Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

The requirements in ISO 8124-1:2014 apply to all toys, i.e. any product or material designed or clearly intended for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received by the consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of normal use and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise. The requirements of ISO 8124-1:2014 specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such as shape, size, contour, spacing (e.g. rattles, small parts, sharp points and edges, and hinge-line clearances) as well as acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy (e.g. maximum kinetic energy values for non-resilient-tipped projectiles and minimum tip angles for certain ride-on toys). ISO 8124-1:2014 specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various age groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy is intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental and/or physical abilities of a child to cope with them. ISO 8124-1:2014 also requires that appropriate warnings and/or instructions for use be given on certain toys or their packaging. Due to linguistic problems which may occur in different countries, the wording of these warnings and instructions is not specified but given as general information in Annex B. It should be noted that different legal requirements exist in many countries with regard to such marking. ISO 8124-1:2014 does not purport to cover or include every conceivable potential hazard of a particular toy or toy category. Except for labelling requirements indicating the functional hazards and the age range for which the toy is intended, ISO 8124-1:2014 has no requirements for those characteristics of toys which represent an inherent and recognized hazard which is integral to the function of the toy.

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et physiques

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
16-Dec-2014
Withdrawal Date
16-Dec-2014
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
07-Mar-2018
Completion Date
07-Mar-2018
Ref Project

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ISO 8124-1:2014 - Safety of toys
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-1
Fourth edition
2014-12-15
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical
and physical properties
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
Reference number
ISO 8124-1:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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ISO 8124-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.1 Normal use ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2 Reasonably foreseeable abuse ................................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Material ......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.1 Material quality ..............................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.2 Expanding materials ..................................................................................................................................................13

4.4 Small parts ...............................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.1 For children under 36 months ..........................................................................................................................14

4.4.2 For children 36 months and over but under 72 months ............................................................14

4.5 Shape, size and strength of certain toys .........................................................................................................................14

4.5.1 Squeeze toys, rattles, fasteners, and certain other toys and components of toys .14

4.5.2 Small balls ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.3 Pompoms .............................................................................................................................................................................18

4.5.4 Pre-school play figures ............................................................................................................................................18

4.5.5 Toy pacifiers ......................................................................................................................................................................18

4.5.6 Balloons ................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.5.7 Marbles ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.5.8 Hemispheric-shaped toys ......................................................................................................................................19

4.6 Edges .............................................................................................................................................................................................................22

4.6.1 Accessible sharp edges of glass or metal .................................................................................................22

4.6.2 Functional sharp edges ...........................................................................................................................................22

4.6.3 Edges on metal toys ....................................................................................................................................................23

4.6.4 Edges on moulded toys .................. ......................................................................................................................... .23

4.6.5 Edges on exposed bolts or threaded rods ...............................................................................................23

4.7 Points ............................................................................................................................................................................................................23

4.7.1 Accessible sharp points ...........................................................................................................................................23

4.7.2 Functional sharp points ..........................................................................................................................................23

4.7.3 Wooden toys .....................................................................................................................................................................24

4.8 Projections ...............................................................................................................................................................................................24

4.8.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................24

4.8.2 Special considerations for bath toy projections.................................................................................24

4.9 Metal wires and rods ......................................................................................................................................................................24

4.10 Plastic film or plastic bags in packaging and in toys ...........................................................................................25

4.11 Cords and elastics ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

4.11.1 Cords and elastics in toys intended for children under 18 months ..................................26

4.11.2 Self-retracting pull cords in toys intended for children under 18 months .................26

4.11.3 Cords for pull toys intended for children under 36 months....................................................26

4.11.4 Cords on toy bags .........................................................................................................................................................26

4.11.5 Crib or playpen toys and mobiles ...................................................................................................................26

4.11.6 Crib gyms and similar toys ...................................................................................................................................26

4.11.7 Cords, strings and lines for flying toys .......................................................................................................26

4.12 Folding mechanisms ........................................................................................................................................................................27

4.12.1 Toy pushchairs, perambulators and similar toys ..............................................................................27

4.12.2 Other toys with folding mechanisms ...........................................................................................................28

4.12.3 Hinge-line clearance ..................................................................................................................................................28

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ISO 8124-1:2014(E)

4.13 Holes, clearances and accessibility of mechanisms .............................................................................................28

4.13.1 Circular holes in rigid materials ......................................................................................................................28

4.13.2 Accessible clearances for movable segments .......................................................................................29

4.13.3 Chains or belts in ride-on toys ..........................................................................................................................29

4.13.4 Other driving mechanisms ...................................................................................................................................30

4.13.5 Winding keys ....................................................................................................................................................................30

4.14 Springs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

4.15 Stability and overload requirements ................................................................................................................................31

4.15.1 Stability of ride-on toys and seats ..................................................................................................................31

4.15.2 Overload requirements for ride-on toys and seats .........................................................................31

4.15.3 Stability of stationary floor toys ......................................................................................................................31

4.16 Enclosures ................................................................................................................................................................................................32

4.16.1 Ventilation ..........................................................................................................................................................................32

4.16.2 Closures ................................................................................................................................................................................32

4.16.3 Toys that enclose the head ...................................................................................................................................33

4.17 Simulated protective equipment, such as helmets, hats and goggles ...................................................33

4.18 Projectile toys ......................................................................................................................................................................................33

4.18.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................33

4.18.2 Projectiles ...........................................................................................................................................................................34

