Service activities relating to drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems — Water and wastewater services for temporary settlements for displaced persons

This document provides guidelines for alternative water services (AWS) and alternative wastewater services (AWWS) to temporary settlements for displaced persons e.g. refugee/internally displaced persons (IDP) camps, for drinking, sanitation and hygiene purposes. It addresses AWS and AWWS principles and methods, operational planning and implementation. This document provides guidelines for drinking water supply to temporary settlements, and the disposal of wastewater, by implementation of different methods; it does not deal with the ways of using water inside the temporary settlements. This document deals with drinking water quantity but does not provide methods for quality testing. Water quality test methods are included in the scope of ISO TC 147. The document does make recommendations regarding public safety with respect to the location of distribution and collection points. On-site treatments are not discussed in this document but, depending on circumstances, they can be suitable. In such case, helpful technical guidelines are provided in the bibliography of this document. This document complements ISO 24527, whose scope excludes drinking water supplied to temporary settlements. It also complements other ISO TC 224's documents such as ISO 24518 and ISO/TS 24520. This document is intended to be used by the responsible body for the provision of the water service. It can be used by interested parties such as water utilities, governments and governmental organizations, security bodies, international refugee agencies, related NGOs and relevant industry stakeholders.

Activités de service relatives aux systèmes d'alimentation en eau potable, aux systèmes d'assainissement et aux systèmes de gestion des eaux pluviales — Services d’eau et d’assainissement pour les installations provisoires pour les personnes déplacées

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Aug-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
22-Mar-2022
Completion Date
19-Aug-2022
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical specification
ISO/TS 24519:2022 - Service activities relating to drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems — Water and wastewater services for temporary settlements for displaced persons Released:19. 08. 2022
English language
17 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 24519
First edition
2022-08
Service activities relating to drinking
water supply, wastewater and
stormwater systems — Water and
wastewater services for temporary
settlements for displaced persons
Activités de service relatives aux systèmes d'alimentation en eau
potable, aux systèmes d'assainissement et aux systèmes de gestion
des eaux pluviales — Services d’eau et d’assainissement pour les
installations provisoires pour les personnes déplacées
Reference number
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles for AWS and AWWS provision for temporary settlements ........................................................2

4.1 Responsibility .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Main purposes of the operation .............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Temporary settlements categorization ............................................................................................................................ 2

4.4 AWS and AWWS provision to temporary settlements approaches ......................................................... 3

4.4.1 Using existing drinking water and wastewater networks ........................................................... 3

4.4.2 Using existing drinking water and wastewater networks but with limited

capacity ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.3 Providing drinking water by means of transport ................................................................................ 3

4.4.4 Only drinking water infrastructure available ......................................................................................... 4

4.4.5 Water source not adequate for drinking is available ......................................................................... 4

4.4.6 A Natural water source is available ................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.7 Creating a new water source ................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.8 Water allocation .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.4.9 Water quality ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.10 Grey water ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5 Planning for AWS and AWWS provision for temporary settlements ...........................................................5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Planning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.1 Establishing scenario for individual temporary settlement ....................................................... 6

5.2.2 Decisions and actions to be taken ....................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 Securing resources and planning for their mobilization ................................................................ 6

6 Implementation of AWS and AWWS provision for temporary settlements ..........................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Using the existing drinking water and wastewater networks .................................................................... 7

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.2 Distribution of drinking water by connecting to an existing drinking water

supply system........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.3 Connecting to the wastewater infrastructure ........................................................................................ 8

6.3 Providing drinking water by means of transport ................................................................................................... 8

6.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3.2 Drinking water source(s) and transporting .............................................................................................. 8

6.3.3 Static water tanks connected to multi drinking water taps ....................................................... 8

6.3.4 Static assets (water tankers, towed bowsers or tanks) ................................................................... 9

6.3.5 Containerized drinking water ................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3.6 Reservoir ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.7 AWWS........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Wastewater infrastructure not available ....................................................................................................................... 9

