu, jedrnatemu,

učinkovitemu pisanju. Vendar je uporaba trpnika dovoljena za indikativne in celo za informativne

predstavitve, pri katerih je posebej poudarjen nosilec dejanja. Na primer:
Zapišite: "Železo vsebujoči boksiti v prisotnosti zraka razžvepljajo bencine."
Ne: "Bencini so razžvepljani z železo vsebujočimi boksiti v prisotnosti zraka."

Toda: "Relativni adsorpcijski koeficienti etra, vode in acetilena so bili merjeni z ..."

Uporablja naj se tretja oseba, razen v primerih, ko se z uporabo prve osebe izognemo okornim

konstrukcijam in se omogoči večja jasnost.
5.5.3 Terminologija

Uporabljati je treba značilne besede iz besedila, kar bo pomagalo pri računalniškem preiskovanju

besedila.

Izogibati se je treba nenavadnih izrazov, kratic, okrajšav ali simbolov oziroma jih je treba pri prvi

pojavitvi v izvlečku pojasniti. Če je le mogoče, se uporabljajo enote, simboli in terminologija ISO, kadar

teh ni, pa nacionalni standardi.
5.5.4 Nebesedilno gradivo

Tabele, enačbe, strukturne formule in diagrami se vključijo samo tedaj, ko je to nujno zaradi večje

zgoščenosti in jasnosti oziroma kadar ni druge sprejemljive izbire.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
Dodatek
Primeri izvlečkov*
1. primer: Tipični informativni izvlečki
MALI KMETJE V SPREMINJAJOČI SE DRUŽBI

Da bi prepoznali nekatere večje razlike med malimi kmeti in opisali skupino, ki sestavlja resnično jedro

trajno revnih, smo pridobili podatke od 189 kmetovalcev, ki so leta 1957 sestavljali stratificirani naključni

vzorec v okraju Fayette, Pensilvanija. Štiri glavne kategorije identificiranih posameznikov so bile: (1)

starostniki, (2) telesno prizadeti, (3) kmetovalci, pretežno usmerjeni v nekmetijsko dejavnost, (4)

kmetovalci, usmerjeni v komercialno kmetijstvo, in (5) kmetovalci, usmerjeni v preživetveno kmetijstvo.

Podrobneje smo preučili značilnosti jedra kmetov z majhnimi možnostmi preživetja, ki se ponavadi ne

odzivajo niti na prizadevanja socialnega skrbstva niti na prizadevanja gospodarskega razvoja. Ugotovili

smo, da: (1) so ohranili tradicionalne vrednote, hkrati pa izgubili veliko tradicionalnih sposobnosti

preživetja, (2) se niso odzvali na prizadevanja za večjo kmetijsko učinkovitost in produktivnost, ker ne

cenijo visoko komercialnega uspeha, (3) so kot osnovna cilja posebno poudarjali dobre sosedske odnose

in prijaznost, in (4) bi se morali zato, da se njihov ciklus revščine prekine, odzvati na poskus spremembe

prestižne usmerjenosti.
SKLADIŠČENJE ZEMELJSKEGA PLINA
OSNOVNI PODATKI O NOVI METODI

Za preprečevanje konic (v času največje obremenitve) je metoda absorpcije metana varčnejša od

skladiščenja utekočinjenega zemeljskega plina ali suhega skladiščenja pod tlakom. V obdobjih zunaj

konic se v tlačno posodo s tekočim propanom in/ali butanom, predhodno ohlajenim na –76 °F, z

oskrbovalnih linij dovaja ohlajen plinasti metan. Metan se uvaja na dnu posode, tako da se prepreči,

da bi lažja tekočina (v propanu absorbirani metan) vplivala na nadaljnjo absorpcijo. V času konic se

avtomatsko odpre ventil in nastali padec tlaka privede metan preko regulatorja Wobbe-indeks v

oskrbovalne linije. V zelo obremenjenih konicah se lahko uporabi tudi utekočinjeni plin. Optimalni

pogoji za absorpcijsko metodo bi bili od 3 do 11,4 milijona ft na skladiščni ciklus oziroma do 1,14

bilijona ft na skladiščno dobo.
VOLFRAMOV KARBID KOT ANODNI MATERIAL ZA GORIVNE CELICE

