This document provides quality levels for imperfections in thermoplastics welded joints. It applies to material thickness above 2,0 mm.
Three quality levels are given in order to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrication. They are designated by symbols B, C and D, where B is the most stringent. The quality levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose (see 3.2) of the manufactured product.
This document applies to the following thermoplastic materials in Table 1:
Table 1 - Thermoplastic materials
Abbreviation   Material description
ABS   Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic
ECTFE   Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
FEP   Fluorinated ethylene propylene
PA-U        Unplasticized Polyamide
PB   Polybutylene
PE   Polyethylene
PFA   Perfluoroalkoxy
PP-B   Polypropylene block copolymer
PP-H   Polypropylene homopolymer
PP-R   Polypropylene random copolymer
PVC-C   Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
PVC-U   Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (rigid PVC)
PVDF   Polyvinylidene fluoride
and to the following welding processes:
-   heated tool welding;
-   electrofusion welding;
-   hot gas welding using filler rod only;
-   extrusion welding;
-   solvent welding of pipes.

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This document specifies the requirements for the test methods for joint of micro-joining of 2G HTS to
fulfil the requirements of ISO 17279-1 and ISO 17279-2.
This document specifies test methods for determining the capability of joints for the production of the
specified quality. It defines specific test requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any
specific product group.

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ISO 22826:2005 specifies the requirements for hardness testing of transverse sections of narrow laser and electron beam welded joints in metallic materials. It covers Vickers and Knoop hardness tests in accordance with ISO 6507-1 and ISO 4545, respectively, with test forces of 0,098 N to just under 98 N (HV 0,01 to just under HV 10) for the Vickers hardness test and test forces up to and including 9,8 N (just under HK 1) for the Knoop hardness test.
It is applicable to welds made with or without filler wire. It may not be applicable to the testing of wider hybrid laser/arc welds.

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This document gives guidance on levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welded joints in
aluminium, magnesium and their alloys and pure copper. Three levels are given in such a way as to
permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. The levels refer to production quality and
not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured.
This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of:
— aluminium and its alloys;
— magnesium and its alloys;
— pure copper (e.g. Cu-ETP1 CW003A, Cu-ETP CW004A, Cu-FRHC CW005A, Cu-FRTP CW006A, Cu-OF1
CW007A, Cu-OF CW008A, Cu-OFE CW009A, Cu-PHC CW020A, Cu-HCP CW021A, Cu-PHCE CW022A,
Cu-DLP CW023A, Cu-DHP CW024A);
— all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire;
— materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding.
When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are
present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document
can apply.
NOTE For circular welds, a lower quality level can be specified for the fade-out zone.
Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness, hydrogen embrittlement (pure copper) are not covered
by this document.
This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of
recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties
in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods,
such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by
requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document specifies the dimensions, the method of sampling, the preparation of the test specimens and the conditions for performing the tensile test in order to determine the short term tensile welding factor.
A tensile test may be used in conjunction with other tests (e.g. bend, tensile creep, macro) to assess the performance of welded assemblies, made from thermoplastics materials.
The test is applicable to welded assemblies made from thermoplastics materials filled or unfilled, but not reinforced, irrespective of the welding process used.

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This document specifies the design requirements and provides design guidelines for friction stir spot welding.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

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This document provides the requirements for the tests made on welded thermoplastics semi-finished products.
The selection of the appropriate test method(s) should be made in accordance with the particular type and application of welded product.
The test results depend on the conditions of manufacture for the test specimen and on the test conditions. They can therefore only be related to the behaviour of the product or can only be used for designing a structure, if the test conditions can be related to the service conditions.

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This document gives guidance on levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welded joints in aluminium, magnesium and their alloys and pure copper. Three levels are given in such a way as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. The levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured. This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of: — aluminium and its alloys; — magnesium and its alloys; — pure copper (e.g. Cu-ETP1 CW003A, Cu-ETP CW004A, Cu-FRHC CW005A, Cu-FRTP CW006A, Cu-OF1 CW007A, Cu-OF CW008A, Cu-OFE CW009A, Cu-PHC CW020A, Cu-HCP CW021A, Cu-PHCE CW022A, Cu-DLP CW023A, Cu-DHP CW024A); — all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire; — materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding. When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document can apply. NOTE For circular welds, a lower quality level can be specified for the fade-out zone. Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness, hydrogen embrittlement (pure copper) are not covered by this document. This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document specifies the geometry of test specimens and the testing procedure for mechanized peel testing of single mechanical joints on single-lap test specimens up to a single sheet thickness of 4,5 mm. The term "sheet", as used in this document, includes extrusions and cast materials. The purpose of the mechanized peel tests is to determine the mechanical characteristics and the failure modes of the joints made with different joining methods. This document does not apply to civil engineering applications such as metal buildings and steel constructions which are covered by other application standards. NOTE For mechanized peel testing of resistance spot, seam and embossed projection welds, see ISO 14270

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This document specifies design requirements for friction stir weld joints.
In this document, the term “aluminium” refers to aluminium and its alloys.
This document does not apply to friction stir spot welding which is covered by the ISO 18785 series.

