Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

The requirements in ISO 8124-1:2012 apply to all toys, i.e. any product or material designed or clearly intended for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received by the consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of normal use and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise. The requirements of ISO 8124-1:2012 specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such as shape, size, contour and spacing as well as acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy. ISO 8124-1:2012 specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various age groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy is intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental and/or physical abilities of a child to cope with them.

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et physiques

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
23-Sep-2012
Withdrawal Date
23-Sep-2012
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
17-Dec-2014
Completion Date
17-Dec-2014
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-1
Third edition
2012-10-01
Corrected version
2012-11-15
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and
physical properties
Sécurité des jouets
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
Reference number
ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 3

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Requirements .....................................................................................................................................................12

4.1 Normal use ..........................................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Reasonably foreseeable abuse .....................................................................................................................12

4.3 Material .................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Small parts ..........................................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Shape, size and strength of certain toys ....................................................................................................13

4.6 Edges ....................................................................................................................................................................18

4.7 Points ....................................................................................................................................................................19

4.8 Projections ..........................................................................................................................................................20

4.9 Metal wires and rods ........................................................................................................................................20

4.10 Plastic film or plastic bags in packaging and in toys ..............................................................................20

4.11 Cords and elastics ............................................................................................................................................21

4.12 Folding mechanisms ........................................................................................................................................22

4.13 Holes, clearances and accessibility of mechanisms ...............................................................................24

4.14 Springs .................................................................................................................................................................26

4.15 Stability and overload requirements ............................................................................................................26

4.16 Enclosures ..........................................................................................................................................................27

4.17 Simulated protective equipment, such as helmets, hats and goggles ...............................................28

4.18 Projectile toys .....................................................................................................................................................29

4.19 Aquatic toys ........................................................................................................................................................30

4.20 Braking .................................................................................................................................................................30

4.21 Toy bicycles ........................................................................................................................................................31

4.22 Speed limitation of electrically driven ride-on toys .................................................................................32

4.23 Toys containing a heat source .......................................................................................................................32

4.24 Liquid-filled toys ................................................................................................................................................33

4.25 Mouth-actuated toys .........................................................................................................................................33

4.26 Toy roller skates, toy inline skates and toy skateboards .......................................................................33

4.27 Percussion caps ................................................................................................................................................33

4.28 Acoustic requirements .....................................................................................................................................33

4.29 Toy scooters .......................................................................................................................................................34

4.30 Magnets and magnetic components ............................................................................................................36

5 Test methods ......................................................................................................................................................37

5.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................37

5.2 Small parts test ..................................................................................................................................................37

5.3 Test for shape and size of certain toys ........................................................................................................38

5.4 Small balls test ...................................................................................................................................................39

5.5 Test for pompoms .............................................................................................................................................40

5.6 Test for pre-school play figures ....................................................................................................................40

5.7 Accessibility of a part or component ...........................................................................................................40

5.8 Sharp-edge test ..................................................................................................................................................42

5.9 Sharp-point test .................................................................................................................................................43

5.10 Determination of thickness of plastic film and sheeting ........................................................................46

5.11 Test for cords ......................................................................................................................................................46

5.12 Stability and overload tests ............................................................................................................................47

5.13 Test for closures and toy chest lids .............................................................................................................49

5.14 Impact test for toys that cover the face .......................................................................................................49

5.15 Kinetic energy of projectiles, bows and arrows .......................................................................................49

5.16 Free-wheeling facility and brake performance test ..................................................................................51

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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)

5.17 Determination of speed of electrically driven ride-on toys ....................................................................52

5.18 Determination of temperature increases ....................................................................................................52

5.19 Leakage of liquid-filled toys ...........................................................................................................................52

5.20 Durability of mouth-actuated toys ................................................................................................................52

5.21 Expanding materials .........................................................................................................................................53

5.22 Folding or sliding mechanisms .....................................................................................................................53

5.23 Washable toys ....................................................................................................................................................54

5.24 Reasonably foreseeable abuse tests ...........................................................................................................54

5.25 Determination of sound pressure levels .....................................................................................................59

5.26 Static strength for toy scooters .....................................................................................................................64

