Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds

This document gives recommendations for specimen preparation, test procedures and their main objectives for macroscopic and microscopic examination.

Essais destructifs des soudures sur matériaux métalliques — Examens macroscopique et microscopique des assemblages soudés

Le présent document spécifie un mode opératoire d'essai et ses principaux objectifs concernant les examens macroscopique et microscopique des assemblages soudés.

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Published
Publication Date
06-Feb-2022
Current Stage
5020 - FDIS ballot initiated: 2 months. Proof sent to secretariat
Start Date
06-Dec-2021
Completion Date
06-Dec-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17639
Second edition
2022-01
Destructive tests on welds in metallic
materials — Macroscopic and
microscopic examination of welds
Essais destructifs des soudures sur matériaux métalliques — Examens
macroscopique et microscopique des assemblages soudés
Reference number
ISO 17639:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................................................................1

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Purpose of the test ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

7 Removal of test specimens ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

8 Test procedure .......................................................................................................................................................................................................3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Test specimen preparation .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Surface finish ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.4 Etching methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.5 Etchants ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.6 Safety measures .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Examination .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

11 Test report .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Example of a test report...................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 5, Testing and inspection of welds, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 121, Welding and allied processes, in accordance

with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 17639:2003), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— Clause 2 has been updated;
— the designations according to ISO/TR 15608 have been updated in Clause 10.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.

Official interpretations of ISO/TC 44 documents, where they exist, are available from this page:

https://committee.iso.org/sites/tc44/home/interpretation.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17639:2022(E)
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials —
Macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds
1 Scope

This document gives recommendations for specimen preparation, test procedures and their main

objectives for macroscopic and microscopic examination.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6520-1, Welding and allied processes — Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials

— Part 1: Fusion welding
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
macroscopic examination

examination of a test specimen by the naked eye, or under low magnification (generally less than ×50),

with or without etching
3.2
microscopic examination

examination of a test specimen by microscope with a magnification of generally ×50 to ×500, with or

without etching
3.3
examiner

person who performs the macroscopic examination (3.1) and/or microscopic examination (3.2)

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
A macroscopic examination
I microscopic examination
E etched
U unetched
Symbols for parent metals are given as material grouping system in ISO/TR 15608.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(E)

The same grouping systems shall also be used for weld metal. For consumables not classified under

ISO/TR 15608, the consumables used shall be identified in the report.

The abbreviations for etchants should be taken from ISO/TR 16060 whenever applicable.

NOTE A trademark can be used if ISO/TR 16060 is not applicable.
5 Principle
Macroscopic and microscopic examination is used to reveal
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 17639
Deuxième édition
2022-01
Essais destructifs des soudures sur
matériaux métalliques — Examens
macroscopique et microscopique des
assemblages soudés
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Macroscopic and
microscopic examination of welds
Numéro de référence
ISO 17639:2022(F)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2022

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Domaine d'application ...................................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes et définitions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symboles et termes abrégés ....................................................................................................................................................................1

5 Principe.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 But de l'examen ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Prélèvement des éprouvettes ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

8 Mode opératoire d'essai ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Généralités ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8.2 Préparation de l'éprouvette ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.3 État de surface ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.4 Méthodes d'attaque ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.5 Réactifs .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.6 Mesures de sécurité ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Examen ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Désignation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

11 Rapport d'examen .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annexe A (informative) Exemple de rapport d'examen .................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iii
© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document

a été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2

(voir www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 44, Soudage et techniques connexes,

sous-comité SC 5, Essais et contrôle des soudures, en collaboration avec le comité technique CEN/TC 121,

Soudage et techniques connexes, du Comité européen de Normalisation (CEN) conformément à l'Accord

sur la coopération technique entre l'ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 17639:2003), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique.
Les principales modifications sont les suivantes:
— mise à jour de l’Article 2;
— mise à jour des désignations à l’Article 10 conformément à l’ISO/TR 15608.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/members.html.

