Information technology - Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network (WiBEEM) for wireless home network services

ISO/IEC 29145-1:2014(E) specifies the physical (PHY) layer of WiBEEM (Wireless beacon-enabled energy efficient mesh network) protocol for wireless home network services that supports a low power-consuming wireless mesh network topology as well as device mobility and QoS.

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Published
Publication Date
26-Mar-2014
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6000 - International Standard under publication
Start Date
27-Mar-2014
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ISO/IEC 29145-1
Edition 1.0 2014-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Wireless beacon-enabled energy efficient mesh
network (WiBEEM) for wireless home network services –
Part 1: PHY layer
ISO/IEC 29145-1:2014-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC 29145-1
Edition 1.0 2014-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Wireless beacon-enabled energy efficient mesh
network (WiBEEM) for wireless home network services –
Part 1: PHY layer
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-1451-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative reference ........................................................................................................ 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ............................................................................... 8

3.1 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................... 8

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................... 10

3.3 Conventions ..................................................................................................... 11

4 Conformance ................................................................................................................. 11

5 Overview of the WiBEEM technology ............................................................................. 12

5.1 General description .......................................................................................... 12

5.2 Functions and descriptions of device types ...................................................... 13

5.3 Functional overview of WiBEEM ....................................................................... 13

5.3.1 General .......................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Superframe structure of WiBEEM ................................................... 13

5.3.3 Data transfer model ........................................................................ 14

6 PHY layer specifications ................................................................................................ 15

6.1 General ............................................................................................................ 15

6.2 General requirements and definitions ............................................................... 16

6.2.1 General .......................................................................................... 16

6.2.2 Operating frequency range ............................................................. 16

6.2.3 Channel assignments and numbering ............................................. 16

6.2.4 RF power measurement .................................................................. 16

6.2.5 Transmit power ............................................................................... 17

6.2.6 Out-of-band spurious emission ....................................................... 17

6.2.7 Receiver sensitivity definitions ........................................................ 17

6.3 PHY service specifications ............................................................................... 17

6.3.1 General .......................................................................................... 17

6.3.2 PHY data service ............................................................................ 18

6.3.3 PHY management service ............................................................... 20

6.3.4 PHY enumerations description ........................................................ 27

6.4 PPDU format .................................................................................................... 28

6.4.1 Function ......................................................................................... 28

6.4.2 General packet format .................................................................... 28

6.5 PHY constants and PIB attributes .................................................................... 29

6.5.1 Function ......................................................................................... 29

6.5.2 PHY constants ................................................................................ 30

6.5.3 PHY PIB attributes .......................................................................... 30

6.6 2 450 MHz PHY specifications ......................................................................... 30

6.6.1 Requirements ................................................................................. 30

6.6.2 Data rate ........................................................................................ 30

6.6.3 Modulation and spreading ............................................................... 31

6.7 General radio specifications ............................................................................. 34

6.7.1 Application of specifications ............................................................ 34

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ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014 – 3 –

6.7.2 TX-to-RX turnaround time ............................................................... 34

6.7.3 RX-to-TX turnaround time ............................................................... 34

6.7.4 Error-vector magnitude (EVM) definition ......................................... 34

6.7.5 Transmit centre frequency tolerance ............................................... 35

6.7.6 Transmit power ............................................................................... 35

6.7.7 Receiver maximum input level of desired signal .............................. 35

6.7.8 Receiver ED ................................................................................... 35

6.7.9 LQI ................................................................................................. 35

6.7.10 CCA................................................................................................ 36

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 1 – Superframe structure of WiBEEM ......................................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Communication from an end device to a co-ordinator in a beacon and non-

beacon mode ........................................................................................................................ 14

Figure 3 – Communication from a co-ordinator to an end device in a beacon and non-

beacon mode ........................................................................................................................ 14

Figure 4 – Communications between co-ordinators in a beacon and non-beacon mode ........ 15

Figure 5 – Communications between end devices ................................................................. 15