5.27 Dynamic strength for toy scooters ...............................................................................................................65

5.28 Brake performance for toy scooters ............................................................................................................67

5.29 Strength of toy scooter steering tubes .......................................................................................................68

5.30 Resistance to separation of handlebar .......................................................................................................69

5.31 Tension test for magnets .................................................................................................................................70

5.32 Magnetic flux index ...........................................................................................................................................71

5.33 Impact test for magnets ...................................................................................................................................72

5.34 Soaking test for magnets ................................................................................................................................72

Annex A (informative) Age-grading guidelines .........................................................................................................73

Annex B (informative) Safety-labelling guidelines and manufacturer’s markings .........................................76

Annex C (informative) Design guidelines for toys attached to cribs or playpens ..........................................82

Annex D (informative) Toy gun marking .....................................................................................................................83

Annex E (informative) Rationale ...................................................................................................................................84

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................97

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 8124-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8124-1:2009), of which it constitutes a minor

revision. It also incorporates the amendments ISO 8124-1:2009/Amd.1:2011 and ISO 8124-1:2009/Amd.2:2012.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

— Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
— Part 2: Flammability
— Part 3: Migration of certain elements

— Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 5: Determination of total concentration of certain elements in toys

— Part 6: Toys and children’s products — Determination of phthalate plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride plastics

This corrected version of ISO 8124-1:2012 incorporates the following correction:
— in 4.11.7, “108 Ω/cm” has been replaced by “10 Ω/cm”.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 8124 is largely based upon existing standards in the European Union (EN 71-1 and in the

United States of America (ASTM F963).

However, it should not be construed that a toy manufactured in compliance with this part of ISO 8124 will be in

full compliance with relevant national toy safety requirements in the market where the product is intended to be

distributed. The user of this part of ISO 8124 is therefore advised to be aware of relevant national requirements.

Compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124 will minimize potential hazards associated with

toys resulting from their use in their intended play modes (normal use) as well as unintended play modes

(reasonably foreseeable abuse).

This part of ISO 8124 will not, nor is it intended to, eliminate parental responsibility in the appropriate selection

of toys. In addition, this part of ISO 8124 will not eliminate the need for parental supervision in situations where

children of various ages may have access to the same toy(s).

Although Annexes A, B, C, D and E are for information purposes only, they are crucial for the correct

interpretation of this part of ISO 8124.
The safety of electric toys is described in IEC 62115.

When age indications are required for safety labelling purposes, they may be given in either months or years.

vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
1 Scope

The requirements in this part of ISO 8124 apply to all toys, i.e. any product or material designed or clearly

intended for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received

by the consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of

normal use and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise.

The requirements of this part of ISO 8124 specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such

as shape, size, contour, spacing (e.g. rattles, small parts, sharp points and edges, and hinge-line clearances)

as well as acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy (e.g. maximum kinetic energy

values for non-resilient-tipped projectiles and minimum tip angles for certain ride-on toys).

This part of ISO 8124 specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various

age groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy

is intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected

mental and/or physical abilities of a child to cope with them.

This part of ISO 8124 also requires that appropriate warnings and/or instructions for use be given on certain

toys or their packaging. Due to linguistic problems which may occur in different countries, the wording of these

warnings and instructions is not specified but given as general information in Annex B. It should be noted that

different legal requirements exist in many countries with regard to such marking.

This part of ISO 8124 does not purport to cover or include every conceivable potential hazard of a particular toy

or toy category. Except for labelling requirements indicating the functional hazards and the age range for which

the toy is intended, this part of ISO 8124 has no requirements for those characteristics of toys which represent

an inherent and recognized hazard which is integral to the function of the toy.

EXAMPLE 1 An example of such a hazard is the sharp point necessary for the proper function of a needle. The

needle is a hazard which is well understood by the purchaser of a toy sewing kit, and the functional sharp-point hazard is

communicated to the user as part of the normal educational process of learning to sew as well as at the point of purchase

by means of cautionary labelling on the product’s packaging.

