This document specifies a method for the quantification of twelve microcystin variants (microcystin-LR, -LA, -YR, -RR, -LY, -WR, -HtyR, -HilR, -LW, -LF, [Dha7]-microcystin-LR, and [Dha7]-microcystin-RR) in drinking water and freshwater samples between 0,05 µg/l to 1,6 µg/l. The method can be used to determine further microcystins, provided that analytical conditions for chromatography and mass spectrometric detection has been tested and validated for each microcystin. Samples are analysed by LC-MS/MS using internal standard calibration. This method is performance based. The laboratory is permitted to modify the method, e.g. increasing direct flow injection volume for low interference samples or diluting the samples to increase the upper working range limit, provided that all performance criteria in this method are met. Detection of microcystins by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) as an alternative for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is described in Annex A. An alternative automated sample preparation method based on on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography is described in Annex B. When instrumental sensitivity is not sufficient to reach the method detection limits by direct flow injection, a solid phase extraction clean-up and concentration step is described in Annex C.

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This Technical Specification describes an approach for the validation of physico-chemical analytical methods for environmental matrices.
The guidance in this document addresses two different validation approaches, in increasing order of complexity. These are:
a)   method development and validation at the level of single laboratories (intra-laboratory validation);
b)   method validation at the level of several laboratories (between-laboratory or inter-laboratory validation), with a focus on methods that are sufficiently mature and robust to be applied not only by a few expert laboratories but by laboratories operating at the routine level.
The concept of these two approaches is strictly hierarchical, i.e. a method shall fulfil all criteria of the first level before it can enter the validation protocol of the second level.
This Technical Specification is applicable to the validation of a broad range of quantitative physico-chemical analytical methods for the analysis of water (including surface water, groundwater, waste water, and sediment). Analytical methods for other environmental matrices, like soil, sludge, waste, and biota can be validated in the same way. It is intended either for analytical methods aiming at substances that have recently become of interest or for test methods applying recently developed technologies.
The minimal requirements that are indispensable for the characterization of the fitness for purpose of an analytical method are: selectivity, precision, bias and measurement uncertainty. The aim of validation is to prove that these requirements are met.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of certain cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in environmental water samples with low density polyethylene (LDPE) as a preservative and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with hexane containing 13C-labeled cVMS as internal standards. The extract is then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NOTE Using the 13C-labeled, chemically identical substances as internal standards with the same properties as the corresponding analytes, minimizes possible substance-specific discrimination in calibrations. Since these substances are least soluble in water, they are introduced via the extraction solvent hexane into the system.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of alkylmercury compounds in filtered water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after phenylation and solvent extraction. This method is applicable to determination of individual methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg) compounds in surface water and waste water. The method can be applied to samples containing 0,2 μg/l to 10 μg/l of each compound as mercury mass. Depending on the matrix, the method may also be applicable to higher concentrations after suitable dilution of the sample or reduction in sample size.

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This document specifies operationally defined methods for the determination of total cyanide in various types of water such as drinking water, ground water, surface water, wastewaters, metallurgical processing tailings reclaim solution, heap leach barren solution, mill slurry tailings filtrate and leaching solutions, with cyanide concentrations from 5 µg/l to 2 000 mg/l expressed as cyanide ions in the undiluted sample. The range of application can be extended by reducing the sensitivity (Figure A.1.). NOTE ISO 2080:2008, 3.105, defines free cyanide. The concentration of total cyanide as defined in ISO 2080:2008, 3.191 includes free cyanide, cyanide complexed with metals in solution as cyanide anion, but not necessarily all of the metal cyanide complexes present as determined by a specified analytical method. In this method, six suitable mass concentration ranges from 5 µg/l to 50 µg/l, from 50 µg/l to 500 µg/l, from 0,5 mg/l to 5 mg/l, from 5 mg/l to 50 mg/l, from 50 mg/l to 500 mg/l and from 500 mg/l to 2 000 mg/l are described.

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This document specifies a multi‑parameter method for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TNb) and total phosphorus (TP) in drinking water, raw water, ground water, surface water, sea water, saline water, process water, domestic and industrial wastewater, after a chemical oxidation process. It is applicable to both dissolved and bound suspended materials. The method allows for determination of TOC, TN and TP. The lower and upper working ranges for these parameters are dependent upon instrument conditions (for example sample volume, reaction chemistry amounts) and can be adjusted for a wider range. Typical measurement ranges are shown in Figures C.1 to C.3. The analysis procedure is carried out instrumentally by a single oxidation process. Dissolved nitrogen gas is not included in the TNb measurement in this method. When present in the sample, elemental carbon, cyanate and thiocyanate will be included in the TOC result.