Les interprétations officielles des documents élaborés par l'ISO/TC  44, lorsqu'elles existent, sont

disponibles depuis la page: https://committee.iso.org/sites/tc44/home/interpretation.html.

© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 17639:2022(F)
Essais destructifs des soudures sur matériaux
métalliques — Examens macroscopique et microscopique
des assemblages soudés
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document spécifie un mode opératoire d'essai et ses principaux objectifs concernant les

examens macroscopique et microscopique des assemblages soudés.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

ISO 6520-1, Soudage et techniques connexes — Classification des défauts géométriques dans les soudures

des matériaux métalliques — Partie 1: Soudage par fusion
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
examen macroscopique

examen à l'œil nu, ou sous faible grossissement (généralement moins de × 50), d'une éprouvette

attaquée ou non attaquée
3.2
examen microscopique

examen au microscope, avec un grossissement généralement compris entre × 50 et × 500, d'une

éprouvette attaquée ou non attaquée
3.3
examinateur

personne qui effectue l'examen microscopique (3.1) et/ou l'examen macroscopique (3.2)

4 Symboles et termes abrégés
Pour les besoins du présent document, les abréviations suivantes s'appliquent.
A examen macroscopique
I examen microscopique
© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2022(F)
E avec attaque
U sans attaque

Les symboles pour les métaux de base sont ceux donnés comme système de groupement des matériaux

dans l'ISO/TR 15608.

Les mêmes systèmes de groupement doivent être utilisé pour le métal fondu. Pour les produits

consommables non classés selon l'ISO/TR 15608, les produits consommables utilisés doivent être

identifiés dans le rapport.

Il est recommandé de choisir les abréviations pour les réactifs dans l'ISO/TR 16060, lorsque cette

dernière est applicable.

NOTE Les marques commerciales peuvent être utilisées si l'ISO/TR 16060 n'est pas applicable.

5 Principe

Les examens macroscopique et microscopique sont utilisés pour mettre en évidence les caractéristiques

d'un assemblage soudé, habituellem
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17639
Second edition
Destructive tests on welds in metallic
materials — Macroscopic and
microscopic examination of welds
Essais destructifs des soudures sur matériaux métalliques — Examens
macroscopique et microscopique des assemblages soudés
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 17639:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................................................................1

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Purpose of the test ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

7 Removal of test specimens ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

8 Test procedure .......................................................................................................................................................................................................3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Test specimen preparation .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Surface finish ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.4 Etching methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.5 Etchants ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.6 Safety measures .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Examination .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

11 Test report .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Example of a test report...................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 5, Testing and inspection of welds, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 121, Welding and allied processes, in accordance

with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 17639:2003), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— Clause 2 has been updated;
— the designations according to ISO/TR 15608 have been updated in Clause 10.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17639:2021(E)
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials —
Macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds
1 Scope

This document gives recommendations for specimen preparation, test procedures and their main

objectives for macroscopic and microscopic examination.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6520-1, Welding and allied processes — Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials

— Part 1: Fusion welding
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
macroscopic examination

examination of a test specimen by the naked eye, or under low magnification (generally less than ×50),

with or without etching
3.2
microscopic examination

examination of a test specimen by microscope with a magnification of generally ×50 to ×500, with or

without etching
3.3
examiner

person who performs the macroscopic examination (3.1) and/or microscopic examination (3.2)

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
A macroscopic examination
I microscopic examination
E etched
U unetched
Symbols for parent metals are given as material grouping system in ISO/TR 15608.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 17639:2021(E)

The same grouping systems shall also be used for weld metal. For consumables not classified under

ISO/TR 15608, the consumables used shall be identified in the report.

The abbreviations for etchants should be taken from ISO/TR 16060 whenever applicable.

NOTE A trademark can be used if ISO/TR 16060 is not applicable.
5 Principle

Macroscopic and microscopic examination is used to reveal the macroscopic or microscopic features of

a welded joint, usually by
...

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