Soil quality -- Screening soils for isopropanol-extractable organic compounds by determining emulsification index by light attenuation

ISO 17183:2016 specifies the procedure to screen highly contaminated soils to detect organic compounds extractable with isopropanol, including a wide range of fuels, oils, and greases. The method is useful for finding hot spots. It is applicable both in laboratories and for site screening in the field. The working range is approximately 0,01 to 0,3 in absorbance units, corresponding to approximately 500 mg/kg to 10 000 mg/kg of isopropanol-extractable organic compounds in soil. The light attenuation due to light scattering/absorption approach in this method is designed to quickly screen soil samples using calibration with the most appropriate substance(s) likely to be present on a given site to indicate the concentration levels. This screening technique is applicable for a broad spectrum of organic compounds, mainly hydrocarbons. Organic compounds are a very broadly defined mixture of compounds, which show their own specific emulsification indices (see Annex A) and a gross emulsification index in a mixture sample, defined primarily by their insolubility in water. The more insoluble the compounds (e.g. non-polar compounds), the higher the response. Hydrocarbons are generally less-reactive and have little polarity. Determination of emulsification indexes uses their non-polar nature to detect organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons from about C8 to about C36. NOTE This method can also be applied to biological substances such as vegetable oils. This method is not applicable for determination of specific organic compounds or groups of compounds that may be part of a larger organic compound mixture. As with other screening techniques, it is advisable to confirm a certain percentage of both positive and negative test results, especially when near or above a regulatory action limit or when the presence of background or when interfering organic compounds such as surface active substances are suspected to be present. This method does not address the evaporation of any volatile organic compound mixtures (i.e., gasoline) during sampling, preparation and detection. Although the screening method can be used for the quantitative detection of volatile hydrocarbons, it is not intended that the method be used for the quantitative determination of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons unless evaporation during sample handling is addressed; the response factor be appropriately corrected, or the method performance be demonstrated on real samples. If emulsifiers or surface active substances (e.g. detergents) are present, significantly negatively-biased or false negative results can be obtained. If there is any evidence for the presence of surfactances in the soil, this method cannot be applied.

Qualité du sol -- Analyse rapide des sols pour les composés organiques extractibles à l'isopropanol en déterminant l'indice d'émulsification par l'atténuation de la lumière

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Apr-2016
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Apr-2021
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ISO 17183:2016 - Soil quality -- Screening soils for isopropanol-extractable organic compounds by determining emulsification index by light attenuation
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17183
First edition
2016-04-01
Soil quality — Screening soils for
isopropanol-extractable organic
compounds by determining
emulsification index by light
attenuation
Qualité du sol — Analyse rapide des sols pour les composés
organiques extractibles à l’isopropanol en déterminant l’indice
d’émulsification par l’atténuation de la lumière
Reference number
ISO 17183:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17183:2016(E)
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© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17183:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Interferences or other surfactants ......................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.3 Measurement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.4 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.5 Report ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) ............................................................................................................... 4

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Examples of turbidity indexes for various kinds of organic compounds ..........6

Annex B (normative) Schematic procedure of the method and its analytical conditions .............................7

Annex C (informative) Results on an interlaboratory test for determination of an
emulsification index by light attenuation to screen soils for isopropanol-

extractable organic compounds ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 17183:2016(E)
Foreword

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bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

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electrotechnical standardization.

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described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

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Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 3, Chemical

methods and soil characteristics.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 17183:2016(E)
Introduction

Light attenuation due to light scattering/absorption by emulsions can be used to screen for a variety of

isopropanol-extractable organic substances such as total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). This is one of

the main organic contaminants of many contaminated land sites.

Petroleum hydrocarbons do not typically have many functional groups or contain any hetero-atoms

that are easily detected in common analytical procedures. When the non-polar nature of organic

compounds is targeted, as in this proposed method, turbidity/emulsification is produced by a number of

organic compounds including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes); PNAs (poly-nuclear

aromatics); fuels; oils and greases that frequently are found at contaminated land sites.

This method can be used for screening soil samples to estimate the total amount of recoverable

petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soil including a wide range of fuels, oils, and greases. The

emulsification approach in this method is incorporated to rapidly screen soil samples using a system

calibrated with the organic substance present on the investigated site. If the contaminant is unknown,

commercially available diesel oil can be used for calibration. This makes turbidity/emulsification

analysis a very versatile analytical method that can be used on most hydrocarbon/non-polar organic

substance spills without prior knowledge of the exact BTEX or PNA content or composition of the

contaminant. This method is more sensitive to non-polar heavier organic compounds from jet fuel to

oils and greases, but less sensitive to more volatile and lighter hydrocarbon fuels. A turbidity analysis

assists the user in recognizing the contamination by non-polar organic compounds at a given site.

This International Standard describes the procedure for on-site soil screening of organic compounds

using emulsification and light attenuation due to light scattering/absorption analysis.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17183:2016(E)
Soil quality — Screening soils for isopropanol-extractable
organic compounds by determining emulsification index
by light attenuation
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the procedure to screen highly contaminated soils to detect

organic compounds extractable with isopropanol, including a wide range of fuels, oils, and greases.

The method is useful for finding hot spots. It is applicable both in laboratories and for site screening

in the field. The working range is approximately 0,01 to 0,3 in absorbance units, corresponding to

approximately 500 mg/kg to 10 000 mg/kg of isopropanol-extractable organic compounds in soil.

The light attenuation due to light scattering/absorption approach in this method is designed to quickly

screen soil samples using calibration with the most appropriate substance(s) likely to be present on a

given site to indicate the concentration levels.

This screening technique is applicable for a broad spectrum of organic compounds, mainly

hydrocarbons. Organic compounds are a very broadly defined mixture of compounds, which show their

own specific emulsification indices (see Annex A) and a gross emulsification index in a mixture sample,

defined primarily by their insolubility in water. The more insoluble the compounds (e.g. non-polar

compounds), the higher the response. Hydrocarbons are generally less-reactive and have little polarity.

Determination of emulsification indexes uses their non-polar nature to detect organic compounds

including a wide range of hydrocarbons from about C to about C .
8 36

NOTE This method can also be applied to biological substances such as vegetable oils.

This method is not applicable for determination of specific organic compounds or groups of compounds

that may be part of a larger organic compound mixture. As with other screening techniques, it is

advisable to confirm a certain percentage of both positive and negative test results, especially when

near or above a regulatory action limit or when the presence of background or when interfering organic

compounds such as surface active substances are suspected to be present.

This method does not address the evaporation of any volatile organic compound mixtures (i.e.,

gasoline) during sampling, preparation and detection. Although the screening method can be used

for the quantitative detection of volatile hydrocarbons, it is not intended that the method be used for

the quantitative determination of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons unless evaporation during sample

handling is addressed; the response factor be appropriately corrected, or the method performance be

demonstrated on real samples.

If emulsifiers or surface active substances (e.g. detergents) are present, significantly negatively-biased

or false negative results can be obtained. If there is any evidence for the presence of surfactances in the

soil, this method cannot be applied.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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