EXAMPLE 2 As a further example, a two-wheeled toy scooter has inherent and recognized hazards associated with its

use (e.g. instability during use, especially while learning). The potential hazards associated with its structural characteristics

(sharp edges, pinch hazards, etc.) will be minimized by compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124.

Products not included within the scope of this part of ISO 8124 are:

a) bicycles, except for those considered to be toys, i.e. those having a maximum saddle height of 435 mm

(see E.1);
b) slingshots;

NOTE “Slingshots” are also known as “catapults” and are usually held in the hand; examples are given in

Figure 1. Toy versions of medieval catapults and trebuchets are not exempt from this part of ISO 8124; an example is

given in Figure 2.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)

Figure 1 — Examples of slingshots (not within the scope of this part of ISO 8124)

Figure 2 — Medieval toy catapult (within the scope of this part of ISO 8124)
c) darts with metal points;
d) home and public playground equipment;
e) compressed air- and gas-operated guns and pistols (see E.1);

f) kites (except for the electric resistance of their strings, which is included);

g) model kits, hobby and craft items, in which the finished item is not primarily of play value;

h) sporting goods and equipment, camping goods, athletic equipment, musical instruments and furniture;

however, toys which are their counterparts are included.

It is recognized that there is often a fine distinction between, for example a musical instrument or a sporting

item and its toy counterpart. The intention of the manufacturer or distributor, as well as normal use and

reasonably foreseeable abuse, determines whether the item is a toy counterpart or not;

i) models of aircraft, rockets, boats and land vehicles powered by combustion engines; however, toys which

are their counterparts are included (see E.1);
j) collectible products not intended for children under 14 years of age;
k) holiday decorations that are primarily intended for ornamental purposes;

l) aquatic equipment intended to be used in deep water, swimming-learning devices and flotation aids for

children such as swim-seats and swim-aids;
m) toys installed in public places (e.g. arcades and shopping centres);
n) puzzles having more than 500 pieces or without a picture, for specialists;

o) fireworks including percussion caps, except percussion caps specifically designed for toys;

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)

p) products containing heating elements intended for use under the supervision of an adult in a teaching context;

q) steam engines;

r) video toys that can be connected to a video screen and operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

s) babies’ pacifiers (dummies);
t) faithful reproduction of firearms;

u) electric ovens, irons or other functional products operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

v) bows for archery with an overall relaxed length exceeding 120 cm;
w) fashion jewellery for children (see E.1).
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore hardness)

ISO 3746:2010, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure —

Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane

ISO 4287, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions

and surface texture parameters

ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F,

G, H, K, N, T)

ISO 11201, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Engineering method in an essentially free

field over a reflecting plane

ISO 11202, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Survey method in situ

ISO 11204, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Method requiring environmental corrections

IEC 61672-1, Electroacoustics — Sound level meters — Part 1: Specifications

IEC 61672-2, Electroacoustics — Sound level meters — Part 2: Pattern evaluation tests

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE The requirements in this part of ISO 8124 are applicable to certain age ranges. For interpretation of these age

ranges, see E.42 (age-break terminology).
3.1
accessible

〈part or component〉 any area of the toy that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the

accessibility probe as described in 5.7
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
3.2
aquatic toy

article, whether inflatable or not, intended to bear the mass of a child and used as an instrument of play in

shallow water
NOTE Bathroom toys and beach balls are not considered aquatic toys.
3.3
backing
material adhering to flexible plastic sheeting
3.4
ball

spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal object, usually but not always designed or intended to be thrown, hit, kicked,

rolled, dropped or bounced

NOTE 1 This definition includes balls attached to a toy or article by a string, elastic cord or similar tether and also any

multi-sided object formed by connecting planes into, and any novelty item of, a generally spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal

shape designed or intended to be used as a ball.