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This procedure specifies a method for the determination of 228Ra activity in drinking waters by radium
extraction, purification and liquid scintillation counting.

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This standard specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of waters by liquid
scintillation counting (LSC).
The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The method described in
this standard, using currently available LSC counters, has a detection limit of approximately 5 to 20
Bq•kg-1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq•L-1).
These values can be achieved with a counting time of 30 minutes for a sample volume varying
between 14 to 40 mL. The methods presented in this standard are not intended for the determination of
ultra-trace amount of 99Tc.

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This standard specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The method described in this standard, using currently available ICP-MS, has a detection limit of approximately 0,2 to 0,5 ng•L-1 (0,1 to 0,3 Bq•kg-1), which is much lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq•L-1). The method presented in this standard is not intended for the determination of ultra-trace amount of 99Tc.

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This International Standard gives criteria for mass spectrometric identification of target compounds in water. This document is a guideline for the identification of molecules <1 200 Da. For identification of larger molecules additional investigations are recommended.
This standard shall be used in conjunction with standards developed for the determination of the specific compounds. If the standards for analysing specific compounds give criteria for identification, those criteria shall be followed.

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This  document specifies the critical issues to address when developing in a laboratory a method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of numerous organic compounds in water.

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This part of ISO 5815 specifies the determination of the biochemical oxygen demand of waters by dilution and seeding with suppression of nitrification after 5 d incubation time.
This part of ISO 5815 is applicable to all waters having biochemical oxygen demands usually between 3 mg/l and 6 000 mg/l. It applies particularly to waste waters. For biochemical oxygen demands greater than 6 000 mg/l of oxygen, the method is still applicable, but the errors caused by the necessary dilutions can influence the analytical quality of the test method. Then the results are to be interpreted
with circumspection.
The results obtained are the product of a combination of biochemical and chemical reactions with participation by living matter which behaves only with occasional reproducibility. They do not have the rigorous and unambiguous character of those resulting from, for example, a single, well-defined, chemical process. Nevertheless, they provide an indication from which the quality of waters can be estimated.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of selected perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-filtrated waters, for example drinking water, natural water (fresh water and sea water) and waste water containing less than 2 g/l solid particulate material (SPM) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The compounds monitored by this method are typically the linear isomers. The group of compounds determined by this method are representative of a wide variety of PFAS. The analytes specified in Table 1 can be determined by this method. The list can be modified depending on the purpose for which the method is intended. The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies ≥0,2 ng/l as limit of quantification can be achieved. Actual levels can depend on the blank levels realized by individual laboratory. The applicability of the method to further substances, not listed in Table 1, or to further types of water is not excluded, but is intended to be validated separately for each individual case.

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This document specifies methods used to determine the concentration of plutonium and neptunium
isotopes in water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu
and 237Np). The concentrations obtained can be converted into activity concentrations of the different
isotopes[9].
Due to its relatively short half-life and 238U isobaric interference, 238Pu can hardly be measured by
this method. To quantify this isotope, other techniques can be used (ICP-MS with collision-reaction cell,
ICP-MS/MS with collision-reaction cell or chemical separation). Alpha spectrometry measurement, as
described in ISO 13167[10], is currently used[11].
This method is applicable to all types of water having a saline load less than 1 g·l−1. A dilution of the
sample is possible to obtain a solution having a saline load and activity concentrations compatible with
the preparation and the measurement assembly.
A filtration at 0,45 μm is needed for determination of dissolved nuclides. Acidification and chemical
separation of the sample are always needed.
The limit of quantification depends on the chemical separation and the performance of the
measurement device.
This method covers the measurement of those isotopes in water in activity concentrations between
around[12][13]:
— 1 mBq·l−1 to 5 Bq·l−1 for 239Pu, 240Pu and 237Np;
— 1 Bq·l−1 to 5 Bq·l−1 for 241Pu.
In both cases, samples with higher activity concentrations than 5 Bq·l−1 can be measured if a dilution is
performed before the chemical separation.
It is possible to measure 241Pu following a pre-concentration step of at least 1 000.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of selected perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non‑filtrated waters, for example drinking water, natural water (fresh water and sea water) and waste water containing less than 2 g/l solid particulate material (SPM) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS). The compounds monitored by this method are typically the linear isomers. The group of compounds determined by this method are representative of a wide variety of PFAS. The analytes specified in Table 1 can be determined by this method. The list can be modified depending on the purpose for which the method is intended. The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies ≥0,2 ng/l as limit of quantification can be achieved. Actual levels can depend on the blank levels realized by individual laboratory. The applicability of the method to further substances, not listed in Table 1, or to further types of water is not excluded, but is intended to be validated separately for each individual case. NOTE 1 PFAS is used in this document to describe the analytes monitored. Many of the compounds in Table 1 are perfluoroalkyl and are also considered polyfluoroalkyl substances. NOTE 2 The linear PFAS isomers are specified in this document. The branched isomers can be present in environmental samples, especially for PFOS. Annex E provides an example of an analytical approach to the chromatographic and spectroscopic separation of individual isomers.