6.5 Drinking water and wastewater networks are available but with limited capacity ............ 10

6.6 Water source not for drinking is available ................................................................................................................. 10

6.7 Natural water source is available ....................................................................................................................................... 10

6.8 Creating a water source ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

7 Internal and external communications ...................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

7.2 What to communicate ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2.1 Information to users .................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2.2 Information to other stakeholders .................................................................................................................. 11

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
7.3 Preparing stakeholders of a temporary settlement involving AWS and AWWS

provision ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

7.3.1 Tailored messaging .......................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 Preparing key stakeholders...................................................................................................................................12

7.4 AWS and AWWS information communication in the temporary settlement ..............................12

7.4.1 Tailored messaging .......................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.2 Communicating methods with users ............................................................................................................12

7.4.3 Communicating methods with other stakeholders ..........................................................................13

7.4.4 Communication tools and techniques .......................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Securing resources and planning for their mobilization .............................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 224, Drinking water, wastewater and

stormwater systems and services.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
Introduction

Natural disasters, climate change and wars resulting in the mass migration of populations fleeing

their homes to temporary settlements such as refugee/internally displaced persons (IDP) camps has

become a reality in many parts of the world. Temporary settlements are planned or spontaneous places

where refugees or IDPs can reside and benefit from welfare provision, safety and protection, and other

assistance from host governments and humanitarian actors. Reliable and good quality water supply

for purposes such as drinking, sanitation, hygiene, e.g., WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) is critical

for the survival of the population in temporary settlements. Risks due to natural disasters also require

consideration. For instance, earthquakes can cause damage to electricity and/or transportation

infrastructure, which are relied on for the construction and operation of the drinking water supply

network and wastewater treatment system.

In order to establish a reliable drinking water supply to temporary settlements, it is desirable to have a

regular drinking water supply system based on a water source connection through fixed or temporary

piping. If this is not possible, water tankers can be used to supply the required quantity of drinking

water to the temporary settlement on a regular basis. The water sources used for this purpose should

be suitable for drinking purposes. Where water sources that are suitable for drinking purposes are

limited, water sources of lower quality can be used for sanitation and other non-potable use purposes

only, and cannot be used as drinking water.

Dealing with the adequate disposal of wastewater produced in a temporary settlement is also of

critical importance. Neglecting proper disposal of wastewater can seriously harm public health and

the environment. It is desirable that the wastewater from temporary settlements will be conveyed

by means of fixed or temporary pipeline infrastructure that will enable its removal from the area of

the temporary settlement and treated by adequate installations outside the settlement. If this is not

possible, portable wastewater tankers can be used to transfer the wastewater to another location

outside the temporary settlement for proper treatment.

There are different types of temporary settlements e.g. emergency and/or transition camps. In most

cases, drinking water and wastewater provisions can differ or need to evolve according to spatial and

temporal factors.

An international guideline can provide information on the different possibilities for providing

alternative water services (AWS) and alternative wastewater services (AWWS) to temporary

settlements of displaced persons, the methods that can be used to implement such possibilities and

the technical aspects that have to be accounted for when considering the implementation of different

solutions to resolve the problems of AWS and AWWS that arise in such settlements.

The purpose of this document is to serve as a guideline for planning and setting up appropriate water

and wastewater services for temporary settlements.

A guideline for drinking water service provision to temporary settlements can also facilitate

communication between relevant parties, coordinate activities and contribute to cost saving. It can be

used by relevant industry and stakeholders wishing to be prepared to cope with the issues of drinking

water supply and wastewater disposal in temporary settlements.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
Service activities relating to drinking water supply,
wastewater and stormwater systems — Water and
wastewater services for temporary settlements for
displaced persons
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for alternative water services (AWS) and alternative wastewater

services (AWWS) to temporary settlements for displaced persons e.g. refugee/internally displaced

persons (IDP) camps, for drinking, sanitation and hygiene purposes. It addresses AWS and AWWS

principles and methods, operational planning and implementation.

