Road vehicles -- Child seat presence and orientation detection system (CPOD)

This document specifies a child seat presence detection system that enables child seats placed on any passenger seats to be automatically detected where a child is at risk from an active airbag. The system provides the option of using additional information about the orientation of the child seat. This document specifies the minimum functional requirements in order to ensure compatibility between child seat presence and orientation detection system (CPOD) child seats and CPOD passenger seats. Compatibility measurements and labelling requirements complement the obligatory specifications of this document. This document also provides design recommendations which are not compulsory when claiming compliance with ISO/TS 22239. However, these recommendations, based on experience of proven designs, provide useful guidance to designers to avoid erroneous designs and thus, enable designers to reduce time and cost of CPOD development. The tell-tale "child seat detected" required for a CPOD vehicle, the specific labelling required for a CPOD vehicle and CPOD child seat and the detailed information about the CPOD system functionality required for owner's manuals of CPOD vehicles and CPOD child seats will mitigate considerably the misuse probability. The document does not provide a failsafe physical mechanism that prevents the installation of non-CPOD child seats in a CPOD vehicle or vice versa. ISO/TS 22239 applies only to child restraint systems in which the child is orientated in the forward or rearward driving direction. NOTE 1 Throughout this document, the term "child seat" is used as an abbreviation of "CPOD child seat". NOTE 2 Throughout this document, the term "passenger seat" is used as an abbreviation of "CPOD-equipped passenger seat".

Véhicules routiers -- Système de détection de la présence d'un siège enfant et de son orientation (CPOD)

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Publication Date
22-May-2018
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9020 - International Standard under periodical review
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 22239-1
Second edition
2018-05
Road vehicles — Child seat presence
and orientation detection system
(CPOD) —
Part 1:
Specifications and test methods
Véhicules routiers — Système de détection de la présence d'un siège
enfant et de son orientation (CPOD) —
Partie 1: Spécifications et méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Compatibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 System functionality ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Design recommendations ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Installation of CPOD resonators into the CRS ............................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Installation of CPOD sensors into passenger seats ...............................................................................................11

8 Design requirements .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Requirements for CPOD child seats ...................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Requirements for CPOD passenger seats ......................................................................................................................13

8.2.1 Passenger seat design ........................................................................................................................................... ....13

8.2.2 CPOD sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2.3 Operating range for CPOD passenger seats ...........................................................................................13

9 Compatibility measurements ...............................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 General specification ......................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Compatibility test parameters range ................................................................................................................................14

9.3 Adjustment of backrest inclination ....................................................................................................................................14

9.3.1 Adjustment of CTB backrest angle, α .........................................................................................................14

9.3.2 Adjustment of passenger seat backrest angle, φ .............................................................................15

9.4 Compatibility measurements for the CRS .....................................................................................................................16

9.4.1 General compatibility test description ......................................................................................................16

9.4.2 Compatibility test (Part 1) ....................................................................................................................................17

9.4.3 Compatibility test (Part 2) ....................................................................................................................................19

9.4.4 CRS functional test ......................................................................................................................................................21

9.5 Compatibility measurements for passenger seats ................................................................................................22

9.5.1 General test description .........................................................................................................................................22

9.5.2 Determination of passenger-seat-specific detection/failsafe area ...................................26

9.5.3 Compatibility test procedure for passenger seats ...........................................................................29

9.5.4 Test result interpretation ......................................................................................................................................30

10 Labelling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex A (normative) Determination of the passenger seat reference point (CRP) .........................................32

Annex B (normative) Geometrical descriptions ....................................................................................................................................34

Annex C (normative) Detailed specification of the CPOD system functionality ...................................................38

Annex D (normative) CPOD child seat compatibility test bench ..........................................................................................49

Annex E (normative) CPOD passenger seat compatibility test device............................................................................61

Annex F (normative) Additional definitions .............................................................................................................................................65

Annex G (normative) Magnetic coupling factor measurement procedure ................................................................70

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................76

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 36,

Safety and impact testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 22239-1:2009), which has been

technically revised to take into account the development in technology since the first edition was

published.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TS 22239 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Introduction

This document specifies a detection system for the automatic recognition of child seat presence and

orientation detection system (CPOD) child seats placed on CPOD passenger seats.

The purpose of this detection system is to improve the overall safety performance of passenger

restraint systems, particularly by reducing the risk of an airbag being deployed against a child seat

placed on a passenger seat.