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This European Standard specifies determination of the biochemical oxygen demand of waters of undiluted samples. This standard is applicable to all waters having biochemical oxygen demands greater than or equal to the limit of determination 0,5 mg/l of oxygen and not exceeding 6 mg/l of oxygen.

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This document specifies the criteria for mass spectrometric identification of target compounds in water samples and is applicable to environmental samples in general. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with standards developed for the determination of specific compounds. If a standard method for analysing specific compounds includes criteria for identification, those criteria are followed.

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This document specifies the criteria for developing an in-house mass spectrometry-based method for quantitative analysis of multiple subgroups of organic substances in the scope of physical-chemical analysis of water.
This document supplements ISO/TS 13530 which provides guidance on the initial characterization of the measurement performances, by providing details to select the test matrix and internal standards and criteria for analyte and internal standard recoveries.
This document is not intended as a substitute for the currently applicable analytical standards dedicated to organic compounds but as a resource bringing additional characterization elements.

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This document specifies the determination of the biochemical oxygen demand of waters by dilution and seeding with suppression of nitrification after 5 d or 7 d incubation time.
It is applicable to all waters having biochemical oxygen demands usually between 1 mg/l and 6 000 mg/l. It applies particularly to waste waters but also suits for the analysis of natural waters. For biochemical oxygen demands greater than 6 000 mg/l of oxygen, the method is still applicable, but special care is needed taking into consideration the representativeness of subsampling for preparation of the dilution steps. The results obtained are the product of a combination of biochemical and chemical reactions in presence of living matter which behaves only with occasional reproducibility. The results do not have the rigorous and unambiguous character of those resulting from, for example, a single, well‑defined, chemical process. Nevertheless, the results provide an indication from which the quality of waters can be estimated.

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This document specifies representative materials suitable for the determination of the performance
characteristics, including uncertainty, during the initial assessment of a quantitative method, used in a
laboratory, for physico-chemical water analysis.
This document focuses on five main types of water:
— waters intended for consumption (5.2);
— natural waters (5.3);
— waste waters (5.4);
— marine waters (5.5);
— recreational waters (5.6).
NOTE Other more specific or less common types of water can be incorporated in any of the above types
provided appropriate justifications. The characteristics of the standard matrix are compatible with the
characteristics of the samples handled.

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This part of ISO 17378 specifies a method for the determination of arsenic and antimony. The method
is applicable to drinking water, surface water, ground water, and rain water. The approximate linear
application range of this part of ISO 17378 for both elements is from 0,5 μg/l to 20 μg/l. Samples
containing higher concentrations than the application range can be analysed following appropriate
dilution.
Generally sea water is outside the scope of this part of ISO 17378. Sea water samples can be analysed
using a standard additions approach providing that this is validated for the samples under test. The
method is unlikely to detect organo-arsenic and organo-antimony compounds.
The sensitivity of this method is dependent on the selected operating conditions.

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This document specifies the criteria for mass spectrometric identification of target compounds in water samples and is applicable to environmental samples in general. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with standards developed for the determination of specific compounds. If a standard method for analysing specific compounds includes criteria for identification, those criteria are followed.

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This document specifies the criteria for developing an in-house mass spectrometry-based method for quantitative analysis of multiple subgroups of organic substances in the scope of physical-chemical analysis of water. This document supplements ISO/TS 13530 which provides guidance on the initial characterization of the measurement performances, by providing details to select the test matrix and internal standards and criteria for analyte and internal standard recoveries. This document is not intended as a substitute for the currently applicable analytical standards dedicated to organic compounds but as a resource bringing additional characterization elements.