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This document specifies the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique to the
semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum
thickness 6 mm.
It applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both
the weld and the parent material are low-alloyed carbon steel. Where specified and appropriate, TOFD
can also be used on other types of materials that exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due
to scatter).
Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on
steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for
transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different
velocity.
This document makes reference to ISO 16828 and provides guidance on the specific capabilities and
limitations of TOFD for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusionwelded
joints. TOFD can be used as a stand-alone method or in combination with other non-destructive
testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, and for in-service inspection.
This document specifies four testing levels (A, B, C, D) in accordance with ISO 17635 and corresponding
to an increasing level of testing reliability. Guidance on the selection of testing levels is provided.
This document permits assessment of TOFD indications for acceptance purposes. This assessment is
based on the evaluation of transmitted, reflected and diffracted ultrasonic signals within a generated
TOFD image.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

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This document specifies design requirements for friction stir weld joints. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys. This document does not apply to friction stir spot welding which is covered by the ISO 18785 series.

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This document specifies the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique to the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm. It applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and the parent material are low-alloyed carbon steel. Where specified and appropriate, TOFD can also be used on other types of materials that exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter). Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different velocity. This document makes reference to ISO 16828 and provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of TOFD for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded joints. TOFD can be used as a stand-alone method or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, and for in-service inspection. This document specifies four testing levels (A, B, C, D) in accordance with ISO 17635 and corresponding to an increasing level of testing reliability. Guidance on the selection of testing levels is provided. This document permits assessment of TOFD indications for acceptance purposes. This assessment is based on the evaluation of transmitted, reflected and diffracted ultrasonic signals within a generated TOFD image. This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

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This document specifies terms and definitions for non-destructive testing (NDT) by the technique of metal magnetic memory (MMM) as well as general requirements for application of this technique of the magnetic testing method. The terms specified in this document are mandatory for application in all types of documentation and literature of non-destructive testing, using the metal magnetic memory technique. This NDT technique has the following objectives: — determination of the heterogeneity of the magneto-mechanical state of ferromagnetic objects, detection of defect concentration and boundaries of metal microstructure heterogeneity; — determination of locations with magnetic stray field aberrations for further microstructural analysis and/or non-destructive testing and evaluation; — early diagnostics of fatigue damage of the inspected object and evaluation of its structural life time; — quick sorting of new and used inspection objects by their magnetic heterogeneity for further testing; — efficiency improvement of non-destructive testing by combining metal magnetic memory testing with other NDT methods or techniques (ultrasonic testing, x-ray, etc.) by fast detection of the most probable defect locations; — quality control of welded joints of various types and their embodiment (including contact and spot welding). See ISO 24497-2 for details of this application.

