Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Metadata for learning resources

ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015 provides data elements for the description of MLR records: sets of data elements describing a learning resource [and resources directly related to that learning resource, e.g. persons (authors, contributors), annotations, learning activities, metadata records, etc.]. It can also be used to keep track of the record editing process including global metadata author identification, last record update, and application profile used for the description of a learning resource. These elements can later be combined with other descriptive elements from other parts of ISO/IEC 19788 or other standards to provide the description of a learning resource and of related entities needed for that description. ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015 enables the storage of learning resource description in the traditional database approach and the exchange of descriptions through harvesting mechanisms.

Technologie de l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation et formation -- Métadonnées pour ressources d'apprentissage

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Published
Publication Date
02-Nov-2015
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
08-Mar-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 19788-8
First edition
2015-11-01
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Metadata
for learning resources —
Part 8:
Data elements for MLR records
Technologie de l’information — Apprentissage, éducation et
formation — Métadonnées pour ressources d’apprentissage —
Partie 8: Éléments de données pour les enregistrements MLR
Reference number
ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
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ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Scope of MLR multipart standard ........................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Scope of this part of ISO/IEC 19788 ..................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Data element specifications ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Has Record (DES0100) .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Record Language (DES0200) ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Source Record ID (DES0300)...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Source Record Schema (DES0400) ........................................................................................................................................ 4

5.5 Previous Version (DES0500) ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Has Mutable Record (DES0600) .............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.7 Record Identifier (DES0700) ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Record Last Update (DES0800) ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.9 Record Repository (DES0900) .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.10 Compliant To (DES1000) ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.11 Contribution (DES001100) .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.12 Contribution Description (DES1200) .................................................................................................................................. 7

5.13 Contribution Date (DES1300) .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.14 Contributed By (DES1400) ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.15 Application Profile ID (DES1500) ........................................................................................................................................... 9

5.16 Snapshot (DES1600) .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Resource classes ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Resource classes from ISO/IEC 19788-1 and other parts ................................................................................. 9

6.2 Resource classes defined in this part of ISO/IEC 19788 ..................................................................................10

6.2.1 Resource class “MLR Record” ............................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Resource class “Mutable MLR Record” ....................................................................................................10

6.2.3 Resource class “Contribution” .........................................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Resource class “Application Profile” .........................................................................................................10

7 Predefined rule sets .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Predefined rule sets from ISO/IEC 19788‑1 and other parts ......................................................................10

7.2 Rule sets defined in this part of ISO/IEC 19788 .....................................................................................................11

8 Predefined Data Element Group Specifications (DEGS) ...........................................................................................11

Annex A (normative) MLR vocabularies ........................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (normative) Language equivalents: English, French, and Russian .............................................................13

Annex C (normative) XML names: English, French, and Russian .........................................................................................15

Annex D (normative) Data Element Specification (DES) diagram ......................................................................................17

Annex E (normative) Generic Data Element Specifications (DESs) and Resource Classes (RCs) .......18

Annex F (informative) Crosswalk to MLR .....................................................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword ‑ Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

ISO/IEC 19788 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology —

Learning, education and training — Metadata for learning resources:
— Part 1: Framework
— Part 2: Dublin Core elements
— Part 3: Basic application profile
— Part 4: Technical elements
— Part 5: Educational elements
— Part 7: Bindings
— Part 8: Data elements for MLR records
— Part 9: Data elements for Persons
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 11: Migration from the LOM to MLR
iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Introduction

The primary purpose of this part of ISO/IEC 19788 is to facilitate (1) the description of a learning

resource by providing a standards‑based approach to the identification and specification of the

metadata elements required to describe a learning resource, e.g. as a metadata learning resource

(MLR) record, and (2) the search, discovery, acquisition, evaluation, and use of learning resources, for

example, by learners, instructors, or automated software processes.

This International Standard is modularly structured with all its parts corresponding to a specified set

of user requirements for the identification and specification of metadata elements having a particular

focus and intended use in the description of a learning resource. This includes categories of metadata

elements focused on technical perspectives, pedagogical aspects, availability and intellectual property

aspects, bindings, etc.

This part of ISO/IEC 19788 uses the data element specification (DES) model and framework provided in

ISO/IEC 19788‑1 to specify data elements for the description of MLR records.

An MLR record is defined as a “specified set of data elements describing a learning resource and

resources directly related to that learning resource” (see ISO/IEC 19788‑1:2011, 3.24).

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Metadata for learning resources —
Part 8:
Data elements for MLR records
1 Scope
1.1 Scope of MLR multipart standard

The primary purpose of this International Standard is to specify metadata elements and their attributes

for the description of learning resources. This includes the rules governing the identification of data

elements and the specification of their attributes.

This International Standard provides data elements for the description of learning resources and

resources directly related to learning resources.

This International Standard provides principles, rules, and structures for the specification of the

description of a learning resource. It also identifies and specifies the attributes of a data element, as

well as the rules governing their use. The key principles stated in ISO/IEC 19788‑1 are informed by a

user requirements‑driven context with the aim of supporting multilingual and cultural adaptability

requirements from a global perspective.