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This document specifies the determination of the biochemical oxygen demand of waters by dilution and seeding with suppression of nitrification after 5 d or 7 d incubation time. It is applicable to all waters having biochemical oxygen demands usually between 1 mg/l and 6 000 mg/l. It applies particularly to waste waters but also suits for the analysis of natural waters. For biochemical oxygen demands greater than 6 000 mg/l of oxygen, the method is still applicable, but special care is needed taking into consideration the representativeness of subsampling for preparation of the dilution steps. The results obtained are the product of a combination of biochemical and chemical reactions in presence of living matter which behaves only with occasional reproducibility. The results do not have the rigorous and unambiguous character of those resulting from, for example, a single, well‑defined, chemical process. Nevertheless, the results provide an indication from which the quality of waters can be estimated.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the sum of short-chain
polychlorinated n-alkanes also known as short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the carbon
bond range n-C10 to n-C13 inclusive, in mixtures with chlorine mass fractions (“contents”) between
50 % and 67 %, including approximately 6 000 of approximately 8 000 congeners.
This method is applicable to the determination of the sum of SCCPs in unfiltered surface water, ground
water, drinking water and waste water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron
capture negative ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).
Depending on the capability of the GC-ECNI-MS instrument, the concentration range of the method
is from 0,1 μg/l or lower to 10 μg/l. Depending on the waste water matrix, the lowest detectable
concentration is estimated to be > 0,1 μg/l. The data of the interlaboratory trial concerning this method
are given in Annex I.

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This document specifies continuous flow analysis (CFA) methods for the determination of
orthophosphate in the mass concentration range from 0,01 mg/l to 1,00 mg/l P, and total phosphorus
in the mass concentration range from 0,10 mg/l to 10,0 mg/l P. The method includes the digestion of
organic phosphorus compounds and the hydrolysis of inorganic polyphosphate compounds, performed
either manually, as described in ISO 6878 and in References [4], [5] and [7], or with an integrated
ultraviolet (UV) digestion and hydrolysis unit.
This document is applicable to various types of water, such as ground, drinking, surface, leachate and
waste water. The range of application can be changed by varying the operating conditions.
This method is also applicable to the analysis of seawater, but with changes in sensitivity by adapting
the carrier and calibration solutions to the salinity of the samples.
It is also applicable to analysis using 10 mm to 50 mm cuvettes depending on the desired range. For
extreme sensitivity, 250 mm and 500 mm long way capillary flow cells (LCFCs) can be used. However,
the method is not validated for these two uses. Changes in sensitivity and calibration solutions could be
required.
Annex A provides examples of a CFA system. Annex B gives performance data from interlaboratory
trials. Annex C gives information of determining orthophosphate-P and total-P by CFA and tin(II)
chloride reduction.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved
organic carbon (DOC), total bound nitrogen (TNb) and dissolved bound nitrogen (DNb) in the form of
free ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and organic compounds capable of conversion to nitrogen
oxides under the conditions described. The procedure is carried out instrumentally.
NOTE Generally the method can be applied for the determination of total carbon (TC) and total inorganic
carbon (TIC), see Annex A.
The method is applicable to water samples (e.g. drinking water, raw water, ground water, surface water,
sea water, waste water, leachates).
The method allows a determination of TOC and DOC ≥ 1 mg/l and TNb and DNb ≥ 1 mg/l. The upper
working range is restricted by instrument-dependent conditions (e.g. injection volume). Higher
concentrations can be determined after appropriate dilution of the sample.
For samples containing volatile organic compounds (e.g. industrial waste water), the difference method
is used, see Annex A.
Cyanide, cyanate and particles of elemental carbon (soot), when present in the sample, can be
determined together with the organic carbon.
The method is not appropriate for the determination of volatile, or purgeable, organic carbon under the
conditions described by this method.
Dissolved nitrogen gas (N2) is not determined.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the dissolved fraction of selected active
pharmaceutical ingredients and transformation products, as well as other organic substances
(see Table 1) in drinking water, ground water, surface water and treated waste water.
The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used
and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies, the range is ≥ 0,025 μg/l
for drinking water, ground water and surface water, and ≥ 0,050 μg/l for treated waste water.
The method can be used to determine further organic substances or in other types of water (e.g.
process water) provided that accuracy has been tested and verified for each case, and that storage
conditions of both samples and reference solutions have been validated. Table 1 shows the substances
for which a determination was tested in accordance with the method. Table E.1 provides examples of
the determination of other organic substances.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the sum of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes also known as short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the carbon bond range n-C10 to n-C13 inclusive, in mixtures with chlorine mass fractions ("contents") between 50 % and 67 %, including approximately 6 000 of approximately 8 000 congeners.
This method is applicable to the determination of the sum of SCCPs in unfiltered surface water, ground water, drinking water and waste water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).
Depending on the capability of the GC-ECNI-MS instrument, the concentration range of the method is from 0,1 µg/l or lower to 10 µg/l. Depending on the waste water matrix, the lowest detectable concentration is estimated to be > 0,1 µg/l. The data of the interlaboratory trial concerning this method are given in Annex I.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the sum of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes also known as short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the carbon bond range n-C10 to n-C13 inclusive, in mixtures with chlorine mass fractions ("contents") between 50 % and 67 %, including approximately 6 000 of approximately 8 000 congeners. This method is applicable to the determination of the sum of SCCPs in unfiltered surface water, ground water, drinking water and waste water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization (GC-ECNI-MS). Depending on the capability of the GC-ECNI-MS instrument, the concentration range of the method is from 0,1 µg/l or lower to 10 µg/l. Depending on the waste water matrix, the lowest detectable concentration is estimated to be > 0,1 µg/l. The data of the interlaboratory trial concerning this method are given in Annex I.