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This document specifies general requirements for the application of the non-destructive (NDT) metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique of the magnetic testing method for quality assurance of welded joints. This document can be applied to welded joints in any type of ferromagnetic products: pipelines, vessels, equipment, and metal constructions, as agreed with the purchaser.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations on levels of imperfections in electron and laser-beam welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys. Three levels are given in such a way as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement of the finished weld. The levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured. This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of: - steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys; - all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire; - materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding. The purpose of this document is to define the dimensions of typical imperfections which can be expected in normal fabrication. It can be used within a quality system for the production of welded joints. It provides three sets of dimensional values from which a selection can be made for a particular application. The quality level necessary in each case is defined by the application standard or the responsible designer in conjunction with the manufacturer, user and/or other parties concerned. The quality level is expected to be prescribed prior to the start of production, preferably at the enquiry or order stage. For special purposes, additional details may need to be prescribed. When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document can apply. Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness are not covered by this document. This document does not address the methods used for the detection of imperfections. This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by additional requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document specifies test specimens and procedures for performing constant load amplitude fatigue tests on multi-spot-welded and multi-axial specimens in the thickness range from 0,5 mm to 5 mm at room temperature and a relative humidity of maximum 80 %. The applicability of this document to larger thicknesses can be limited by mechanical properties such as yield strength and formability of the specimen material. The thickness range for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is generally below 3,0 mm. Greater thicknesses apply for aluminium alloys, for example. Depending on the specimen used, it is possible from the results to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of: - spot welds subjected to defined uniform load distribution; - spot welds subjected to defined non-uniform load distribution; - spot welds subjected to different defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads; and - the tested specimen. Multi-spot specimens with which the different load distributions can be realized are the following: a) defined uniform load distribution: 1) H-specimens for shear- and peel-loading, (welds subjected to uniform shear or peel loading transverse to the joint line); 2) single- and double-hat specimens subjected to four-point bending (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load in the direction of the row of welds); 3) double-disc specimen under torsion (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load); 4) double-disc specimen under tensile load (spot welds subjected to uniform peel load); 5) double-disc specimen under combined torsion and tensile loading; 6) flat multi-spot specimens using defined grips; b) defined non-uniform load distribution: 1) H-specimens with modified grips; 2) modified H-specimens with standard grips; 3) modified H-specimens with modified grips; 4) flat multi-spot specimens with modified grips; 5) modified multi-spot flat specimens with standard grips; 6) modified multi-spot flat specimens with modified grips; c) defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads: 1) the KS-2 specimen; 2) the double disc specimen; d) spot welds subjected to undefined non-uniform load distribution - single-hat, double-hat and similar closed hollow sections under torsion, 3-point bending and/or internal pressure. The specimens and tests referred to under c) above are not dealt with further in this document, because the results obtained with these specimens are specific to the components as tested and may not be generalized or used for deriving data pertaining to the load-carrying behaviour of the welds. Results obtained with such tests are suitable for comparing the mechanical properties of the tested components with those of similar components tested in the same manner. These tests are, however, not suitable for evaluating or comparing the load-carrying properties of the welds. The test results of the fatigue tests obtained with component like specimens are suitable for deriving criteria for the selection of materials and thickness combinations for structures and components subjected to cyclic loading. This statement is especially relevant for results obtained with specimens with boundary conditions, i.e. a local stiffness similar to that of the structure in question. The results of a fatigue test are suitable for direct application to design only when the loading conditions in service and the stiffness of the design in the joint area are identical.

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This document defines welding positions for testing and production, for butt and fillet welds, in all product forms. Annex A gives examples of the limits of the slope of a weld axis and the rotation of the weld face about the weld axis for welding positions in production welds. Annex B gives a comparison of this document and US designation systems for welding positions.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations on levels of imperfections in electron and laser-beam welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys. Three levels are given in such a way as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement of the finished weld. The levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured.
This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of:
— steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys;
— all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire;
— materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding.
The purpose of this document is to define the dimensions of typical imperfections which can be expected in normal fabrication. It can be used within a quality system for the production of welded joints. It provides three sets of dimensional values from which a selection can be made for a particular application. The quality level necessary in each case is defined by the application standard or the responsible designer in conjunction with the manufacturer, user and/or other parties concerned. The quality level is expected to be prescribed prior to the start of production, preferably at the enquiry or order stage. For special purposes, additional details may need to be prescribed.
When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document can apply.
Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness are not covered by this document.
This document does not address the methods used for the detection of imperfections. This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by additional requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document defines welding positions for testing and production, for butt and fillet welds, in all product forms.
Annex A gives examples of the limits of the slope of a weld axis and the rotation of the weld face about the weld axis for welding positions in production welds.
Annex B gives a comparison of this document and US designation systems for welding positions.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations on levels of imperfections in electron and laser-beam welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys. Three levels are given in such a way as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement of the finished weld. The levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured. This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of: — steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys; — all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire; — materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding. The purpose of this document is to define the dimensions of typical imperfections which can be expected in normal fabrication. It can be used within a quality system for the production of welded joints. It provides three sets of dimensional values from which a selection can be made for a particular application. The quality level necessary in each case is defined by the application standard or the responsible designer in conjunction with the manufacturer, user and/or other parties concerned. The quality level is expected to be prescribed prior to the start of production, preferably at the enquiry or order stage. For special purposes, additional details may need to be prescribed. When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document can apply. Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness are not covered by this document. This document does not address the methods used for the detection of imperfections. This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by additional requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document defines welding positions for testing and production, for butt and fillet welds, in all product forms. Annex A gives examples of the limits of the slope of a weld axis and the rotation of the weld face about the weld axis for welding positions in production welds. Annex B gives a comparison of this document and US designation systems for welding positions.