NOTE 2 This definition does not include dice, or balls permanently enclosed inside pinball machines, mazes or similar

outer containers. A ball is permanently enclosed if, when tested according to 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse), it is not

removed from the outer container.
3.5
battery-operated toy

toy having at least one function dependent on electricity and powered by batteries

3.6
burr
roughness caused by not cleanly severing or finishing the material
3.7
close-to-the-ear toy

toy that is intended to be used close to the ear, i.e. the sound-emitting part of such a toy is normally put against

the ear of a child
EXAMPLES Toy cellphones or toy telephones that emit sounds from the handpiece.
3.8
collapse
sudden or unexpected folding of a structure
3.9
continuous sound

any steady-state sound or group of variable sounds greater than one second in duration

3.10
cord
length of slender, flexible material

EXAMPLE Monofilaments, woven and twisted cord, rope, plastic textile tapes, ribbon and those fibrous materials

known as string.
NOTE Doll hair is not considered a cord.
3.11
crushing
injury to part of the body resulting from compression between surfaces
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
3.12
C-weighted peak sound pressure level
Cpeak
peak sound pressure level obtained when using standardized C-weighting
3.13
discharge mechanism
inanimate system for releasing and propelling a projectile
3.14
driving mechanism

assembly of linked parts or components (e.g. gears, belts and winding mechanisms), at least one of which

moves, powered by a source (e.g. electrical or mechanical means) independent of a child

3.15
edge
line, formed at the junction of two surfaces, whose length exceeds 2,0 mm
3.15.1
curled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle of less than

90° with the base sheet
NOTE See Figure 3.
3.15.2
hemmed edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is folded back on the sheet itself through an angle of

approximately 180°, so that the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is approximately parallel to the main sheet

NOTE See Figure 3.
3.15.3
rolled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle between 90°

and 120° with the main sheet
NOTE See Figure 3.
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Rolled edge
b) Hemmed (folded) edge
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 8124-1:2012(E)
c) Curled edge
d) Typical lap joint
No limit.
Figure 3 — Edges
3.16
equivalent sound pressure level
Aeq

level of a steady-state sound which, in a stated time period and at a stated location, has the same A-weighted

sound energy as the time-varying sound
3.17
expanding material
material whose volume expands when exposed to water
3.18
explosive action

sudden release of energy characterized by the rapid expansion or bursting of a material

3.19
fastener
mechanical device which attaches two or more elements together
EXAMPLE Screws, rivets and staples.
3.20
feathering

bevelling of an edge (or decrease in thickness moving toward the edge) caused during shearing or cutting of material

3.21
flash
excess material that escapes between the mating parts of a mould assembly
3.22
folding mechanism

hinged, pivoted, folding or sliding assembly which could crush, scissor, pinch or shear during operation

EXAMPLE Toy ironing boards, toy pushchairs.
3.23
functional magnet in electrical or electronic components of toys

any magnet necessary for the function of motors, relays, speakers and other electrical or electronic components

in a toy where the magnetic properties are not part of the play pattern of the toy

6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 --------------
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 8124-1
ISO/TC 181
Safety of toys —
Secretariat: DS
Voting begins on: Part 1:
2012-06-20
Safety aspects related to mechanical and
Voting terminates on:
physical properties
2012-08-20
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR-
TING DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted

under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract from it may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, recording

or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 3

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Requirements .....................................................................................................................................................12

4.1 Normal use ..........................................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Reasonably foreseeable abuse .....................................................................................................................12

4.3 Material .................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Small parts ..........................................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Shape, size and strength of certain toys ....................................................................................................13

4.6 Edges ....................................................................................................................................................................18

4.7 Points ....................................................................................................................................................................19

4.8 Projections ..........................................................................................................................................................20

4.9 Metal wires and rods ........................................................................................................................................20

4.10 Plastic film or plastic bags in packaging and in toys ..............................................................................20

4.11 Cords and elastics ............................................................................................................................................21

4.12 Folding mechanisms ........................................................................................................................................22

4.13 Holes, clearances and accessibility of mechanisms ...............................................................................24

4.14 Springs .................................................................................................................................................................26

4.15 Stability and overload requirements ............................................................................................................26

4.16 Enclosures ..........................................................................................................................................................27

4.17 Simulated protective equipment, such as helmets, hats and goggles ...............................................28

4.18 Projectile toys .....................................................................................................................................................29

4.19 Aquatic toys ........................................................................................................................................................30

4.20 Braking .................................................................................................................................................................30

4.21 Toy bicycles ........................................................................................................................................................31