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This document specifies representative materials suitable for the determination of the performance characteristics, including uncertainty, during the initial assessment of a quantitative method, used in a laboratory, for physico-chemical water analysis. This document focuses on five main types of water: — waters intended for consumption (5.2); — natural waters (5.3); — waste waters (5.4); — marine waters (5.5); — recreational waters (5.6). NOTE Other more specific or less common types of water can be incorporated in any of the above types provided appropriate justifications. The characteristics of the standard matrix are compatible with the characteristics of the samples handled.

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This document specifies continuous flow analysis (CFA) methods for the determination of orthophosphate in the mass concentration range from 0,01 mg/l to 1,00 mg/l P, and total phosphorus in the mass concentration range from 0,10 mg/l to 10,0 mg/l P. The method includes the digestion of organic phosphorus compounds and the hydrolysis of inorganic polyphosphate compounds, performed either manually, as described in ISO 6878 and in References [4], [5] and [7], or with an integrated ultraviolet (UV) digestion and hydrolysis unit.
This document is applicable to various types of water, such as ground, drinking, surface, leachate and waste water. The range of application can be changed by varying the operating conditions.
This method is also applicable to the analysis of seawater, but with changes in sensitivity by adapting the carrier and calibration solutions to the salinity of the samples.
It is also applicable to analysis using 10 mm to 50 mm cuvettes depending on the desired range. For extreme sensitivity, 250 mm and 500 mm long way capillary flow cells (LCFCs) can be used. However, the method is not validated for these two uses. Changes in sensitivity and calibration solutions could be required.
Annex A provides examples of a CFA system. Annex B gives performance data from interlaboratory trials. Annex C gives information of determining orthophosphate-P and total-P by CFA and tin(II) chloride reduction.

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This document specifies continuous flow analysis (CFA) methods for the determination of orthophosphate in the mass concentration range from 0,01 mg/l to 1,00 mg/l P, and total phosphorus in the mass concentration range from 0,10 mg/l to 10,0 mg/l P. The method includes the digestion of organic phosphorus compounds and the hydrolysis of inorganic polyphosphate compounds, performed either manually, as described in ISO 6878 and in References [4], [5] and [7], or with an integrated ultraviolet (UV) digestion and hydrolysis unit. This document is applicable to various types of water, such as ground, drinking, surface, leachate and waste water. The range of application can be changed by varying the operating conditions. This method is also applicable to the analysis of seawater, but with changes in sensitivity by adapting the carrier and calibration solutions to the salinity of the samples. It is also applicable to analysis using 10 mm to 50 mm cuvettes depending on the desired range. For extreme sensitivity, 250 mm and 500 mm long way capillary flow cells (LCFCs) can be used. However, the method is not validated for these two uses. Changes in sensitivity and calibration solutions could be required. Annex A provides examples of a CFA system. Annex B gives performance data from interlaboratory trials. Annex C gives information of determining orthophosphate-P and total-P by CFA and tin(II) chloride reduction.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the dissolved fraction of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients and transformation products, as well as other organic substances (see Table 1) in drinking water, ground water, surface water and treated waste water. The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies, the range is ≥ 0,025 µg/l for drinking water, ground water and surface water, and ≥ 0,050 µg/l for treated waste water. The method can be used to determine further organic substances or in other types of water (e.g. process water) provided that accuracy has been tested and verified for each case, and that storage conditions of both samples and reference solutions have been validated. Table 1 shows the substances for which a determination was tested in accordance with the method. Table E.1 provides examples of the determination of other organic substances.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total bound nitrogen (TNb) and dissolved bound nitrogen (DNb) in the form of free ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and organic compounds capable of conversion to nitrogen oxides under the conditions described. The procedure is carried out instrumentally. NOTE Generally the method can be applied for the determination of total carbon (TC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC), see Annex A. The method is applicable to water samples (e.g. drinking water, raw water, ground water, surface water, sea water, waste water, leachates). The method allows a determination of TOC and DOC ≥ 1 mg/l and TNb and DNb ≥ 1 mg/l. The upper working range is restricted by instrument-dependent conditions (e.g. injection volume). Higher concentrations can be determined after appropriate dilution of the sample. For samples containing volatile organic compounds (e.g. industrial waste water), the difference method is used, see Annex A. Cyanide, cyanate and particles of elemental carbon (soot), when present in the sample, can be determined together with the organic carbon. The method is not appropriate for the determination of volatile, or purgeable, organic carbon under the conditions described by this method. Dissolved nitrogen gas (N2) is not determined.