Stacionarne potenciostatične tokovno-napetostne krivulje za volframov karbid in Raney platinasto

elektrodo enake velikosti pri elektrokemijski oksidaciji 6 M metanala v 3 M žveplovi kislini pri 70 °C so

pokazale, da je za anode gorivnih celic boljši volframov karbid. Po treh urah so bile trenutne gostote

650 mA/g volframovega karbida ob uporabi metanala, 500 mA/g ob uporabi vodika in 160 mA/g ob

uporabi metanojske kisline. Graf.
SVINEC: ŠTUDIJA VISOKOTLAČNEGA POLIMORFA Z RENTGENSKO DIFRAKCIJO

Študija svinca pod tlakom z rentgensko difrakcijo je pokazala, da se ploskovno centrirana kockasta

struktura pri sobni temperaturi in tlaku 130 ± 10 kbar transformira v heksagonalno gosto zloženo

strukturo. Sprememba prostornine za transformacijo je – 0,18 ± 0,06 cm /mol.

Razen 6. primera je format teh primerov podoben tistemu, ki se uporablja za primarne publikacije, tj. naslov dokumenta je

poravnan središčno nad besedilom izvlečka. Bibliografske navedbe za dokumente, ki so povzeti v izvlečkih, so zbrane na

koncu dodatka; napisane so v skladu z ISO 690, razen da vanje ni bilo treba vključiti stvarnih naslovov dokumentov.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 214 : 1996
RAVNOVESJE FOSFATOV. II. ŠTUDIJE ELEKTROD IZ SREBROVEGA FOSFATA
+ +

S pomočjo steklene in srebrove elektrode (za merjenje [H ] in [Ag ]) smo preučevali topnost

+ 3 2- +

Ag PO pri 25 °C v 3M NaClO . Topnostni produkt Ag PO , K = [Ag ] [HPO ]/[H ] je bil

3 4 4 3 4 S 4

izračunan kot log K = – 6,70 ± 0,04. V podatkih ni dokazov o drugem trdnem fosfatu ali o

spremembi sestave Ag PO . Združljivi so z manjšimi količinami kompleksa topljivega srebrovega

3 4

fosfata; najboljše, čeprav ne odločilno ujemanje je s kompleksom AgHPO , s konstanto formiranja

+ 2–

(Ag in HPO ) log K < 3,18. Ravnovesje se relativno hitro vzpostavi. Elektrodo Ag PO /Ag je mogoče

4 3 4
uporabiti za preučevanje vezave fosfata v komplekse z ioni drugih kovin.
KROM KOT KATALIZATOR PRI SINTEZI AMONIAKA

Ko smo pri sintezi amoniaka pri 436,5 °C uporabili krom kot katalizator, pripravljen z razkrojem

dibenzenkroma, so bile konstante hitrosti nastajanja amoniaka za dano površino katalizatorja enakega

reda velikosti kot pri železu. Rezultati potrjujejo hipotezo, da pride pri sintezi amoniaka do

katalizatorskega delovanja kovinskega železa zaradi simetrije njegovega atoma in da naj bi bile druge

prehodne kovine z enako simetrijo in enakimi medatomskimi razdaljami kot pri ploskvi železa (111)

tudi katalizatorsko aktivne. Rezultati tudi potrjujejo mehanizem sinteze amoniaka, pri kateri je začetni

produkt N H.
FILMOTVORNE LASTNOSTI IZ NAFTE PRIDOBLJENIH EMULGATORJEV

Kompleks vanadijevega porfirja je okrog vodne kapljice v benzenu dosti hitreje ustvaril film kot

asfalteni ali smole, in tako kot pri emulgatorjih iz petih surovih naft je bilo nastajanje filma nekoliko

hitrejše pri formacijski vodi kot pri destilirani vodi pri preskusih pridobivanja vodne kapljice iz raztopine

benzena, ki je vsebovala 0,025 % na maso emulgatorja, v kapilarno cevko v 1 minuti oziroma 1 uri

oziroma 24 urah pri 25 °C. Filmotvorna sposobnost emulgatorja je bila določena na podlagi razmerja

med dolžino kapljice v času zožitve in začetno dolžino kapljice.
2. primer: Tipični informativno-indikativni izvlečki
UGOTAVLJANJE MEDODDELČNIH NASPROTIJ

Za razrešitev medoddelčnih nasprotij, ki zmanjšujejo produktivnost, bi bila potrebna strukturna

reorganizacija, da se zmanjšata prestižno-avtoritativna dvoumnost in notran
...

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