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This document specifies test specimens and procedures for performing constant load amplitude fatigue tests on multi-spot-welded and multi-axial specimens in the thickness range from 0,5 mm to 5 mm at room temperature and a relative humidity of maximum 80 %. The applicability of this document to larger thicknesses can be limited by mechanical properties such as yield strength and formability of the specimen material. The thickness range for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is generally below 3,0 mm. Greater thicknesses apply for aluminium alloys, for example.
Depending on the specimen used, it is possible from the results to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of:
— spot welds subjected to defined uniform load distribution;
— spot welds subjected to defined non-uniform load distribution;
— spot welds subjected to different defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads; and
— the tested specimen.
Multi-spot specimens with which the different load distributions can be realized are the following:
a) defined uniform load distribution:
H-specimens for shear- and peel-loading, (welds subjected to uniform shear or peel loading transverse to the joint line);
single- and double-hat specimens subjected to four-point bending (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load in the direction of the row of welds);
double-disc specimen under torsion (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load);
double-disc specimen under tensile load (spot welds subjected to uniform peel load);
double-disc specimen under combined torsion and tensile loading;
flat multi-spot specimens using defined grips;
b) defined non-uniform load distribution:
H-specimens with modified grips;
modified H-specimens with standard grips;
modified H-specimens with modified grips;
flat multi-spot specimens with modified grips;
modified multi-spot flat specimens with standard grips;
modified multi-spot flat specimens with modified grips;
c) defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads:
the KS-2 specimen;
the double disc specimen;
d) spot welds subjected to undefined non-uniform load distribution — single-hat, double-hat and similar closed hollow sections under torsion, 3-point bending and/or internal pressure.
The specimens and tests referred to under c) above are not dealt with further in this document, because the results obtained with these specimens are specific to the components as tested and may not be generalized or used for deriving data pertaining to the load-carrying behaviour of the welds. Results obtained with such tests are suitable for comparing the mechanical properties of the tested components with those of similar components tested in the same manner. These tests are, however, not suitable for evaluating or comparing the load-carrying properties of the welds.
The test results of the fatigue tests obtained with component like specimens are suitable for deriving criteria for the selection of materials and thickness combinations for structures and components subjected to cyclic loading. This statement is especially relevant for results obtained with specimens with boundary conditions, i.e. a local stiffness similar to that of the structure in question. The results of a fatigue test are suitable for direct application to design only when the loading conditions in service and the stiffness of the design in the joint area are identical.
NOTE Specimens are modified to take into consideration constraints or speci

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This document specifies fundamental radiographic techniques which enable repeatable results to be obtained economically.
This document applies to the X-ray radiographic examination of heated tool, electrofusion, extrusion and hot gas joints in plastics materials.
It applies to joints in single wall pipes and plates with a range of thicknesses from 5 mm to 100 mm. It only applies to pipes containing air or other gases at the time of X-ray testing.
This document does not specify acceptance levels of the indications.

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This document specifies fundamental radiographic techniques with film, which enable repeatable results to be obtained economically.
This document applies to the X-ray radiographic examination of heated tool, electrofusion, extrusion and hot gas joints in plastics materials.
It applies to joints in solid wall pipes and plates with a range of thicknesses from 5 mm to 100 mm. It only applies to pipes containing air or other gases at the time of X-ray testing.
This document does not specify acceptance levels of the indications.

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This document specifies the application of the phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated
ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm. It applies
to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld
and the parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel. For the testing of welds in other steel
materials this document gives guidance. For coarse-grained or austenitic steels, ISO 22825 applies in
addition to this document.
This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of the phased array
technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded
joints. Phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technology or in combination with other
non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, pre-service and
for in-service inspection.
This document specifies four testing levels, each corresponding to a different probability of detection of
imperfections.
This document permits assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based either on
amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length, or on height and length.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.
This document is not applicable for automated testing of welds during the production of steel products
covered by ISO 10893-8, ISO 10893-11 and ISO 3183.

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This document specifies the sizes of test specimens and the test procedure for carrying out longitudinal
tensile tests on cylindrical test specimens in order to determine the mechanical properties of weld
metal in a fusion welded joint.
This document applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with joints made by any fusion
welding process, having joint sizes that are sufficient to obtain cylindrical test specimens with
dimensions in accordance with ISO 6892-1.
Unless specified otherwise for specific points in this document, the general principles of ISO 6892-1 apply.