Figure 6 – PHY reference model ........................................................................................... 17

Figure 7 – Modulation and spreading functions ..................................................................... 31

Figure 8 – Symbol-to-chip mapping ....................................................................................... 32

Figure 9 – O-QPSK chip offset .............................................................................................. 32

Figure 10 – Sample baseband chip sequences with pulse shaping ........................................ 33

Figure 11 – Error vector calculation ...................................................................................... 34

Table 1 – Frequency bands and data rate ............................................................................. 16

Table 2 – Receiver sensitivity definitions .............................................................................. 17

Table 3 – PD-SAP primitives ................................................................................................. 18

Table 4 – PD_Data.request parameters ................................................................................ 18

Table 5 – PD_DATA.confirm parameters ............................................................................... 19

Table 6 – PD_DATA.indication parameters ........................................................................... 20

Table 7 – PLME-SAP primitives ............................................................................................ 20

Table 8 – PLME-CCA confirm primitive ................................................................................. 21

Table 9 – PLME_ED.confirm parameters .............................................................................. 22

Table 10 – PLME_GET.request parameters .......................................................................... 23

Table 11 – PLME_GET.confirm parameters .......................................................................... 24

Table 12 – PLME-SET-TRX-STATE.request parameters ....................................................... 24

Table 13 – PLME-SET-TRX-STATE.confirm parameters ....................................................... 25

Table 14 – PLME_SET.request parameters .......................................................................... 26

Table 15 – PLME_SET.confirm parameters ........................................................................... 27

Table 16 – PHY enumerations description ............................................................................ 28

Table 17 – Format of the PDU .............................................................................................. 28

Table 18 – Format of the SFD field ....................................................................................... 29

Table 19 – Frame length values ............................................................................................ 29

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014

Table 20 – PHY constants..................................................................................................... 30

Table 21 – PHY PIB attributes .............................................................................................. 30

Table 22 – Minimum receiver jamming resistance requirements for 2 450 MHz PHY ............ 33

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ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014 – 5 –
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
WIRELESS BEACON-ENABLED ENERGY EFFICIENT MESH
NETWORK (WIBEEM) FOR WIRELESS HOME NETWORK SERVICES –
Part 1: PHY layer
FOREWORD

1) ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) form the

specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC participate in

the development of International Standards. Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any ISO and

IEC member body interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International

governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with ISO and IEC also participate in this preparation.

2) In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

Draft International Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

3) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

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Any divergence between any ISO/IEC publication and the corresponding national or regional publication

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10) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 29145-1 was prepared by subcommittee 25: Interconnection

of information technology equipment, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information

technology.

The list of all currently available parts of the ISO/IEC 29145 series, under the general title

Information technology – Wireless beacon-enabled energy efficient mesh network (WiBEEM)

for wireless home network services, can be found on the IEC web site.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

This International Standard specifies the WiBEEM (Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient

Mesh network) protocol, which provides low-power-consuming mesh network functions by

enabling the “beacon mode operation”. WiBEEM is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with

additional upper layer protocols and a specific usage of the MAC layer protocol. Through the

novel use of beacons, WiBEEM technology achieves longer battery life, larger network

support, quicker response, enhanced mobility and dynamic reconfiguration of the network

topology compared with other protocols such as ZigBee.

In the beacon mode, beacon information propagates over the entire mesh network nodes

during the BOP (Beacon-Only Period) of the superframe structure without any beacon

conflicts by utilising a smart beacon scheduling technique in the BOP. It also provides

location information about moving devices without spending extra time running a positioning

and locating algorithm by using RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication). These features

allow the WiBEEM protocol to be widely used for wireless home network services in the

ubiquitous network era.

One of the key features of the WiBEEM protocol is that it has a special time interval called

BOP (Beacon-Only Period) in the superframe structure that allows more than two beacons to

be transmitted. This unique time period is located at the beginning of the Superframe.