4.22 Speed limitation of electrically driven ride-on toys .................................................................................32

4.23 Toys containing a heat source .......................................................................................................................32

4.24 Liquid-filled toys ................................................................................................................................................33

4.25 Mouth-actuated toys .........................................................................................................................................33

4.26 Toy roller skates, toy inline skates and toy skateboards .......................................................................33

4.27 Percussion caps ................................................................................................................................................33

4.28 Acoustic requirements .....................................................................................................................................33

4.29 Toy scooters .......................................................................................................................................................34

4.30 Magnets and magnetic components ............................................................................................................36

5 Test methods ......................................................................................................................................................37

5.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................37

5.2 Small parts test ..................................................................................................................................................37

5.3 Test for shape and size of certain toys ........................................................................................................38

5.4 Small balls test ...................................................................................................................................................39

5.5 Test for pompoms .............................................................................................................................................40

5.6 Test for pre-school play figures ....................................................................................................................40

5.7 Accessibility of a part or component ...........................................................................................................40

5.8 Sharp-edge test ..................................................................................................................................................42

5.9 Sharp-point test .................................................................................................................................................43

5.10 Determination of thickness of plastic film and sheeting ........................................................................46

5.11 Test for cords ......................................................................................................................................................46

5.12 Stability and overload tests ............................................................................................................................47

5.13 Test for closures and toy chest lids .............................................................................................................49

5.14 Impact test for toys that cover the face .......................................................................................................49

5.15 Kinetic energy of projectiles, bows and arrows .......................................................................................50

5.16 Free-wheeling facility and brake performance test ..................................................................................51

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)

5.17 Determination of speed of electrically driven ride-on toys ....................................................................52

5.18 Determination of temperature increases ....................................................................................................52

5.19 Leakage of liquid-filled toys ...........................................................................................................................52

5.20 Durability of mouth-actuated toys ................................................................................................................53

5.21 Expanding materials .........................................................................................................................................53

5.22 Folding or sliding mechanisms .....................................................................................................................53

5.23 Washable toys ....................................................................................................................................................54

5.24 Reasonably foreseeable abuse tests ...........................................................................................................55

5.25 Determination of sound pressure levels .....................................................................................................59

5.26 Static strength for toy scooters .....................................................................................................................64

5.27 Dynamic strength for toy scooters ...............................................................................................................65

5.28 Brake performance for toy scooters ............................................................................................................67

5.29 Strength of toy scooter steering tubes .......................................................................................................68

5.30 Resistance to separation of handlebar .......................................................................................................69

5.31 Tension test for magnets .................................................................................................................................70

5.32 Magnetic flux index ...........................................................................................................................................71

5.33 Impact test for magnets ...................................................................................................................................72

5.34 Soaking test for magnets ................................................................................................................................72

Annex A (informative) Age-grading guidelines .........................................................................................................73

Annex B (informative) Safety-labelling guidelines and manufacturer’s markings .........................................76

Annex C (informative) Design guidelines for toys attached to cribs or playpens ..........................................82

Annex D (informative) Toy gun marking .....................................................................................................................83

Annex E (informative) Rationale ...................................................................................................................................84

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................97

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 8124-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8124-1:2009), of which it constitutes a minor

revision. It also incorporates the amendments ISO 8124-1:2009/Amd.1:2011 and ISO 8124-1:2009/Amd.2:2012.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

— Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
— Part 2: Flammability
— Part 3: Migration of certain elements

— Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 5: Determination of total concentration of certain elements in toys

— Part 6: Toys and children’s products — Determination of phthalate plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride plastics

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ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 8124 is largely based upon existing standards in the European Union (EN 71-1 and in the

United States of America (ASTM F963).

However, it should not be construed that a toy manufactured in compliance with this part of ISO 8124 will be in

full compliance with relevant national toy safety requirements in the market where the product is intended to be

distributed. The user of this part of ISO 8124 is therefore advised to be aware of relevant national requirements.

Compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124 will minimize potential hazards associated with

toys resulting from their use in their intended play modes (normal use) as well as unintended play modes

(reasonably foreseeable abuse).