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This document defines the rules to be applied for symbolic representation of welded joints on technical
drawings. This can include information about the geometry, manufacture, quality and testing of the
welds. The principles of this document can also be applied to soldered and brazed joints.
It is recognized that there are two different approaches in the global market to designate the arrow side
and other side on drawings. In this document:
— clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "A" are applicable only to the symbolic
representation system based on a dual reference line;
— clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "B" are applicable only to the symbolic
representation system based on a single reference line;
— clauses, tables and figures which do not have the suffix letter "A" or "B" are applicable to both
systems.
The symbols shown in this document can be combined with other symbols used on technical drawings,
for example to show surface finish requirements.
An alternative designation method is presented which can be used to represent welded joints on
drawings by specifying essential design information such as weld dimensions, quality level, etc. The
joint preparation and welding process(es) are then determined by the production unit in order to meet
the specified requirements.
NOTE Examples given in this document, including dimensions, are illustrative only and are intended to
demonstrate the proper application of principles.

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This document specifies test specimens and procedures for performing constant load amplitude fatigue tests on multi-spot-welded and multi-axial specimens in the thickness range from 0,5 mm to 5 mm at room temperature and a relative humidity of maximum 80 %. The applicability of this document to larger thicknesses can be limited by mechanical properties such as yield strength and formability of the specimen material. The thickness range for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is generally below 3,0 mm. Greater thicknesses apply for aluminium alloys, for example. Depending on the specimen used, it is possible from the results to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of: — spot welds subjected to defined uniform load distribution; — spot welds subjected to defined non-uniform load distribution; — spot welds subjected to different defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads; and — the tested specimen. Multi-spot specimens with which the different load distributions can be realized are the following: a) defined uniform load distribution: H-specimens for shear- and peel-loading, (welds subjected to uniform shear or peel loading transverse to the joint line); single- and double-hat specimens subjected to four-point bending (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load in the direction of the row of welds); double-disc specimen under torsion (spot welds subjected to uniform shear load); double-disc specimen under tensile load (spot welds subjected to uniform peel load); double-disc specimen under combined torsion and tensile loading; flat multi-spot specimens using defined grips; b) defined non-uniform load distribution: H-specimens with modified grips; modified H-specimens with standard grips; modified H-specimens with modified grips; flat multi-spot specimens with modified grips; modified multi-spot flat specimens with standard grips; modified multi-spot flat specimens with modified grips; c) defined combinations of shear-, peel- and normal-tension loads: the KS-2 specimen; the double disc specimen; d) spot welds subjected to undefined non-uniform load distribution — single-hat, double-hat and similar closed hollow sections under torsion, 3-point bending and/or internal pressure. The specimens and tests referred to under c) above are not dealt with further in this document, because the results obtained with these specimens are specific to the components as tested and may not be generalized or used for deriving data pertaining to the load-carrying behaviour of the welds. Results obtained with such tests are suitable for comparing the mechanical properties of the tested components with those of similar components tested in the same manner. These tests are, however, not suitable for evaluating or comparing the load-carrying properties of the welds. The test results of the fatigue tests obtained with component like specimens are suitable for deriving criteria for the selection of materials and thickness combinations for structures and components subjected to cyclic loading. This statement is especially relevant for results obtained with specimens with boundary conditions, i.e. a local stiffness similar to that of the structure in question. The results of a fatigue test are suitable for direct application to design only when the loading conditions in service and the stiffness of the design in the joint area are identical. NOTE Specimens are modified to take into consideration constraints or specific demands posed by design, e.g. smaller than standard overlap, smaller or larger than standard nugget diameter, and specific load distribution, thus enhancing the value of the test results for the design engineer.

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This document gives recommendations for test specimens and procedures for performing constant load amplitude fatigue tests on single- and multi-joint sheet specimens in the thickness range from 0,5 mm to 6 mm at room temperature and a relative humidity of max. 80 %. NOTE The thickness range for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and ultra high strength steels (UHSS) is generally below 3,0 mm. Greater thicknesses apply for aluminium alloys, for example. This document covers: — testing of joints to evaluate materials; — evaluation of the influence of joint type and joint size on the test results; — evaluation of the influence of load type and load mode on the test results; — testing of component-like specimens to evaluate their structural performance. Depending on the specimen used, it is possible from the results to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of joints under shear-, peel-, normal-tension and combinations of loads and that of the tested specimen. The results of fatigue testing obtained with component like specimens are suitable for deriving criteria for the selection of materials and thickness combinations for structures and components subjected to cyclic loading. This statement is especially relevant for results obtained with specimens with boundary conditions, i.e. a local stiffness, similar to that of the structure in question. The results of fatigue testing are suitable for direct application to a design only when the loading conditions in service and the stiffness of the design in the joint area are similar. This document does not apply to civil engineering applications such as metal building and steel construction which are covered by other applicable standards.