The CPOD system is not intended to encourage the placing of children on the front passenger seats

of cars. However, in view of the fact that the following scenarios do occur in real life, children can be

placed on front passenger seats in these cases:
— in 2-seater vehicles, which have no rear seats;
— when there are more than 2 or 3 children in one vehicle;
— when back seats are folded down for the transport of cargo;

— when the installation of a rearward-facing child restraint system (CRS) and the placing of the child

in the CRS on the rear seats is very difficult or impossible, e.g. in 2-door vehicles;

— when the driver wants to see the baby and have easy access to it.

There might be benefit to be gained by encouraging the use of airbags on rear seats.

For the cases cited above, CPOD technology offers a reliable automatic solution for the protection of

children against any possible risk caused by non-deactivated airbags.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Road vehicles — Child seat presence and orientation
detection system (CPOD) —
Part 1:
Specifications and test methods
1 Scope

This document specifies a child seat presence detection system that enables child seats placed on any

passenger seats to be automatically detected where a child is at risk from an active airbag. The system

provides the option of using additional information about the orientation of the child seat.

This document specifies the minimum functional requirements in order to ensure compatibility between

child seat presence and orientation detection system (CPOD) child seats and CPOD passenger seats.

Compatibility measurements and labelling requirements complement the obligatory specifications of

this document.

This document also provides design recommendations which are not compulsory when claiming

compliance with ISO/TS 22239. However, these recommendations, based on experience of proven

designs, provide useful guidance to designers to avoid erroneous designs and thus, enable designers to

reduce time and cost of CPOD development.

The tell-tale “child seat detected” required for a CPOD vehicle, the specific labelling required for a

CPOD vehicle and CPOD child seat and the detailed information about the CPOD system functionality

required for owner's manuals of CPOD vehicles and CPOD child seats will mitigate considerably the

misuse probability. The document does not provide a failsafe physical mechanism that prevents the

installation of non-CPOD child seats in a CPOD vehicle or vice versa.

ISO/TS 22239 applies only to child restraint systems in which the child is orientated in the forward or

rearward driving direction.

NOTE 1 Throughout this document, the term “child seat” is used as an abbreviation of “CPOD child seat”.

NOTE 2 Throughout this document, the term “passenger seat” is used as an abbreviation of “CPOD-equipped

passenger seat”.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6549:1999, Road vehicles — Procedure for H- and R-point determination

ISO/TS 22239-2:2018, Road vehicles — Child seat presence and orientation detection system (CPOD) —

Part 2: Resonator specification

ISO/TS 22239-3:2017, Road vehicles — Child seat presence and orientation detection system (CPOD) —

Part 3: Labelling
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
child seat presence and orientation detection system
CPOD

radio frequency identification (RFID) system delivering information on the presence, orientation and

type of a child seat
3.2
passenger seat reference point
CRP

point located on the centre line of the passenger seat, determined by the procedure in Annex A

3.3
child seat reference point
CRC

point identical to the intersection of the centre plane of the child restraint system and the CR axis

Note 1 to entry: The CR axis is shown in Figure D.7.
3.4
resonator reference point
RRP
point located in the geometrical centre of the base surface of the resonator
3.5
resonator pair reference point
RPRP
point located in the centre between two resonator reference points (3.4)
3.6
reference coordinate system

Cartesian coordinate system associated with the passenger seat and the compatibility test bench,

having its origin in the passenger seat reference point (3.2), as shown in Figure B.4

3.7
CPOD detection area

three-dimensional area above the passenger seat cushion, where all relevant child seat information

needed to adapt the airbag deployment are transmitted to the restraint control module, provided that

the resonator pair reference point (3.5) is located within this area
3.8
CPOD failsafe area

three-dimensional area above the passenger seat cushion, where either all relevant child seat

information needed to adapt the airbag deployment or information indicating an incorrect positioning

of the child seat is transmitted to the restraint control module, provided that the resonator pair reference

point (3.5) is located within this area
3.9
ISOFIX

system for the connection of child restraint systems to vehicles which has two rigid anchorages in a

vehicle seating position located near the seat bight, corresponding rigid attachments on the child

restraint system, and a means to limit the pitch rotation of the CRS
[SOURCE: ISO 13216-1:1999, 3.6]
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
CPOD child seat presence and orientation detection system
CRC child seat reference point
CRP passenger seat reference point
CRS child restraint system
CTB compatibility test bench
ECU electronic control unit
FFCS forward facing child sea
PSCTD passenger seat compatibility test device

RCM restraint control module (electronic unit controlling deployment of supplemental restraints)

RFCS rearward facing child seat
RFID radio frequency identification
RMI restraint system malfunction indicator (vehicle-manufacturer-specific)
RPRP resonator pair reference point
RRP resonator reference point
5 Principle
5.1 General

CPOD is an RFID sensing system which is capable of determining the presence and orientation of a CRS

placed on a passenger seat. Depending on the positioning of the CRS, different types of information are

transmitted to the RCM.