This part of ISO 8124 will not, nor is it intended to, eliminate parental responsibility in the appropriate selection

of toys. In addition, this part of ISO 8124 will not eliminate the need for parental supervision in situations where

children of various ages may have access to the same toy(s).

Although Annexes A, B, C, D and E are for information purposes only, they are crucial for the correct

interpretation of this part of ISO 8124.
The safety of electric toys is described in IEC 62115.

When age indications are required for safety labelling purposes, they may be given in either months or years.

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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
1 Scope

The requirements in this part of ISO 8124 apply to all toys, i.e. any product or material designed or clearly

intended for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received

by the consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of

normal use and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise.

The requirements of this part of ISO 8124 specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such

as shape, size, contour, spacing (e.g. rattles, small parts, sharp points and edges, and hinge-line clearances)

as well as acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy (e.g. maximum kinetic energy

values for non-resilient-tipped projectiles and minimum tip angles for certain ride-on toys).

This part of ISO 8124 specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various

age groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy

is intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected

mental and/or physical abilities of a child to cope with them.

This part of ISO 8124 also requires that appropriate warnings and/or instructions for use be given on certain

toys or their packaging. Due to linguistic problems which may occur in different countries, the wording of these

warnings and instructions is not specified but given as general information in Annex B. It should be noted that

different legal requirements exist in many countries with regard to such marking.

This part of ISO 8124 does not purport to cover or include every conceivable potential hazard of a particular toy

or toy category. Except for labelling requirements indicating the functional hazards and the age range for which

the toy is intended, this part of ISO 8124 has no requirements for those characteristics of toys which represent

an inherent and recognized hazard which is integral to the function of the toy.

EXAMPLE 1 An example of such a hazard is the sharp point necessary for the proper function of a needle. The

needle is a hazard which is well understood by the purchaser of a toy sewing kit, and the functional sharp-point hazard is

communicated to the user as part of the normal educational process of learning to sew as well as at the point of purchase

by means of cautionary labelling on the product’s packaging.

EXAMPLE 2 As a further example, a two-wheeled toy scooter has inherent and recognized hazards associated with its

use (e.g. instability during use, especially while learning). The potential hazards associated with its structural characteristics

(sharp edges, pinch hazards, etc.) will be minimized by compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124.

Products not included within the scope of this part of ISO 8124 are:

a) bicycles, except for those considered to be toys, i.e. those having a maximum saddle height of 435 mm

(see E.1);
b) slingshots;

NOTE “Slingshots” are also known as “catapults” and are usually held in the hand; examples are given in

Figure 1. Toy versions of medieval catapults and trebuchets are not exempt from this part of ISO 8124; an example is

given in Figure 2.
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Figure 1 — Examples of slingshots (not within the scope of this part of ISO 8124)

Figure 2 — Medieval toy catapult (within the scope of this part of ISO 8124)
c) darts with metal points;
d) home and public playground equipment;
e) compressed air- and gas-operated guns and pistols (see E.1);

f) kites (except for the electric resistance of their strings, which is included);

g) model kits, hobby and craft items, in which the finished item is not primarily of play value;

h) sporting goods and equipment, camping goods, athletic equipment, musical instruments and furniture;

however, toys which are their counterparts are included.

It is recognized that there is often a fine distinction between, for example a musical instrument or a sporting

item and its toy counterpart. The intention of the manufacturer or distributor, as well as normal use and

reasonably foreseeable abuse, determines whether the item is a toy counterpart or not;

i) models of aircraft, rockets, boats and land vehicles powered by combustion engines; however, toys which

are their counterparts are included (see E.1);
j) collectible products not intended for children under 14 years of age;
k) holiday decorations that are primarily intended for ornamental purposes;

l) aquatic equipment intended to be used in deep water, swimming-learning devices and flotation aids for

children such as swim-seats and swim-aids;
m) toys installed in public places (e.g. arcades and shopping centres);
n) puzzles having more than 500 pieces or without a picture, for specialists;

o) fireworks including percussion caps, except percussion caps specifically designed for toys;