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This document specifies a method primarily developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic
species (arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) dissolved in a sample after a preservation process
in waters with a low total organic carbon content such as potable water, tap water, surface waters,
ground waters and rain waters. Information is provided on the determination of potentially relevant
organo-arsenic species such as methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) which may
be encountered at very low levels in natural surface waters.
The linear working dynamic range depends on the operating conditions and the method of detection
used; under standard conditions, it typically ranges from 0,5 μg/l to 50 μg/l for each species. Samples
containing arsenic at concentrations higher than the linear dynamic range can be analysed after
suitable dilution.
This method is based on high performance liquid chromatography separation of arsenic species with
either inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or hydride generation atomic fluorescence
spectrometry (HG-AFS) as a method of detection.
The sensitivity of this method depends on the method of detection and the instrumental operating
conditions selected. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method also depends on the operating
conditions of the analytical system used and the extent of the calibration range used. LOQ examples for
As(III) and As(V) are provided; LOQs are generally less than 1 μg/l.
This document does not apply to arsenobetaine and other organic arsenic species which are not present
in natural water samples.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of polychlorinated naphthalenes
(PCNs), where “poly” means “mono” to “octa”, in waters and waste waters [containing less than 2 g/l
solid particulate material (SPM)] using high resolution gas chromatography–high resolution mass
spectrometry (HRGC–HRMS).
NOTE 1 The congeners analysed by this method are listed in Table 1.
The working range of the method is 20 pg/l to 8 ng/l. The method is optimized for PCNs, but can
be modified to include other coplanar compounds such as polychlorinated dioxins and furans
(PCDDs/PCDFs) and dioxin-like tetra- to heptachlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs). This method can be used
to determine PCNs in other matrices (e.g. biota, sediments, air); however, additional clean-up steps and
techniques can be necessary for samples with high organic loadings. Low resolution mass spectrometry
(LRMS) and mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry (MS–MS) can be used.
NOTE 2 LRMS and MS–MS conditions are summarized in Annex A.
Both LRMS and MS–MS can be less selective than HRMS and there is a possibility of bias due to
interfering compounds if these techniques are used.
The detection limits and quantification levels in this method are dependent on the level of interferences
as well as instrumental limitations.
NOTE 3 The minimum levels (ML) in Table 4 are the levels at which the PCNs can typically be determined with
no interferences present.
This method is performance based. The analyst is permitted to modify the method, e.g. to overcome
interferences, provided that all performance criteria in this method are met.
NOTE 4 The requirements for establishing method validation or equivalency are given in Clause 9.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of selected cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in non-filtered water samples by purge and trap extraction with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method is applicable to the determination of individual cVMS, including: — octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4); — decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5); — dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6); in surface water, ground water, and wastewater. It can be applied to samples within the concentration range of 0,01 µg/l to 1 µg/l of each of the target compounds. Depending on the matrix, the method may also be applicable to higher concentrations ranging from 1 µg/l to 100 µg/l after suitable dilution of the sample or reduction in sample size.