Because the BOP does not use the CSMA/CA mechanism, the network will not work properly

in the beacon mode unless an appropriate algorithm is applied. This algorithm needs to

manage and control multiple beacons in a single superframe. The solution is the Beacon

Scheduling method applied in the BOP to avoid collisions among beacons, providing

synchronisation among all the nodes of the entire mesh network.

For the network layer, the NAA (Next Address Available) mechanism, which is a short address

allocation algorithm, has been adopted to provide an efficient way of utilising the complete

16-bit address space. The NAA algorithm does not limit the maximum number of children

nodes that a node of a mesh network can have. Since the number of children nodes is

unlimited, the NAA mechanism allows the WiBEEM protocol to be used not only for home

network services, but also for community services. WiBEEM can be used where high network

expandability through efficient use of short address spaces, device mobility and end-to-end

QoS are required.

This part of ISO/IEC 29145 specifies the Physical (PHY) layer for the WiBEEM protocol.

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– 8 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
WIRELESS BEACON-ENABLED ENERGY EFFICIENT MESH
NETWORK (WIBEEM) FOR WIRELESS HOME NETWORK SERVICES –
Part 1: PHY layer
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 29145 specifies the physical (PHY) layer of WiBEEM (Wireless Beacon-

enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network) protocol for wireless home network services that

supports a low power-consuming wireless mesh network topology as well as device mobility

and QoS.
2 Normative reference

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29145-2, Information technology – Wireless beacon-enabled energy efficient mesh

network (WiBEEM) for wireless home network services – Part 2: MAC layer
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
access control list

table used by a device to determine which devices are authorised to perform a specific

function
3.1.2
association
service used to establish the membership of a device in a wireless mesh network
3.1.3
authentication

service used to establish the identity of one device as a member of the set of devices

authorised to communicate securely to other devices in the set
3.1.4
confidentiality

assurance that communicated data remain private to the parties for whom the data are

intended
3.1.5
co-ordinator

wireless device configured to provide synchronisation services through the transmission of

beacons
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ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014 – 9 –

Note 1 to entry: If a co-ordinator is the principal controller of a wireless mesh network, it is called the WMC

(WiBEEM Mesh Co-ordinator).
3.1.6
data integrity
assurance that the data have not been modified from their original form
3.1.7
device

entity containing an implementation of the WiBEEM applications, NWK, MAC and physical

interface to the wireless medium
3.1.8
frame

data format of aggregated bits from a medium access control (MAC) layer entity transmitted in

a specified sequence
3.1.9
packet

format of aggregated bits transmitted in a specified sequence across the physical medium

3.1.10
personal operating space

space of typically about 10 m around a person or object, no matter whether this peron or

object is stationary or in motion
3.1.11
portable device

device that may be moved from location to location, but uses network communications only

while at a fixed location
3.1.12
protocol data unit
unit of data exchanged between two peer entities
3.1.13
pseudo-random number generation

process of generating a deterministic sequence of bits from a given seed that has the

statistical properties of a random sequence of bits when the seed is not known
3.1.14
service data unit
information delivered as a unit through a service access point (SAP)
3.1.15
WiBEEM end device
WiBEEM device acting as the leaf device of a mesh network
3.1.16
WiBEEM mesh co-ordinator
WiBEEM device acting as the principal controller of a mesh network
Note 1 to entry: A WiBEEM mesh network has exactly one WiBEEM mesh co-ordinator.
3.1.17
WiBEEM routable co-ordinator
WiBEEM device acting as the router of a mesh network
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014
3.1.18
wireless medium

medium used to implement the transfer of protocol data units (PDUs) between peer physical

layer (PHY) entities of a low-rate wireless mesh network
3.2 Abbreviations

The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in this standard. They are commonly used