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This document defines the rules to be applied for symbolic representation of welded joints on technical drawings. This can include information about the geometry, manufacture, quality and testing of the welds. The principles of this document can also be applied to soldered and brazed joints.
It is recognized that there are two different approaches in the global market to designate the arrow side and other side on drawings. In this document:
— clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "A" are applicable only to the symbolic representation system based on a dual reference line;
— clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "B" are applicable only to the symbolic representation system based on a single reference line;
— clauses, tables and figures which do not have the suffix letter "A" or "B" are applicable to both systems.
The symbols shown in this document can be combined with other symbols used on technical drawings, for example to show surface finish requirements.
An alternative designation method is presented which can be used to represent welded joints on drawings by specifying essential design information such as weld dimensions, quality level, etc. The joint preparation and welding process(es) are then determined by the production unit in order to meet the specified requirements.
NOTE Examples given in this document, including dimensions, are illustrative only and are intended to demonstrate the proper application of principles.

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This document defines the rules to be applied for symbolic representation of welded joints on technical drawings. This can include information about the geometry, manufacture, quality and testing of the welds. The principles of this document can also be applied to soldered and brazed joints. It is recognized that there are two different approaches in the global market to designate the arrow side and other side on drawings. In this document: — clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "A" are applicable only to the symbolic representation system based on a dual reference line; — clauses, tables and figures which carry the suffix letter "B" are applicable only to the symbolic representation system based on a single reference line; — clauses, tables and figures which do not have the suffix letter "A" or "B" are applicable to both systems. The symbols shown in this document can be combined with other symbols used on technical drawings, for example to show surface finish requirements. An alternative designation method is presented which can be used to represent welded joints on drawings by specifying essential design information such as weld dimensions, quality level, etc. The joint preparation and welding process(es) are then determined by the production unit in order to meet the specified requirements. NOTE Examples given in this document, including dimensions, are illustrative only and are intended to demonstrate the proper application of principles.

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This draft European Standard specifies a system for classifying imperfections that may be  encountered in thermoplastic welded joints during manufacture and provides examples of imperfections for the following welding processes
-   heated tool butt welding;
-   heated tool socket welding;
-   electrofusion socket welding;
-   hot gas welding;
-   extrusion welding;
-   solvent socket welding.
This document does not describe imperfections that may be generated either during service or present before welding such as poor fit up. The correct preparation (e.g. fit up) is described in the relevant welding procedure specification (WPS). This document is also not concerned with the search for the possible influence of these imperfections on the behaviour of joints in relation to the different types of stress to which the latter may be subjected or on methods for preventing such imperfections.
This document cannot therefore be used to determine the acceptance of welds, which is defined in EN 16296 [1].
Only imperfections giving rise to discontinuities of materials or changes in shape are taken into consideration in this document, specifying their type, their shape and their positions. This classification can be used to determine the possible origin or causes of the imperfections.

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This document specifies the application of the phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm. It applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and the parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel. For the testing of welds in other steel materials this document gives guidance. For coarse-grained or austenitic steels, ISO 22825 applies in addition to this document.
This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of the phased array technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded joints. Phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technology or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, pre-service and for in-service inspection.
This document specifies four testing levels, each corresponding to a different probability of detection of imperfections.
This document permits assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based either on amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length, or on height and length.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.
This document is not applicable for automated testing of welds during the production of steel products covered by ISO 10893-8, ISO 10893-11 and ISO 3183.

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This document specifies the sizes of test specimens and the test procedure for carrying out longitudinal tensile tests on cylindrical test specimens in order to determine the mechanical properties of weld metal in a fusion welded joint.
This document applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with joints made by any fusion welding process, having joint sizes that are sufficient to obtain cylindrical test specimens with dimensions in accordance with ISO 6892‑1.
Unless specified otherwise for specific points in this document, the general principles of ISO 6892‑1 apply.

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This document specifies a system for classifying imperfections that may be encountered in thermoplastic welded joints during manufacture and provides examples of imperfections for the following welding processes:
-   heated tool butt welding;
-   heated tool socket welding;
-   electrofusion socket welding;
-   hot gas welding;
-   extrusion welding;
-   solvent socket welding.
This document does not describe imperfections that may be generated during service or imperfections present before welding, which are due to poor preparation or assembly of components (e.g. fit up). The correct preparation and assembly of components (e.g. fit up) are described in the relevant welding procedure specification (WPS).
This document is also not concerned with the search for the possible influence of these imperfections on the behaviour of joints in relation to the different types of stress to which the latter may be subjected or on methods for preventing such imperfections.
This document can be used in conjunction with EN 16296 [1] to determine the acceptance of welds.
Only imperfections giving rise to discontinuities of materials or changes in shape are taken into consideration in this document, specifying their type, their shape and their positions. This classification can be used to determine the possible origin or causes of the imperfections.