If the CRS is correctly placed on the passenger seat such that its RPRP is located within the CPOD

detection area (see 3.7), the CRS is detected by the system.

If the CRS is placed outside of the CPOD detection area but within the CPOD failsafe area (see 3.8), the

system either detects the CRS or recognizes an incorrect CRS positioning.

The gathered information is sent to the central RCM, which enables the adaptation of the airbag

deployment specific to the occupancy situation.
NOTE The specifications of this document are in compliance with Reference [7].
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Key
1 CPOD sensor consisting of:
one transmitting antenna
two receiving antennas
2 CPOD resonators
3 CPOD child seat
4 passenger seat
5 CPOD electronics
6 in-vehicle information
Figure 1 — CPOD system topology
5.2 Compatibility

The compatibility of the system is given if the CPOD component compatibility checks have been passed.

These compatibility checks consist of the following parts:
a) CRS compatibility check to verify the performance of the CRS design;

b) resonator compatibility check to verify the electrical performance of the resonators;

c) passenger seat compatibility check to verify the performance of passenger seat and CPOD

sensor design.

The flow chart in Figure 2 shows how these compatibility checks fit together to assure the CPOD

compatibility of the entire system.
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Figure 2 — Main steps for obtaining the CPOD compatibility of the entire system
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
6 System functionality

In order to achieve its performance and, in addition, to provide failsafe behaviour in case of an error,

the following features are implemented in the CPOD system:

— generation of a sinusoidal signal in the 130 kHz band for contact-less energy and information

transmission;

— adaptation of the transmitting signal to different environmental conditions by variation of frequency

and amplitude;
— demodulation of the signal phase modulated by the CRS resonators;

— monitoring of the power and demodulation circuits of the system via integrated self-diagnosis;

— interface to RCM for transmission of CPOD data;

— monitoring of transmitting and receiving antennas for disconnections and short circuits;

— detection of the presence of CRS which is compliant with this document;

— detection of the orientation of CRS which is compliant with this document in vehicles where the

orientation of the CRS impacts the airbag deployment.
Examples of CRS orientations are given in Figures 3 to 5.

Compliance with the detailed system functionality specifications of Annex C shall be provided.

Figure 3 — CRS in forward facing position
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Figure 4 — CRS in rearward facing position
Figure 5 — Example of CRS wrongly positioned

Depending on the positioning of the CRS, the CPOD system delivers the information to the RCM as

shown in Figure 6, provided that the RPRP is located within the CPOD detection area.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Figure 6 — Information to be submitted to the RCM
7 Design recommendations
7.1 General

In order to maximize the chance of passing the compatibility measurements successfully, the following

recommendations should be respected during the design of CRSs and passenger seats fitted with CPOD.

7.2 Installation of CPOD resonators into the CRS

7.2.1 Electroconductive materials might have an influence on the resonator detection in the CRS.

Therefore, the distance between large electroconductive materials and the resonators in the CRS should

be maximized during the design of the CRS.

The detection capability of the system is very sensitive to electroconductive materials above the

resonator pair or directly between the resonator pair and the CPOD passenger seat. Possible problems

can be avoided by replacing these materials by non-electroconductive materials, as shown in Figure 8.

7.2.2 Closed electroconductive loops as indicated by Figure 7 might have an influence on the resonator

detection in the CRS. Therefore, the distance between closed electroconductive loops and the resonators

in the CRS should be maximized during the design of the CRS.

Closed electroconductive loops, which surround the volume above or below the resonator pair, should

be avoided. This can be achieved by cutting closed loops using non-electroconductive materials, as

shown in Figure 8.