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This document specifies operationally defined methods for the determination of available WAD cyanide in various types of water such as drinking, ground, and surface, waters, and metallurgical processing tailings reclaim, heap leach barren, mill slurry tailings and leaching solutions, with cyanide concentrations from 5 µg/l to 2 000 mg/l expressed as cyanide ions in the undiluted sample. The range of application can be changed by varying the operation conditions, e.g. by using a different injection volume, thicker membrane, detector response, etc. NOTE ISO 2080:2008, 3.105, defines free cyanide. The concentration of available WAD cyanide includes free cyanide and some of the metals complexed in solution as determined by a specified analytical method but not all of the metal complexes present in total cyanide (3,191). In this method, six suitable mass concentration ranges from 5 µg/l to 50 µg/l, from 50 µg/l to 500 µg/l, from 0,5 mg/l to 5 mg/l, from 5 mg/l to 50 mg/l, from 50 mg/l to 500 mg/l and from 500 mg/l to 2 000 mg/l are described.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of free chlorine and total chlorine in water,
readily applicable to lab- and field-testing. It is based on measurement of the absorption, the red DPD
colour complex in a photometer or the colour intensity by visual comparison of the colour with a scale
of standards that is regularly calibrated.
This method is appropriate for drinking water and other waters, where additional halogens like
bromine, iodine and other oxidizing agents are present in almost negligible amounts. Seawater and
waters containing bromides and iodides comprise a group for which special procedures are to be
carried out.
This method is in practice applicable to concentrations, in terms of chlorine (Cl2), from, for example,
0,000 4 mmol/l to 0,07 mmol/l (e.g. 0,03 mg/l to 5 mg/l) total chlorine. For higher concentrations, the
test portion is diluted.
Commonly, the method is applied as a field method with mobile photometers and commercially available
ready-for-use reagents (liquid reagents, powders and tablets). It is essential that those reagents comply
with minimum requirements and contain the essential reagents and a buffer system suitable to adjust
the measurement solution to a pH range of typically 6,2 to 6,5. If there is doubt that water samples
have uncommon pH values and/or buffer capacities, the user has to check and, if necessary, to adjust
the sample pH to the required range. The pH of the sample is within the range of pH 4 and 8. Adjust, if
necessary, with sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid before the test.
A procedure for the differentiation of combined chlorine of the monochloramine type, combined
chlorine of the dichloramine type and combined chlorine in the form of nitrogen trichloride is
presented in Annex A. In Annex C, a procedure is presented for the determination of free and total
chlorine in drinking and other low polluted waters, for disposable planar reagent-filled cuvettes using a
mesofluidic channel pump/colorimeter.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of dissolved perchlorate in water (e.g. drinking water, mineral water, raw water, surface water, partially treated water or swimming pool water, waste water from drinking/swimming pool water treatment plants).
Appropriate pre-treatment of the sample (e.g. matrix elimination) allows a direct determination of perchlorate ≥1 μg/l.
The working range is restricted by the ion-exchange capacity of the separator column. Dilution of the sample to the working range can be necessary.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of dissolved fraction of glyphosate
and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in drinking water, ground water, and
surface water at concentrations of 0,03 μg/l to 1,5 μg/l. It does not apply to marine or salty water. This
method can be applicable to other types of waters, provided the method is validated for each case.

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ISO 7393-2:2017 specifies a method for the determination of free chlorine and total chlorine in water, readily applicable to lab- and field-testing. It is based on measurement of the absorption, the red DPD colour complex in a photometer or the colour intensity by visual comparison of the colour with a scale of standards that is regularly calibrated.
This method is appropriate for drinking water and other waters, where additional halogens like bromine, iodine and other oxidizing agents are present in almost negligible amounts. Seawater and waters containing bromides and iodides comprise a group for which special procedures are to be carried out.
This method is in practice applicable to concentrations, in terms of chlorine (Cl2), from, for example, 0,000 4 mmol/l to 0,07 mmol/l (e.g. 0,03 mg/l to 5 mg/l) total chlorine. For higher concentrations, the test portion is diluted.
Commonly, the method is applied as a field method with mobile photometers and commercially available ready-for-use reagents (liquid reagents, powders and tablets). It is essential that those reagents comply with minimum requirements and contain the essential reagents and a buffer system suitable to adjust the measurement solution to a pH range of typically 6,2 to 6,5. If there is doubt that water samples have uncommon pH values and/or buffer capacities, the user has to check and, if necessary, to adjust the sample pH to the required range. The pH of the sample is within the range of pH 4 and 8. Adjust, if necessary, with sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid before the test.
A procedure for the differentiation of combined chlorine of the monochloramine type, combined chlorine of the dichloramine type and combined chlorine in the form of nitrogen trichloride is presented in Annex A. In Annex C, a procedure is presented for the determination of free and total chlorine in drinking and other low polluted waters, for disposable planar reagent-filled cuvettes using a mesofluidic channel pump/colorimeter.

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ISO/TS 19620:2018 specifies a method primarily developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic species (arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) dissolved in a sample after a preservation process in waters with a low total organic carbon content such as potable water, tap water, surface waters, ground waters and rain waters. Information is provided on the determination of potentially relevant organo-arsenic species such as methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) which may be encountered at very low levels in natural surface waters. The linear working dynamic range depends on the operating conditions and the method of detection used; under standard conditions, it typically ranges from 0,5 µg/l to 50 µg/l for each species. Samples containing arsenic at concentrations higher than the linear dynamic range can be analysed after suitable dilution. This method is based on high performance liquid chromatography separation of arsenic species with either inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) as a method of detection. The sensitivity of this method depends on the method of detection and the instrumental operating conditions selected. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method also depends on the operating conditions of the analytical system used and the extent of the calibration range used. LOQ examples for As(III) and As(V) are provided; LOQs are generally less than 1 µg/l. ISO/TS 19620:2018 does not apply to arsenobetaine and other organic arsenic species which are not present in natural water samples.