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This document specifies the application of the phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm. It applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and the parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel. For the testing of welds in other steel materials this document gives guidance. For coarse-grained or austenitic steels, ISO 22825 applies in addition to this document. This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of the phased array technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded joints. Phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technology or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, pre-service and for in-service inspection. This document specifies four testing levels, each corresponding to a different probability of detection of imperfections. This document permits assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based either on amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length, or on height and length. This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities. This document is not applicable for automated testing of welds during the production of steel products covered by ISO 10893-8, ISO 10893-11 and ISO 3183.

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This document specifies techniques for the manual ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic
materials of thickness ≥8 mm which exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter)
at object temperatures from 0 °C to 60 °C. It is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded
joints where both the welded and parent material are ferritic.
Where material-dependent ultrasonic values are specified in this document, they are based on steels
having an ultrasonic sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for
transverse waves.
This document specifies four testing levels, each corresponding to a different probability of detection of
imperfections. Guidance on the selection of testing levels A, B, and C is given in Annex A.
This document specifies that the requirements of testing level D, which is intended for special
applications, be in accordance with general requirements. Testing level D can only be used when defined
by specification. This includes tests of metals other than ferritic steel, tests on partial penetration welds,
tests with automated equipment, and tests at object temperatures outside the range 0 °C to 60 °C.
This document can be used for the assessment of discontinuities, for acceptance purposes, by either of
the following techniques:
a) evaluation based primarily on length and echo amplitude of the discontinuity;
b) evaluation based on characterization and sizing of the discontinuity by probe movement techniques.

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The purpose of this European Standard is to exemplify sound and accepted welded connections applicable to welded not internal pressurized steel components. It does not promote the standardization of connections that may be regarded as mandatory or restrict development in any way. The requirements of carrying capacity, fitness for purposes, fatigue and corrosion stress are to be considered if necessary. This standard contains examples of connections welded by the following processes (process numbers according to EN ISO 4063): - Manual metal arc welding (111); - self-shielded tubular-cored arc welding (114); - Submerged arc welding (12); - MIG welding; Metal inert gas welding (131); - MAG welding; Metal active gas welding (135) - Tubular cored metal arc welding with active gas shield (136); - Tubular cored metal arc welding with inert gas shield (137); - TIG welding; Tungsten inert gas arc welding (141). Other processes by agreement. Further requirements should be considered in accordance with existing application standards.

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This document specifies the application of phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated
ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in steel parts with thickness values between 3,2 mm and
8,0 mm. This meets the typical range of tube wall thickness values in boilers, which is an important
application of this testing technology. The minimum and maximum value of the wall thickness range
can be exceeded, when testing level “D” of this document is applied. This document applies to full
penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, tubes, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld
and parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel.
NOTE “Semi-automated testing” encompasses a controlled movement of one or more probes on the surface of
a component along a fixture (guidance strip, ruler, etc.), whereby the probe position is unambiguously measured
with a position sensor. The probe is moved manually. “Fully automated testing” includes mechanized propulsion
in addition.
Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on
steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves, and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for
transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different
velocity.
This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of phased array
technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded
joints. Ultrasonic phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technique or in combination
with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, during manufacturing and testing of
new welds/repair welds (pre-service testing).
This document specifies two testing levels:
— level “C” for standard situations;
— level “D” for different situations/special applications.
This document describes assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based on:
— height and length;
— amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length;
— go/no-go decision.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

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This document specifies the sizes of test specimens and the test procedure for carrying out longitudinal tensile tests on cylindrical test specimens in order to determine the mechanical properties of weld metal in a fusion welded joint. This document applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with joints made by any fusion welding process, having joint sizes that are sufficient to obtain cylindrical test specimens with dimensions in accordance with ISO 6892‑1. Unless specified otherwise for specific points in this document, the general principles of ISO 6892‑1 apply.