4.18.3 Projectile toys with stored energy .................................................................................................................36

4.18.4 Projectile toys without stored energy ........................................................................................................38

4.19 Rotors and propellers ....................................................................................................................................................................39

4.20 Aquatic toys ............................................................................................................................................................................................40

4.21 Braking ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

4.22 Toy bicycles .............................................................................................................................................................................................40

4.22.1 Instructions for use.....................................................................................................................................................41

4.22.2 Determination of maximum saddle height ............................................................................................41

4.22.3 Braking requirements ..............................................................................................................................................41

4.23 Speed limitation of electrically driven ride-on toys .............................................................................................42

4.24 Toys containing a heat source .................................................................................................................................................42

4.25 Liquid-filled toys .................................................................................................................................................................................42

4.26 Mouth-actuated toys .......................................................................................................................................................................42

4.27 Toy roller skates, toy inline skates and toy skateboards ..................................................................................43

4.28 Percussion caps ...................................................................................................................................................................................43

4.29 Acoustic requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................43

4.30 Toy scooters ............................................................................................................................................................................................44

4.30.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

4.30.2 Warnings and instructions for use ................................................................................................................44

4.30.3 Strength ................................................................................................................................................................................44

4.30.4 Stability .................................................................................................................................................................................44

4.30.5 Adjustable and folding steering tubes and handlebars ...............................................................44

4.30.6 Braking ..................................................................................................................................................................................45

4.30.7 Wheel size ...........................................................................................................................................................................45

4.30.8 Protruding parts ............................................................................................................................................................45

4.31 Magnets and magnetic components ..................................................................................................................................45

4.31.1 Magnetic/electrical experimental sets intended for children 8 years and over ....45

4.31.2 All other toys with magnets and magnetic components ............................................................45

5 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

5.2 Small parts test ....................................................................................................................................................................................47

5.3 Test for shape and size of certain toys .............................................................................................................................48

5.4 Small balls test ......................................................................................................................................................................................49

5.5 Test for pompoms ..............................................................................................................................................................................50

5.6 Test for pre-school play figures .............................................................................................................................................50

5.7 Accessibility of a part or component ................................................................................................................................50

5.7.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................50

5.7.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................51

5.7.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................51

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ISO 8124-1:2014(E)

5.8 Sharp-edge test ....................................................................................................................................................................................52

5.8.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................52

5.8.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................52

5.8.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................53

5.9 Sharp-point test...................................................................................................................................................................................54

5.9.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................54

5.9.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................54

5.9.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................55

5.10 Determination of thickness of plastic film and sheeting .................................................................................55

5.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................55

5.10.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................55

5.10.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................55

5.11 Test for cords .........................................................................................................................................................................................56

5.11.1 Determination of cord thickness.....................................................................................................................56

5.11.2 Self-retracting pull cords .......................................................................................................................................56

5.11.3 Electric resistance of cords ..................................................................................................................................56

5.12 Stability and overload tests .......................................................................................................................................................56

5.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................56

5.12.2 Sideways stability test, feet available for stabilization ................................................................56

5.12.3 Sideways stability test, feet unavailable for stabilization ..........................................................57

5.12.4 Fore and aft stability test .......................................................................................................................................57

5.12.5 Overload test for ride-on toys and seats...................................................................................................58

5.12.6 Stability test of stationary floor toys ...........................................................................................................58

5.13 Test for closures and toy chest lids .....................................................................................................................................58

5.13.1 Closures ................................................................................................................................................................................58

5.13.2 Toy chest lids ....................................................................................................................................................................58

5.14 Impact test for toys that cover the face ...........................................................................................................................59

5.15 Kinetic energy and wall impact test...................................................................................................................................59

5.15.1 Kinetic energy of projectiles ...............................................................................................................................59

5.15.2 Wall impact test for projectiles .......................................................................................................................62

5.16 Free-wheeling facility and brake performance test .............................................................................................62

5.16.1 Determination of free-wheeling facility ....................................................................................................62

5.16.2 Brake performance for mechanically or electrically powered ride-on toys

other than toy bicycles .............................................................................................................................................63

5.16.3 Brake performance for toy bicycles ..............................................................................................................63

5.17 Determination of speed of electrically driven ride-on toys ...........................................................................63

5.18 Determination of temperature increases ......................................................................................................................64

5.19 Leakage of liquid-filled toys ......................................................................................................................................................64

5.20 Durability of mouth-actuated toys ......................................................................................................................................64

5.21 Expanding materials .......................................................................................................................................................................64

5.22 Folding or sliding mechanisms ..............................................................................................................................................65

5.22.1 Loads .......................................................................................................................................................................................65

5.22.2 Toy pushchairs and perambulators ..............................................................................................................65

5.22.3 Other toys with folding mechanisms ...........................................................................................................66

5.23 Washable toys .......................................................................................................................................................................................66

5.24 Reasonably foreseeable abuse tests ..................................................................................................................................66

5.24.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................66

5.24.2 Drop test ...............................................................................................................................................................................67

5.24.3 Tip-over test for large and bulky toys.........................................................................................................67

5.24.4 Dynamic strength test for wheeled ride-on toys other than toy scooters ...................67

5.24.5 Torque test .........................................................................................................................................................................67

5.24.6 Tension test .......................................................................................................................................................................68

5.24.7 Compression test ..........................................................................................................................................................71

5.24.8 Flexure test ........................................................................................................................................................................71

5.25 Determination of sound pressur
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