Road vehicles -- Test contaminants for filter evaluation

ISO 12103-1:2016 defines particle size distribution and chemical content limits involving four grades of test dust made from Arizona desert sand.

Véhicules routiers -- Poussière pour l'essai des filtres

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Publication Date
07-Mar-2016
Current Stage
9060 - Close of review
Start Date
05-Jun-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12103-1
Second edition
2016-03-01
Road vehicles — Test contaminants for
filter evaluation —
Part 1:
Arizona test dust
Véhicules routiers — Poussière pour l’essai des filtres —
Partie 1: Poussière d’essai d’Arizona
Reference number
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Test dust description ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Test dust designation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Particle size distribution ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Chemical composition ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Typical chemical content of ISO specified Arizona test dusts ........................................................................ 2

5.2 Chemical analysis methodology — X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) ................................................ 2

Annex A (normative) Analysis equipment and operating procedure ................................................................................ 3

Annex B (informative) History of Arizona test dust .............................................................................................................................. 7

Annex C (informative) Handling and preparation .................................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12103-1:1997), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 12103 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Test contaminants for

filter evaluation:
— Part 1: Arizona test dust
— Part 2: Aluminium oxide test dust
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 3: Soot aerosol
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Introduction

This part of 12103 specifies four grades of test dusts made from Arizona desert sand composed of

naturally occurring compounds which motor vehicles are commonly subjected to. These test dusts

are used to determine performance of filtration systems. Due to the abrasive characteristics of these

materials, they have also been used in wear studies involving bearings, internal combustion engines

and fuel injection systems, seals, fan blades, windshield wipers, etc.

This part of ISO 12103 specifies particle size distribution of four grades of test dust by volume percent

as opposed to number characterization.

Dusts complying with volume distribution specified in this part of ISO 12103 are not appropriate for

calibration of particle counters. For this purpose, refer to ISO 11171.

This is an Arizona Test Dust standard, not other region document. Other dusts and documents can be

brought forward to the committee to be developed into a standard.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Road vehicles — Test contaminants for filter evaluation —
Part 1:
Arizona test dust
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12103 defines particle size distribution and chemical content limits involving four

grades of test dust made from Arizona desert sand.
2 Test dust description

ISO test dusts according to this part of ISO 12103 are manufactured from Arizona desert sand. Arizona

desert sand is a naturally occurring contaminant consisting primarily of silicon dioxide with smaller

amounts of other compounds. It is collected from the Salt River area of Arizona desert and sized to

specific particle size.

Arizona desert sand has also been referred to as Arizona road dust, Arizona test dust, Arizona silica, AC

fine or coarse test dust, and SAE fine or coarse test dust.

Bulk density of ISO test dusts made from Arizona sand varies with particle size (see Table 1).

Table 1 — Bulk density
Approximate bulk
Category density, kg/m
ISO ultrafine 500
ISO fine 900
ISO medium 1 025
ISO coarse 1 200
3 Test dust designation
Arizona test dusts are available in four standard grades designated as follows:
— ISO 12103-1, A.1 ultrafine test dust;
— ISO 12103-1, A.2 fine test dust;
— ISO 12103-1, A.3 medium test dust;
— ISO 12103-1, A.4 coarse test dust.
4 Particle size distribution

Particle size distribution is determined using a light scattering particle size analyser, as referenced in

ISO 13320.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)

Table 2 specifies cumulative volume particle size limits for ISO test dusts made from Arizona desert

sand, when determined using a Microtrac S3500™ particle size analyser.

When the different type analyser is employed by a test laboratory, the laboratory should generate

suitable correlation data between the analyser by which these powders are supplied to conform