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This document specifies the application of phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in steel parts with thickness values between 3,2 mm and 8,0 mm. This meets the typical range of tube wall thickness values in boilers, which is an important application of this testing technology. The minimum and maximum value of the wall thickness range can be exceeded, when testing level "D" of this document is applied. This document applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, tubes, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel.
NOTE "Semi-automated testing" encompasses a controlled movement of one or more probes on the surface of a component along a fixture (guidance strip, ruler, etc.), whereby the probe position is unambiguously measured with a position sensor. The probe is moved manually. "Fully automated testing" includes mechanized propulsion in addition.
Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves, and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different velocity.
This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of phased array technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded joints. Ultrasonic phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technique or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, during manufacturing and testing of new welds/repair welds (pre-service testing).
This document specifies two testing levels:
— level "C" for standard situations;
— level "D" for different situations/special applications.
This document describes assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based on:
— height and length;
— amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length;
— go/no-go decision.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

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This document specifies the application of phased array technology for the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in steel parts with thickness values between 3,2 mm and 8,0 mm. This meets the typical range of tube wall thickness values in boilers, which is an important application of this testing technology. The minimum and maximum value of the wall thickness range can be exceeded, when testing level "D" of this document is applied. This document applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, tubes, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and parent material are low-alloy and/or fine grained steel. NOTE "Semi-automated testing" encompasses a controlled movement of one or more probes on the surface of a component along a fixture (guidance strip, ruler, etc.), whereby the probe position is unambiguously measured with a position sensor. The probe is moved manually. "Fully automated testing" includes mechanized propulsion in addition. Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves, and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different velocity. This document provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of phased array technology for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusion-welded joints. Ultrasonic phased array technology can be used as a stand-alone technique or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, during manufacturing and testing of new welds/repair welds (pre-service testing). This document specifies two testing levels: — level "C" for standard situations; — level "D" for different situations/special applications. This document describes assessment of discontinuities for acceptance purposes based on: — height and length; — amplitude (equivalent reflector size) and length; — go/no-go decision. This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

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The purpose of this document is to exemplify sound and accepted welded connections applicable to welded not internal pressurized steel components. It does not promote the standardization of connections that may be regarded as mandatory or restrict development in any way. The requirements of carrying capacity, fitness for purposes, fatigue and corrosion stress will be considered if necessary.
This document contains examples of connections welded by the following processes (process numbers according to EN ISO 4063):
-   Manual metal arc welding (111);
-   Self-shielded tubular-cored arc welding (114);
-   Submerged arc welding (12);
-   MIG welding; Metal inert gas welding with solid wire electrode (131);
-   MAG welding; Metal active gas welding with solid wire electrode (135);
-   Tubular cored metal arc welding with active gas shield (136);
-   MAG welding; Metal active gas welding with metal cored electrode (138);
-   MIG welding; Metal inert gas welding with flux cored electrode (132);
-   MIG welding; Metal inert gas welding with metal cored electrode (133);
-   TIG welding; Tungsten inert gas arc welding (14).
Other processes by agreement.
Further requirements will be considered in accordance with existing application standards.

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This document specifies techniques for the manual ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of thickness ≥8 mm which exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter) at object temperatures from 0 °C to 60 °C. It is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded joints where both the welded and parent material are ferritic.
Where material-dependent ultrasonic values are specified in this document, they are based on steels having an ultrasonic sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves.
This document specifies four testing levels, each corresponding to a different probability of detection of imperfections. Guidance on the selection of testing levels A, B, and C is given in Annex A.
This document specifies that the requirements of testing level D, which is intended for special applications, be in accordance with general requirements. Testing level D can only be used when defined by specification. This includes tests of metals other than ferritic steel, tests on partial penetration welds, tests with automated equipment, and tests at object temperatures outside the range 0 °C to 60 °C.
This document can be used for the assessment of discontinuities, for acceptance purposes, by either of the following techniques:
a) evaluation based primarily on length and echo amplitude of the discontinuity;
b) evaluation based on characterization and sizing of the discontinuity by probe movement techniques.

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This document specifies the design requirements and provides design guidelines for friction stir spot welding. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

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This document defines friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process terms and definitions. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

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This document specifies the method and apparatus for:
— the measurement of the delta ferrite content, expressed as Ferrite Number (FN), in largely austenitic
and duplex ferritic-austenitic stainless steel1) weld metal through the attractive force between a
weld metal sample and a standard permanent magnet;
— the preparation and measurement of standard pads for manual metal arc covered electrodes. The
general method is also recommended for the ferrite measurement of production welds and for weld
metal from other processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding, gas shielded metal arc welding and
submerged arc welding (in these cases, the way of producing the pad should be defined);
— the calibration of other instruments to measure FN.
The method laid down in this document is intended for use on weld metals in the as-welded state and
on weld metals after thermal treatments causing complete or partial transformation of ferrite to any
non-magnetic phase. Austenitizing thermal treatments which alter the size and shape of the ferrite
change the magnetic response of the ferrite.
The method is not intended for measurement of the ferrite content of cast, forged or wrought austenitic
or duplex ferritic-austenitic steel samples.

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