in other industry publications.
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
BO Beacon Order
BOP Beacon Only Period
BOPL Beacon Only Period Length
BPSK Binary Phase-Shift Keying
CAP Contention Access Period
CBC-MAC Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code
CCA Clear Channel Assessment
CSMA-CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Avoidance
DSP Deep Sleep Period
ED Energy Detection
EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
EVM Error-Vector Magnitude
ID Identifier
IFS Interframe Space or Spacing
LLC Logical Link Control
LQ Link Quality
LQI Link Quality Indication
LPDU LLC Protocol Data Unit
LR-WPAN Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network
LSB Least Significant Bit
MAC Medium Access Control
MIB MAC Information Base
MLME MAC Layer Management Entity
MLME-SAP MAC Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
MPDU MAC Protocol Data Unit
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSC Message Sequence Chart
MSDU MAC Service Data Unit
NAA Next Address Available
NB Number Of Backoff (periods)
O-QPSK Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
PD-SAP PHY Data Service Access Point
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PER Packet Error Rate
PHR PHY Header
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ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014 – 11 –
PHY Physical Layer
PIB PAN Information Base
PICS Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
PLME Physical Layer Management Entity
PLME-SAP Physical Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
PN Pseudo-Random Noise
POS Personal Operating Space
PPDU PHY Protocol Data Unit
PQP Prioritised QoS Period
PSD Power Spectral Density
PSDU PHY Service Data Unit
QoS Quality of Service
RF Radio Frequency
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication
RX Receive or Receiver
SAP Service Access Point
SDL Specification and Description Language
SDU Service Data Unit
SFD Start-of-Frame Delimiter
SHR Synchronisation Header
TRX Transceiver
TX Transmit or Transmitter
WED WiBEEM End Device
WiBEEM Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WM Wireless Medium
WMC WiBEEM Mesh Co-ordinator
WRC WiBEEM Routable Co-ordinator
3.3 Conventions

All the italicised words used in this standard shall implement all the primitives that are

specified in Clause 6 and represent relevant constants defined and stored in the MIB

(Management Information Base) of each layer.
4 Conformance

A wireless device that claims conformance to this standard shall meet all the requirements

specified in 6.2, and shall implement all the primitives specified in 6.3, the PPDU formats in

6.4, the PHY Constants and the PIB attributes in 6.5, the PHY specifications in 6.6 and the

general radio specifications in 6.7. Each WiBEEM device shall be able to act as a WMC, a

WRC or a WED. When operating in the role of a WMC, it shall act as specified in 5.3.2, when

operating in the role of a WRC, it shall act as specified in 5.3.3, and when operating in the

role of a WED, it shall act as specified in 5.3.3.
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– 12 – ISO/IEC 29145-1 © ISO/IEC:2014
5 Overview of the WiBEEM technology
5.1 General description
WiBEEM (Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network) is a low-power-

consuming wireless communication protocol that allows mesh networking capability not only

in the non-beacon mode but also in the beacon mode. It is well suited for collecting sensor

data in ubiquitous harsh environments. One of the most unique features of the WiBEEM

protocol is that even when multiple beacons are used, the mesh network operates properly

without beacon collisions by utilising a smart-beacon scheduling algorithm. Mesh networking

with beacon mode is an enhancement of the non-beacon mesh network. With beacons not

only can sensor nodes within the RF range communicate, but nodes that are located outside

the RF range, no matter how far away, can also reliably transfer data through a multi-hop

communication mechanism without requiring all the intermediate routers to be always turned

on. WiBEEM protocol is a low-power consuming wireless mesh networking technology that

allows wireless connectivity between devices located in ubiquitous harsh environments.

WiBEEM technology that operates in the beacon mode has several advantages. First, the

power efficiency increases by controlling the synchronisation between WMC (WiBEEM Mesh

Co-ordinator) and WRC (WiBEEM Routable Co-ordinator) nodes in a superframe, because all

the nodes can go to DSP (Deep Sleep Period) at the same time. In other words, when the

network is in idle state, all the nodes within the mesh network can enter the DSP

simultaneously, and when the network is awake, the nodes can start transferring data. This

synchronisation mechanism enhances power efficiency, which is one of the most critical

aspects in wi
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