[Microtrac analyser] and by the analyser adopted by the test laboratory.
Table 2 — Particle size distributions (volume % less than)
Size, µm A1 ultrafine A2 fine A3 medium A4 coarse
352,00 — — — 100,0
248,90 — — 100,0 99,0 – 100,0
176,00 — 100,0 99,0 – 100,0 97,2 – 98,2
124,50 — 99,0 – 100,0 97,2 – 98,6 93,0 – 94,0
88,00 — 97,9 – 98,9 94,7 – 96,0 85,0 – 86,5
44,00 — 89,5 – 91,5 82,0 – 83,5 58,0 – 60,0
22,00 100,0 73,5 – 76,0 62,5 – 64,5 36,0 – 38,5
11,00 95,5 – 97,5 57,0 – 59,5 42,3 – 43,6 21,0 – 23,0
5,50 65,0 – 69,0 39,5 – 42,5 22,1 – 23,2 11,5 – 12,5
2,75 23,0 – 27,0 21,3 – 23,3 10,3 – 11,1 5,5 – 6,3
1,38 7,0 – 10,0 8,0 – 9,5 3,8 – 4,4 1,8 – 2,1
0,97 3,0 – 5,0 4,5 – 5,5 2,0 – 2,4 0,74 – 0,83

NOTE Data shown per Table 2 was determined using the particle size analysis instrument indicated in normative Annex A.

Use of any other particle size analysis equipment will obtain different results.
5 Chemical composition
5.1 Typical chemical content of ISO specified Arizona test dusts
See Table 3.
Table 3 — Chemical content
Element Percentage of mass
Silicon 69,0 – 77,0
Aluminium 8,0 – 14,0
Iron 4,0 – 7,0
Potassium 2,0 – 5,0
Calcium 2,5 – 5,5
Sodium 1,0 – 4,0
Magnesium 1,0 – 2,0
Titanium 0,0 – 1,0
5.2 Chemical analysis methodology — X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

Chemical analysis is performed using an X-ray fluorescence analyser per ASTM C114-15.

1) Microtrac and Microtrac S3500 are trademarks. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Analysis equipment and operating procedure
A.1 Particle size analyser
A.1.1 General

Particle size data of ISO specified Arizona test dusts as shown in Table 2, were determined using a

Microtrac Model S3500 light scattering type analyser. Use of any other particle size analysis

equipment will obtain different results. Other particle size analysis instruments may be acceptable

for analysis of test dust products specified in ISO 12103-1, if suitability and correlation is determined

between the Microtrac S3500 and the other analyser. Use of particle size analysis instruments other

than the Microtrac S3500 will require a modified particle size analysis procedure.

The Microtrac Model S3500 employs use of three light scattering lasers that are combined to produce

the resulting particle size distribution data. A tri-laser system uses precise angular measurement of

scattered light through a full 180° angular range with three lasers and two detector arrays. Analysis of

scattered light to determine particle size employs a Mie based unified angular scattering theory with a

dynamic range of 0,02 microns to 2 800 microns (see Table A.1).

Normally, it is not acceptable to publish a manufacturer’s name or equipment identification. However,

due to the close tolerance of the specified particle size limits and variation between instruments by

multiple manufacturers, one particle size analysis instrument was defined for this specification.

Particle size distribution specified limits shown in Table 2 were derived from sample analysis of PTI

manufactured test dust produced prior to May 1994 using three separate Microtrac Model S3500

light scattering analysers.
Table A.1 — Microtrac Model S3500 specifications
Item Specification
Measuring range 0,02 micron to 2 800 micron
Basic range Wet 0,7 micron to 1 000 micron
High range Wet 2,75 micron to 2 800 micron
Standard range Wet 0,24 micron to 1 400 micron
Special range Wet 0,086 micron to 1 400 micron
Extended range Wet 0,021 micron to 2 000 micron
Enhanced range Wet 0,021 micron to 2 800 micron
Precision Spherical Glass Beads D50 = 642 micron, Precision as CV = 0,7 %
Spherical Glass Beads D50 = 56 micron, Precision as CV = 1,0 %
Spherical Latex Beads D50 = 0,4 micron, Precision as CV = 0,6 %
Lasers Wavelength 780 nm
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
Table A.1 (continued)
Power 3 mW nominal

Detection system Two fixed photo-electric detectors with logarithmically spaced segments placed at

correct angles for optimal scattered light detection. 0,02° to 163 ° using 151 detector

segments.

Data handling Volume, Number and Area distributions as well as percentile and other summary data.