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ISO 20595:2018 specifies a method for the determination of selected volatile organic compounds in water (see Table 1). This comprises among others volatile halogenated hydrocarbons as well as gasoline components (BTXE, TAME, MTBE and ETBE). The method is applicable to the determination of volatile organic compounds (see Table 1) in drinking water, groundwater, surface water and treated waste water in mass concentrations >0,1 µg/l. The lower application range depends on the individual compound, the amount of the blank value and the matrix.

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ISO 7393-2:2017 specifies a method for the determination of free chlorine and total chlorine in water, readily applicable to lab- and field-testing. It is based on measurement of the absorption, the red DPD colour complex in a photometer or the colour intensity by visual comparison of the colour with a scale of standards that is regularly calibrated. This method is appropriate for drinking water and other waters, where additional halogens like bromine, iodine and other oxidizing agents are present in almost negligible amounts. Seawater and waters containing bromides and iodides comprise a group for which special procedures are to be carried out. This method is in practice applicable to concentrations, in terms of chlorine (Cl2), from, for example, 0,000 4 mmol/l to 0,07 mmol/l (e.g. 0,03 mg/l to 5 mg/l) total chlorine. For higher concentrations, the test portion is diluted. Commonly, the method is applied as a field method with mobile photometers and commercially available ready-for-use reagents (liquid reagents, powders and tablets). It is essential that those reagents comply with minimum requirements and contain the essential reagents and a buffer system suitable to adjust the measurement solution to a pH range of typically 6,2 to 6,5. If there is doubt that water samples have uncommon pH values and/or buffer capacities, the user has to check and, if necessary, to adjust the sample pH to the required range. The pH of the sample is within the range of pH 4 and 8. Adjust, if necessary, with sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid before the test. A procedure for the differentiation of combined chlorine of the monochloramine type, combined chlorine of the dichloramine type and combined chlorine in the form of nitrogen trichloride is presented in Annex A. In Annex C, a procedure is presented for the determination of free and total chlorine in drinking and other low polluted waters, for disposable planar reagent-filled cuvettes using a mesofluidic channel pump/colorimeter.

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ISO 19340:2017 specifies a method for the determination of dissolved perchlorate in water (e.g. drinking water, mineral water, raw water, surface water, partially treated water or swimming pool water, waste water from drinking/swimming pool water treatment plants).
Appropriate pre-treatment of the sample (e.g. matrix elimination) allows a direct determination of perchlorate ≥ 1 µg/l.
The working range is restricted by the ion-exchange capacity of the separator column. Dilution of the sample to the working range can be necessary.

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ISO 19340:2017 specifies a method for the determination of dissolved perchlorate in water (e.g. drinking water, mineral water, raw water, surface water, partially treated water or swimming pool water, waste water from drinking/swimming pool water treatment plants). Appropriate pre-treatment of the sample (e.g. matrix elimination) allows a direct determination of perchlorate ≥ 1 µg/l. The working range is restricted by the ion-exchange capacity of the separator column. Dilution of the sample to the working range can be necessary.

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ISO/TS 15923-2:2017 specifies methods for the automatic determination of chromium(VI), fluoride, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, iron, iron(II), manganese and aluminium with photometric determination using a discrete analysis system. The field of application is water (ground, potable, surface, waste, eluates and boiler water). The method can also be applied to marine waters with matrix matching of standard and control solutions. Note that some parameters, notably iron, manganese and aluminium and possibly chromium(VI), calcium and magnesium may not be completely quantified if the sample contains particulates. Samples can be digested in acid, as long as the buffering capacity of the reaction mixture is not exceeded. Such procedures are beyond the scope of ISO/TS 15923-2:2017, which is best suited to the determination of dissolved metals following on-site filtration.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of volatile organic compounds. This comprises e.g. halogenated hydrocarbons, trihalogen methanes, gasoline additives (like BTEX, MTBE and ETBE), naphthalene, 2-ethyl-4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane and highly odorous substances like geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in drinking water, ground water and surface water by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC MS). The limit of determination depends on the matrix, on the specific compound to be analysed and on the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. For most compounds to which this International Standard applies, it is at least 0,01 µg/l. Validation data related to a concentration range between 0,02 µg/l and 2,6 µg/l have been demonstrated in an interlaboratory trial. Additional validation data derived from standardization work show applicability of the method within a concentration range from 0,01 µg/l to 100 µg/l of individual substances. All determinations are performed on small sample amounts (e.g. sample volumes of 10 ml).
This method is applicable to other compounds not explicitly covered by this International Standard or to other types of water. However, it is necessary to verify the applicability for each case.

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