This document provides guidelines for drinking water supply to temporary settlements, and the

disposal of wastewater, by implementation of different methods; it does not deal with the ways of using

water inside the temporary settlements. This document deals with drinking water quantity but does

not provide methods for quality testing. Water quality test methods are included in the scope of ISO TC

147.

The document does make recommendations regarding public safety with respect to the location of

distribution and collection points. On-site treatments are not discussed in this document but, depending

on circumstances, they can be suitable. In such case, helpful technical guidelines are provided in the

bibliography of this document.

This document complements ISO 24527, whose scope excludes drinking water supplied to temporary

settlements. It also complements other ISO TC 224's documents such as ISO 24518 and ISO/TS 24520.

This document is intended to be used by the responsible body for the provision of the water service. It

can be used by interested parties such as water utilities, governments and governmental organizations,

security bodies, international refugee agencies, related NGOs and relevant industry stakeholders.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24513:2019, Service activities relating to drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems

— Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24513:2019 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
displaced person
a person who is forced to leave without their will their home or country
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)
3.2
wastewater

water arising from any combination of domestic, institutional, commercial or industrial activities,

surface runoff and any accidental sewer inflow/infiltration water and which can include collected

stormwater, discharged to the environment or sewer
Note 1 to entry: Wastewater can flow in separate or combined sewer systems.
3.3
grey water
greywater

wastewater (3.2) from bathtubs and showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, clothes washing and laundry

tubes but excluding excreta and trade effluent
Note 1 to entry: It excludes used water from urinals or toilet bowls.

Note 2 to entry: Wastewater from kitchen sinks, food waste grinders or dishwashers can be excluded, subject to

local requirements.
4 Principles for AWS and AWWS provision for temporary settlements
4.1 Responsibility

The authority which authorized the establishment of the temporary settlement should ensure that a

consultation process is initiated among the entities concerned by the water services. This should allow

for the designation of the responsible body to be in charge of the operation.

The first task of the responsible body in charge of the operation should be to establish an operational

team.

The following are possible examples of responsible bodies: a local water utility, municipal authority,

governmental bodies, military units, international bodies (e.g. UN WASH), NGO's, private companies

(e.g. transport companies, containerized water companies).

A planning and operational team should be appointed of representatives of these relevant bodies, to

allow a coordinated operation and determine the necessary decisions. The inclusion of representatives

of the displaced persons in the temporary settlement should also be considered.
4.2 Main purposes of the operation
The main purposes of the operation should include the following.

a) Bring to the temporary settlement enough water, in accordance with the AWS and AWWS plans

which determine water allocation per capita per day, drinking water, and water for sanitation and

hygiene purposes, considering the need for personal and public safety.
b) Dispose of wastewater from the temporary settlement area to a dedicated site.
4.3 Temporary settlements categorization

For the purpose of this guideline, temporary settlements should be categorized as follows.

a) Temporary settlements that can be connected to existing drinking water and wastewater

infrastructure.

b) Temporary settlements that can be connected to existing drinking water and wastewater

infrastructure, but with limited capacity.

c) Temporary settlements that cannot be connected to existing drinking water and wastewater

infrastructure.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)

These three types of temporary settlements require different AWS and AWWS approaches.

The categorization of the temporary settlements may include a combination between these three types,

e.g. drinking water infrastructure is available, but no wastewater infrastructure is available, or vice

versa.

Temporary settlements may also be categorized by the availability of a water source which may not be

adequate for drinking purposes but can be used for sanitation purposes, e.g. on-site treated wastewater,

grey water.

In such case of a combination of the three types of settlements, AWS and AWWS provision should be

based on a combination between the approaches described in 4.4.
4.4 AWS and AWWS provision to temporary settlements approaches
4.4.1 Using existing drinking water and wastewater networks

The use of existing drinking water and wastewater networks is based on the condition that drinking

water and wastewater infrastructure is available, i.e., water or wastewater infrastructure that is:

— physically present;
— has the capacity to supply additional population;

— has political and administrative approval to be used for the additional population.