Data are stored in ODBC format in encrypted Microsoft Access Databases to ensure

compatibility with external statistical software applications. Data integrity may be

ensured using FDA 21 CFR Part 11 compliant security features including password
protection, electronic signatures and assignable permissions.
A.1.2 Microtrac S3500 particle size analysis procedure
A.1.2.1 Sample preparation
Typical sample preparation is as follows.

a) It is important to ensure the sample taken is representative of the lot of test dust to be tested and

mixed well before placing into a clean 20 ml to 50 ml sample vial.

b) Obtain a clean vial and add the required representative sample quantity based on Table A.2.

Table A.2 — Microtrac S3500 Sample Weights
ISO grade Sample amount in mg
ISO ultrafine 14-16
ISO fine 29-31
ISO medium 39-41
ISO coarse 54-56

c) Add one drop of dispersant to the vial. It is very important that dispersant used does not create

bubbles.

d) Add approximately 10 ml distilled water to the vial and mix by gently moving the vial in a circular

motion. Avoid creating bubbles.

e) Place sample vial and contents in an external low power ultrasonic bath, having a water depth of

2 cm, for 30 s. The ultrasonic bath should be in the range of 50 W to 100 W, 50 kHz to 80 kHz. Do not

use the Microtrac internal ultrasonic as it may cause bubbles.
A.1.2.2 Analyser software sample set-up
Analyser software sample set-up is done as follows.
a) Open the Microtrac FLEX software program.
b) Click “Measure” on the main program window and select S3500/S3000.

c) Click “File” and select “Open Measurement Database”, select appropriate database for the material

being analysed.

d) Click “SOP” (Standard Operating Procedure) icon on the measure toolbar. Click Options button

to setup appropriate measurement setup parameters. Set measurement parameters per the

followings:
1) Timing tab is set as follows:
― Set Zero time = 30 s;
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)
― Run time = 30 s;
― Number of runs = 3.
2) Identifier tab is used to enter general information if desired.
3) Analysis tab is set using the following tabs:
i) Particle information tab:
I) Select Refractive Index of 1,51 and save with the appropriate particle name.
II) Particle characteristics box:
— Set transparency; Transparent;
— Set Shape; Irregular.
ii) Fluid information tab:
— Select fluid; water;
— Select refractive index; 1,333.
iii) Analysis options tab:
— Select S3000 from Analysis Mode drop down list;
— Select Enabled Standard from Filter drop down list.

iv) Sample loading tab is used to enter user defined loading index limits for each grade per

Table A.2.
Table A.3 — Microtrac S3500 loading index limits
ISO grade Loading index limits
ISO ultrafine 0,89 – 0,90
ISO fine 0,86 – 0,87
ISO medium 0,86 – 0,87
ISO coarse 0,87 – 0,88
v) Perspective tab is set as follows:
— Select Geom 4 Root from Progression drop down list;
— Select Volume from the Distribution drop down list.
vi) SDC tab is set as follows:
I) SDC options; Set the following parameters:
— Number of Rinses = 3;
— Number of Deaerate Cycles = 3;
— Flow = 55.
II) Click OK button when all parameters have been entered.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12103-1:2016(E)

III) Enter appropriate name in the SOP Name to Save or Delete box on the Measurement

SOP dialogue box and then click the save button.
e) Open the identifiers (ID) tab. Set the identifiers per the following:

1) Enter material description in the title section, i.e. ISO 12103-1, A.2 fine test dust.

2) Enter ID in first line of Sample ID section.

f) Click “Flow” icon on SDC/ASVR toolbar on the right side of the measurement window to start the

recirculator.

g) Click “S/Z” (set zero) icon on the measure toolbar. After the set zero is successfully completed, the

time will appear on the upper left portion of the screen highlighted in green.
h) Click the “Load Sample” (LD) icon on the measure toolbar.
A.1.2.3 Sample loading and analysis