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ISO/FDIS 8124-1:2012(E)

p) products containing heating elements intended for use under the supervision of an adult in a teaching context;

q) steam engines;

r) video toys that can be connected to a video screen and operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

s) babies’ pacifiers (dummies);
t) faithful reproduction of firearms;

u) electric ovens, irons or other functional products operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

v) bows for archery with an overall relaxed length exceeding 120 cm;
w) fashion jewellery for children (see E.1).
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore hardness)

ISO 3746:2010, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure —

Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane

ISO 4287, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions

and surface texture parameters

ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F,

G, H, K, N, T)

ISO 11201, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Engineering method in an essentially free

field over a reflecting plane

ISO 11202, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Survey method in situ

ISO 11204, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Measurement of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions — Method requiring environmental corrections

IEC 61672-1, Electroacoustics — Sound level meters — Part 1: Specifications

IEC 61672-2, Electroacoustics — Sound level meters — Part 2: Pattern evaluation tests

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE The requirements in this part of ISO 8124 are applicable to certain age ranges. For interpretation of these age

ranges, see E.42 (age-break terminology).
3.1
accessible

〈part or component〉 any area of the toy that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the

accessibility probe as described in 5.7
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3.2
aquatic toy

article, whether inflatable or not, intended to bear the mass of a child and used as an instrument of play in

shallow water
NOTE Bathroom toys and beach balls are not considered aquatic toys.
3.3
backing
material adhering to flexible plastic sheeting
3.4
ball

spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal object, usually but not always designed or intended to be thrown, hit, kicked,

rolled, dropped or bounced

NOTE 1 This definition includes balls attached to a toy or article by a string, elastic cord or similar tether and also any

multi-sided object formed by connecting planes into, and any novelty item of, a generally spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal

shape designed or intended to be used as a ball.

NOTE 2 This definition does not include dice, or balls permanently enclosed inside pinball machines, mazes or similar

outer containers. A ball is permanently enclosed if, when tested according to 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse), it is not

removed from the outer container.
3.5
battery-operated toy

toy having at least one function dependent on electricity and powered by batteries

3.6
burr
roughness caused by not cleanly severing or finishing the material
3.7
close-to-the-ear toy

toy that is intended to be used close to the ear, i.e. the sound-emitting part of such a toy is normally put against

the ear of a child
EXAMPLES Toy cellphones or toy telephones that emit sounds from the handpiece.
3.8
collapse
sudden or unexpected folding of a structure
3.9
continuous sound

any steady-state sound or group of variable sounds greater than one second in duration

3.10
cord
length of slender, flexible material

EXAMPLE Monofilaments, woven and twisted cord, rope, plastic textile tapes, ribbon and those fibrous materials

known as string.
NOTE Doll hair is not considered a cord.
3.11
crushing
injury to part of the body resulting from compression between surfaces
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3.12
C-weighted peak sound pressure level
Cpeak
peak sound pressure level obtained when using standardized C-weighting
3.13
discharge mechanism
inanimate system for releasing and propelling a projectile
3.14
driving mechanism

assembly of linked parts or components (e.g. gears, belts and winding mechanisms), at least one of which

moves, powered by a source (e.g. electrical or mechanical means) independent of a child

3.15
edge
line, formed at the junction of two surfaces, whose length exceeds 2,0 mm
3.15.1
curled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle of less than

90° with the base sheet
NOTE See Figure 3.
3.15.2
hemmed edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is folded back on the sheet itself through an angle of

approximately 180°, so that the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is approximately parallel to the main sheet

NOTE See Figure 3.
3.15.3
rolled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle between 90°

and 120° with the main sheet
NOTE See Figure 3.
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Rolled edge
b) Hemmed (folded) edge
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c) Curled edge
d) Typical lap joint
No limit.
Figure 3 — Edges
3.16
equivalent sound pressure level
Aeq

level of a steady-state sound which, in a stated time period and at a stated location, has the same A-weighted

sound energy as the time-varying sound
3.17
expanding material
material whose volume expands when exposed to water
3.18
explosive action

sudden release of energy characterized by the rapid expansion or bursting of a material

3.19
fastener
mechanical device which attaches two or more elements together
EXAMPLE Screws, rivets and stapl
...

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