To be able to use existing drinking water and wastewater networks, the planning and operational

team should connect the temporary settlement to the existing infrastructure by erecting temporary

standpipes connected to the networks. Inside the temporary settlement, the planning and operational

team should connect the temporary standpipes to users (e.g. multi drinking water taps, toilets, showers,

etc.) and connect the toilets and showers to the wastewater infrastructure.

The use of existing drinking water and wastewater networks is the preferred approach as it provides

users with the most reliable AWS and AWWS services, as well as the highest level of WASH.

See more on the operational aspects of this approach in Clause 6.

4.4.2 Using existing drinking water and wastewater networks but with limited capacity

When existing drinking water and wastewater networks are available but with limited capacity, the

largest available quantity of water should be supplied from the infrastructure, while the rest of the

water should be supplied as described in 4.4.3.

The largest possible quantity of wastewater should be disposed of through the infrastructure, while

the rest of the wastewater should be disposed of by means of transportation, or by on-site wastewater

treatment (for more information about on-site wastewater treatment, see ISO 23056 and ISO 24521).

4.4.3 Providing drinking water by means of transport

This approach of provision of drinking water by means of transport assumes that limited or no drinking

water and wastewater infrastructure are available. To implement this approach the planning and

operational team should use various means of transport for the drinking water (e.g., mobile tankers,

trains, air crafts) in order to provide it to the temporary settlement and to dispose of its wastewater.

While using these various means of transport, the quality of the distributed water should always be

clear / well marked for everyone in the supply chain.

Inside the temporary settlement, temporary points of distribution (TPDs) should be established. Such

TPDs should be the interface for users to receive drinking water and water for hygiene purposes.

Containerized drinking water may also be used in this approach.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TS 24519:2022(E)

In this approach, sanitation should not be based on water. The planning and operational team should

use different types of toilets (e.g. chemical toilets, latrines) and make the necessary arrangements to

dispose of the wastewater by means of transport (e.g. mobile wastewater tanker) out of the temporary

settlement to a dedicated site.
The planning and operational team should communicate to users instructions:

— about the establishment of TPDs to supply drinking water according to a determined water

allocation;
— about the use of provisional toilets/latrines;
— regarding hygiene practices;
— about the quality of the distributed water.
See more on the operational aspects in Clause 6.
4.4.4 Only drinking water infrastructure available

If only drinking water infrastructure is available, drinking water should be supplied as described in

4.4.1.

In the absence of wastewater network, an assessment should be completed to decide the best approach

to wastewater. The planning and operational team can build a provisional wastewater lagoon for the

temporary settlement, to dispose of – or disinfect – the wastewater according to the requirements of

the responsible body, as described in 4.4.3.
4.4.5 Water source not adequate for drinking is available

When a water source that is not adequate for drinking is available, if it can be connected to the

temporary settlements by temporary standpipes, it should be connected only to toilets and showers.

Drinking water should be supplied as described in 4.4.2. If wastewater infrastructure is available, it

should be connected as described in 4.4.1. If not, wastewater should be addressed as described in 4.4.4.

This approach, of using a water source that is not adequate for drinking, can be difficult to manage and

lead to health issues so it should only be selected when other solutions cannot be implemented.

If a water source not adequate for drinking is available and used, the responsible body should

communicate to the camp management that the water cannot be used for drinking purposes, so that the

camp management can communicate this to the users.
4.4.6 A Natural water source is available

Where a natural water source such as a river or a lake is available near the temporary settlement, it

may be used for hygiene purposes (e.g., shower, laundry), pending approval by the relevant authority

for this use.

AWS and AWWS should be supplied according the circumstances, as described in 4.4.1 to 4.4.5.

The planning and operational team should inform users about the permitted uses (e.g. washing,

laundry) and uses that are not permitted (e.g. drinking) and why they are not permitted, see also 6.7.

4.4.7 Creating a new water source

If there is no water source available near the temporary settlement, the planning and operational team

should consider, according to geological conditions, the drilling of a new w
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.