Obtain a clean pipette and load prepared sample into recirculator making sure the entire sample is

loaded without creating bubbles. The indicator bar shall be within the transmission range (green zone)

when the entire sample has been loaded. If excess sample has been loaded abort the procedure, rinse

recirculator and start over.
Operate icons per the following.
— Click “Run” icon on the measurement bar.
— Click the print icon wh
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12103-1
ISO/TC 22/SC 34 Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2015-06-22 2015-09-22
Road vehicles — Test contaminants for filter evaluation —
Part 1:
Arizona test dust
Véhicules routiers — Poussière pour l’essai des filtres —
Partie 1: Poussière d’essai d’Arizona
ICS: 43.060.40; 43.060.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Test dust description ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Test dust designation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Particle size distribution ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Chemical composition ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Typical chemical content of ISO specified Arizona test dusts ........................................................................ 2

5.2 Chemical analysis methodology — X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) .................................................. 2

Annex A (normative) Analysis equipment and operating procedure ................................................................................ 3

Annex B (informative) History of Arizona test dust .............................................................................................................................. 7

Annex C (informative) Handling and preparation .................................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34, Vehicle

propulsion and powertrain and fluids.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12103-1:1997), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 12103 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Test contaminants for

filter evaluation:
— Part 1: Arizona test dust
— Part 2: Aluminium oxide test dust
— Part 3: Soot aerosol [To be published]
— Part 4: Salt aerosol [To be published]
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Introduction

ISO 12103-1 specifies four grades of test dusts made from Arizona desert sand composed of naturally

occurring compounds which motor vehicles are commonly subjected to. These test dusts are used to

determine performance of filtration systems. Due to the abrasive characteristics of these materials, they

have also been used in wear studies involving bearings, internal combustion engines and fuel injection

systems, seals, fan blades, windshield wipers, etc.

This part of ISO 12103 specifies particle size distribution of four grades of test dust by volume percent

as opposed to number characterization.

Dusts complying with volume distribution specified in this part of ISO 12103 are not appropriate for

calibration of particle counters. For this purpose refer to ISO 11171, Hydraulic fluid power — Calibration

of automatic particle counters for liquids.

This is an Arizona Test Dust standard, not other region document. Other dusts and documents can be

brought forward to the committee to develop into a standard.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Test contaminants for filter evaluation —
Part 1:
Arizona test dust
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12103 defines particle size distribution and chemical content limits involving four

grades of test dust made from Arizona desert sand.
2 Test dust description

ISO test dusts according to this part of ISO 12103 are manufactured from Arizona desert sand. Arizona

desert sand is a naturally occurring contaminant consisting primarily of silicon dioxide with smaller

amounts of other compounds. It is collected from the Salt River area of Arizona desert and sized to

specific particle size.

Arizona desert sand has also been referred to as Arizona road dust, Arizona test dust, Arizona silica, AC

fine or coarse test dust, and SAE fine or coarse test dust.

Bulk density of ISO test dusts made from Arizona sand varies with particle size (see Table 1).

Table 1 — Bulk density
Approximate bulk density
Category
(kg/m )
ISO ultrafine 500
ISO fine 900
ISO medium 1 025
ISO coarse 1 200
3 Test dust designation
Arizona test dusts are available in four standard grades designated as follows:
— ISO 12103-1, A1 ultrafine test dust
— ISO 12103-1, A2 fine test dust
— ISO 12103-1, A3 medium test dust
— ISO 12103-1, A4 coarse test dust
4 Particle size distribution

Particle size distribution is determined using a light scattering particle size analyser, as referenced in

ISO 13320, Particle size analysis — Laser defraction methods.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)

Table 2 specifies cumulative volume particle size limits for ISO test dusts made from Arizona desert

sand, when determined using a Microtrac S3500 particle size analyser™.

When the different type analyser is employed by a test laboratory, the laboratory should generate suitable

correlation data between the analyser by which these powders are supplied to conform (Microtrac