7.2.3 The distance between the bottom of the resonators inside the CRS and the surface of the CRS

compatibility test bench should not exceed 30 mm when the CRS is placed correctly on the CTB in

accordance with Annex D (see Figure 9). In addition, in that position, the bottom of the resonator should

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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)

be parallel with the corresponding seat surface below it. An inclination of ±3° should not be exceeded

(see Figure 9).
Key
1 electro-conductive loop
2 electro-conductive surface
Figure 7 — Closed electro-conductive loop or surface close to the resonators
Key
1 non-electro-conductive

Figure 8 — Closed conducting loop opened using a non-electro-conductive connection

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
d, 10 mm < d < 30 mm.
Figure 9 — Distance between the resonator reference point and CTB surface

7.2.4 The distance between the CRC and RPRP (see Figure 10) should be chosen in such a way that the

resonator pair reference point remains within the CRS detection area when varying the CRS compatibility

test bench adjustments in accordance with 9.4.2 and 9.4.3. A value as close as possible to 200 mm is

recommended for this distance.
10 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Forward facing CRS b) Rearward facing CRS
Key
1 left resonator
2 right resonator
Figure 10 — Assembly of resonators in a CRS
7.3 Installation of CPOD sensors into passenger seats
With respect to the installation of CPOD sensors into passenger seats:

— it is recommended to position the CPOD sensors directly under the seat cover instead of foaming them;

— the maximum distance between the CPOD sensor and surface of the seat cover should not exceed

20 mm;
— the seat area should be designed to be as flat as possible (see A.2, Note);

— for non-adjustable seat cushions, the distance between the CPOD sensor and the passenger’s seat

metal shell should be maximized;

— the distance between the seat’s CRP and the centre of the CPOD sensor should be as close as possible

to 200 mm, as indicated by Figure 11;

— during CPOD sensor design, account should be taken of any possible seat adjustment and/or feature

that could affect the performance of the system; in order to improve the detection performance of a

CRS, the two receiving antennas should overlap (see Figure 11).
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 centre of CPOD sensor
2 CPOD sensor consisting of:
one transmitting antenna
two receiving antennas
Figure 11 — Assembly of CPOD antennas into a passenger seat
8 Design requirements
8.1 Requirements for CPOD child seats

8.1.1 Only resonators that are CPOD-compatible in accordance with ISO/TS 22239-2:2018 shall be used.

8.1.2 The CRS shall be equipped with two CPOD resonators.

8.1.3 Easy removal of the resonators without special tools shall be avoided by the CRS design.

8.1.4 The distance between both resonator reference points shall be 140 mm ± 2 mm, as indicated in

Figure B.1.

8.1.5 The resonator pair shall be positioned symmetrically in the CRS in accordance with Figure 10,

such that the right resonator is assembled into the CRS right side and the left resonator in the CRS left

side (CRS left and right side referenced on the child’s line of sight).

— Exception for CRS type 4 (see ISO/TS 22239-2:2018, Table 2): The resonators shall be assembled

symmetrically in the CRS such that, if the CRS is mounted on the passenger seat, the left resonator is

positioned above the left side and the right resonator is placed above the right side of the passenger

seat (passenger seat’s left and right side referenced on the driving direction).
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ISO/TS 22239-1:2018(E)

— For all CRS types: The resonator pair reference point shall be part of the x-z plane of the passenger

seat if the CRS is mounted correctly on the passenger seat.
8.2 Requirements for CPOD passenger seats
8.2.1 Passenger seat design

Passenger seats shall be designed to allow the installation of the fixture (Gabarit) in accordance with

Annex A.
8.2.2 CPOD sensor

CPOD passenger seats shall be equipped with a CPOD sensor consisting of one transmitting and two

receiving antennas. The CPOD sensor shall meet the requirements defined in Annex C. In addition, it

shall meet the manufacturer's seat and electronic requirements.

It shall be assured that the CPOD sensor maintains its function during the entire life cycle, e.g. position of

the antennas in the seat cushion, environmental stability, as specified by the seat/vehicle manufacturer.

8.2.3 Operating range for CPOD passenger seats

The CPOD system shall meet its functionality in accordance with Clause 6 within the limits specified in

Table 1.
Table 1 — CPOD operating range
Parameter Min. Max.
Operating temperature
T −35 85
Operating voltage (12 V power net)
V 10 16
OP,12
Operating voltage (24 V power net)
V 20 32
OP, 24
9 Compatibility measurements
9.1 General specification

In order to ensure the performance of the CPOD system, the CRS manufacturers and the vehicle

manufacturers shall perform compatibility measurements for introducing new CRS respectively new

CPOD passenger seats. By means of these compatibility measurement procedures, it is ensured that all

released CRS and all released CPOD passenger seats feature CPOD performance, which is characterized

as described below.
a) If the CRS is placed on th
...

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