ISO/IEC 19788‑1 is information technology neutral and defines a set of common approaches, i.e.

methodologies and constructs, which apply to the development of the subsequent parts of ISO/IEC 19788.

1.2 Scope of this part of ISO/IEC 19788

This part of ISO/IEC 19788 provides data elements for the description of MLR records: sets of data

elements describing a learning resource [and resources directly related to that learning resource, e.g.

persons (authors, contributors), annotations, learning activities, metadata records, etc.]. It can also be

used to keep track of the record editing process including global metadata author identification, last

record update, and application profile used for the description of a learning resource.

These elements can later be combined with other descriptive elements from other parts of ISO/IEC 19788

or other standards to provide the description of a learning resource and of related entities needed for

that description.

This part of ISO/IEC 19788 enables the storage of learning resource description in the traditional

database approach and the exchange of descriptions through harvesting mechanisms .

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19788-1, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for learning

resources — Part 1: Framework

1) RDA (Resource Description and Access), OAI PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting),

etc.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19788-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
internationalized resource identifier
IRI

sequence of characters from the Universal Character Set (see ISO 10646) constructed according to the

syntax rules provided in RFC 3987

Note 1 to entry: IRIs are generalization of URIs (ISO/IEC 19788‑1:2011, 3.36). While URIs are sequence of

characters chosen from a limited subset of US‑ASCII, IRIs may contain characters from the Universal Character

Set such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or Cyrillic characters.

Note 2 to entry: A mapping from IRIs to URIs is defined in RFC 3987, making it possible to use IRIs instead of

URIs, where appropriate, to identify resources.

[SOURCE: Adapted from Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs). IETF RFC 3987. Available from:

http://tools.ietf.org/pdf/rfc3987.pdf]
3.2
mutable MLR record

container for an MLR record (ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.24) describing a given learning resource

(ISO/IEC 19788‑1:2011, 3.20) and resources directly related to that learning resource

Note 1 to entry: An MLR record (ISO/IEC 19788‑1:2011, 3.24) is non‑mutable. Addition or deletion of data

elements (ISO/IEC 19788‑1:2011, 3.11) to the data element set or modification of any data element belonging to

the data element set makes it a different MLR record.

Note 2 to entry: Unlike the situation for an MLR record, the state (content) of a mutable MLR record can change

over time while still describing a given learning resource and resources related to it.

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
DES Data Element Specification
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
IRI Internationalized Resource Identifier
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JSON JavaScript Object Notation
MLR Metadata for Learning Resource
PRS Predefined Rule Set
OAI PMH Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
RC Resource Class
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
UCS Universal Character Set
2 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
UTF UCS Transformation Format
XML Extensible Markup Language
5 Data element specifications
5.1 Has Record (DES0100)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0100
Data element specification attributes
Property name has record
Definition an MLR Record instance describing the learning resource
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Learning Resource
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0002)
Codomain MLR Record (ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
There may be more than one MLR record describing a given learning
Note(s)
resource.
5.2 Record Language (DES0200)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0200
Data element specification attributes
Property name record language
default language code for the linguistic literal values in the MLR Record
Definition
instance
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Codomain literal
Content value rules RS_DES0200
Refines —
1) eng
Example(s) 2) fra
3) ike
Note(s) —
eng: English; fra: French; ike: Eastern Canadian Inuktitut.
ID: RS_DES0200
Rule_ID Rule statement/Example(s) & Note(s)
01 Language code from ISO 639-3.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
5.3 Source Record ID (DES0300)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0300
Data element specification attributes
Property name source record ID
when an MLR record is the result of a crosswalk mapping, identification
Definition
of the original record
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
Example(s) —
Note(s) —
5.4 Source Record Schema (DES0400)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0400
Data element specification attributes
Property name source record schema
when an MLR record is the result of a crosswalk mapping, metadata
Definition
schema of the original record
Linguistic indicator linguistic
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
1) DC (English)
2) LOMFR (French)
Example(s)
3) Normetic (French)
4) KEM2007 (English)
Note(s) —
5.5 Previous Version (DES0500)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0500
Data element specification attributes
Property name previous version
Definition previous version of the MLR record
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Data element specification
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
MLR Record
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
The previous version of an MLR record describing a given learning resource
and related resources is distinct from the MLR record under consideration.
Note(s) Using the property ”previous version”, one can keep track of the
sequence of modifications to the description of a learning resource and
related resources.
5.6 Has Mutable Record (DES0600)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0600
Data element specification attributes
Property name has mutable record
Definition a Mutable MLR Record instance describing the learning resource
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Learning Resource
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0002)
Mutable MLR Record
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
There may be more than one mutable MLR record describing a given
Note(s)
learning resource.
5.7 Record Identifier (DES0700)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0700
Data element specification attributes
Property name record identifier
Definition identifier for the instance of the Mutable MLR Record resource class
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Mutable MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002)
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
Example(s) Canal-U_Ocms/8670
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Data element specification
If the mutable MLR records are kept in a database, then the natural or
Note(s)
surrogate database record key is often used as record identifier.
5.8 Record Last Update (DES0800)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0800
Data element specification attributes
Property name record last update
date/time of the most recent modification to the content of the Mutable
Definition
MLR Record instance
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Mutable MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002)
Codomain literal
DATE_&_TIME
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0003)
Refines —
Example(s) 1999-04-25T10:25Z
1) Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) should be used: either directly or by
indicating a time offset from UTC.
Note(s)
2) If the MLR records are kept in a database, then this information may be
used when harvesting records, e.g. with OAI-PMH compliant tools.
5.9 Record Repository (DES0900)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES0900
Data element specification attributes
Property name record repository
Definition a repository the Mutable MLR Record instance belongs to
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Mutable MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002)
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
Example(s) Le monde en image — http://www.ccdm.qc.ca/monde/
Note(s) —
6 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
5.10 Compliant To (DES1000)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1000
Data element specification attributes
Property name compliant to
application profile with which the MLR Record instance under
Definition
consideration is conformant
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Application Profile
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0004)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
1) There may be more than one such application profile for a given MLR
record instance.
Note(s)
2) Refines http://purl.org/dc/terms/conformsTo
5.11 Contribution (DES001100)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1100
Data element specification attributes
Property name contribution

Definition contribution (creation, update, validation…) to the MLR Record instance

Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Contribution
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0003)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
Note(s) —
5.12 Contribution Description (DES1200)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1200
Data element specification attributes
Property name contribution description
Definition textual description of the contribution
Linguistic indicator linguistic
Contribution
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8::2015:RC0003)
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
Data element specification
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
Example(s) —
Refines http://purl.org/dc/terms/description and
Note(s)
http://purl.org/dc/element/1.1/description
5.13 Contribution Date (DES1300)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1300
Data element specification attributes
Property name contribution date
Definition date of the contribution
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Contribution
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0003)
Codomain literal
DATE
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0002)
Refines —
Example(s) 2012-06-23
Refines http://purl.org/dc/terms/date and
Note(s)
http://purl.org/dc/element/1.1/date
5.14 Contributed By (DES1400)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1400
Data element specification attributes
Property name contributed by

Definition natural person or organization contributing to the Contribution instance

Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Contribution
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0003)
Person
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0003)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
Note(s) —
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
5.15 Application Profile ID (DES1500)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1500
Data element specification attributes
Property name application profile ID
Definition identifier for the application profile
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Application Profile
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0004)
Codomain literal
MLR STRING
Content value rules
(ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001)
Refines —
1) ISO/IEC 19788-3:2011, 2) IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 LOM
Example(s)
3) Normetic 1.2
Note(s) —
5.16 Snapshot (DES1600)
Data element specification
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::DES1600
Data element specification attributes
Property name snapshot
content of the Mutable MLR Record instance expressed as an MLR record
Definition
instance
Linguistic indicator non-linguistic
Mutable MLR Record
Domain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002)
MLR Record
Codomain
(ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001)
Content value rules N/A
Refines —
Example(s) —
Note(s) —
6 Resource classes
6.1 Resource classes from ISO/IEC 19788-1 and other parts

For the purposes of this part of ISO/IEC 19788, the following resource classes from ISO/IEC 19788‑1 apply:

— ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0002 (Learning Resource);
— ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0003 (Person).
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ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015(E)
6.2 Resource classes defined in this part of ISO/IEC 19788
6.2.1 Resource class “MLR Record”
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0001
Name MLR Record
An MLR Record instance is a set of data elements describing a
Definition
learning resource.
ISO_IEC_19788-1:0999::RC0004 (Information Resource)
SubclassOf
(see Annex E)
The state (content) of an MRL Record instance does not change
Note
over time.
6.2.2 Resource class “Mutable MLR Record”
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0002
Name Mutable MLR Record
A Mutable MLR Record instance is a container for a set of data
Definition
elements describing a learning resource.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0001 (Resource)
A Mutable MRL Record instance is a resource whose state
Note
(content) can change over time.
6.2.3 Resource class “Contribution”
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0003
Name Contribution
A Contribution instance is an activity realized by a person or
Definition
thing in bringing about a result or helping something to happen.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0001 (Resource)
Note —
6.2.4 Resource class “Application Profile”
Identifier ISO_IEC_19788-8:2015::RC0004
Name Application profile
An Application Profile instance is an application profile
Definition
specification.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::RC0001 (Resource)
Note —
7 Predefined rule sets
7.1 Predefined rule sets from ISO/IEC 19788‑1 and other parts

For the purposes of this part of ISO/IEC 19788, the following predefined rule sets from

ISO/IEC 19788‑1 apply:
— ISO_IEC_19788-1:2011::PRS0001 (MLR STRING);
...

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