analyser) and by the analyser adopted by the test laboratory.
Table 2 — Particle size distributions (volume % less than)
Size (µm) A1 ultrafine A2 fine A3 medium A4 coarse
352,00 — — — 100,0
248,90 — — 100,0 99,0 – 100,0
176,00 — 100,0 99,0 – 100,0 97,2 – 98,2
124,50 — 99,0 – 100,0 97,2 – 98,6 93,0 – 94,0
88,00 — 97,9 – 98,9 94,7 – 96,0 85,0 – 86,5
44,00 — 89,5 – 91,5 82,0 – 83,5 58,0 – 60,0
22,00 100,0 73,5 – 76,0 62,5 – 64,5 36,0 – 38,5
11,00 95,5 – 97,5 57,0 – 59,5 42,3 – 43,6 21,0 – 23,0
5,50 65,0 – 69,0 39,5 – 42,5 22,1 – 23,2 11,5 – 12,5
2,75 23,0 – 27,0 21,3 – 23,3 10,3 – 11,1 5,5 – 6,3
1,38 7,0 – 10,0 8,0 – 9,5 3,8 – 4,4 1,8 – 2,1
0,97 3,0 – 5,0 4,5 – 5,5 2,0 – 2,4 0,74 – 0,83

NOTE Data shown per Table 2 was determined using the particle size analysis instrument indicated in normative Annex A.

Use of any other particle size analysis equipment will obtain different results.
5 Chemical composition
5.1 Typical chemical content of ISO specified Arizona test dusts
See Table 3.
Table 3 — Chemical content
Element Percentage of mass
Silicon 69,0 – 77,0
Aluminium 8,0 – 14,0
Iron 4,0 – 7,0
Potassium 2,0 – 5,0
Calcium 2,5 – 5,5
Sodium 1,0 – 4,0
Magnesium 1,0 – 2,0
Titanium 0,0 – 1,0
5.2 Chemical analysis methodology — X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

Chemical analysis is performed using an X-ray fluorescence analyser per ASTM C-114-13.

1) Microtrac and Microtrac S3500 are trade names. This information is given for the convenience of the users of

this part of ISO 12103 and do not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this company or its products.

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Analysis equipment and operating procedure
A.1 Particle size analyser
A.1.1 General

Particle size data of ISO specified Arizona test dusts as shown in Table 2, were determined using a

Microtrac Model S3500 light scattering type analyser. Use of any other particle size analysis equipment

will obtain different results. Other particle size analysis instruments may be acceptable for analysis of

test dust products specified in ISO 12103-1, if suitability and correlation is determined between the

Microtrac S3500 and the other analyser. Use of particle size analysis instruments other than the

Microtrac S3500 will require a modified particle size analysis procedure.

The Microtrac Model S3500 employs use of three light scattering lasers that are combined to produce

the resulting particle size distribution data. A tri-laser system uses precise angular measurement of

scattered light through a full 180 degree angular range with three lasers and two detector arrays.

Analysis of scattered light to determine particle size employs a Mie based unified angular scattering

theory with a dynamic range of 0,02 to 2 800 microns (see Table A.1).

Normally it is not acceptable to publish a manufacturer’s name or equipment identification. However

due to the close tolerance of the specified particle size limits and variation between instruments by

multiple manufacturers, one particle size analysis instrument was defined for this specification.

Particle size distribution specified limits shown in Table 2 of ISO 12103-1 were derived from sample

analysis of PTI manufactured test dust produced prior to May 1994 using three separate Microtrac

Model S3500 light scattering analysers.
Table A.1 — Microtrac Model S3500 specifications
Item Specification
Measuring range 0,02 to 2 800 micron
Basic range Wet 0,7 to 1 000 micron
High range Wet 2,75 to 2 800 micron
Standard range Wet 0,24 to 1 400 micron
Special range Wet 0,086 to 1 400 micron
Extended range Wet 0,021 to 2 000 micron
Enhanced range Wet 0,021 to 2 800 micron
Precision Spherical Glass Beads D50 = 642 micron, Precision as CV = 0,7 %
Spherical Glass Beads D50 = 56 micron, Precision as CV = 1,0 %
Spherical Latex Beads D50 = 0,4 micron, Precision as CV = 0,6 %
Lasers Wavelength 780nm
Power 3mW nominal

Detection system Two fixed photo-electric detectors with logarithmically spaced segments placed at

correct angles for optimal scattered light detection. 0,02 to 163 degrees using 151

detector segments.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
Table A.1 (continued)
Item Specification

Data handling Volume, Number and Area distributions as well as percentile and other summary

data. Data are stored in ODBC format in encrypted Microsoft Access Databases to

ensure compatibility with external statistical software applications. Data integrity

may be ensured using FDA 21 CFR Part 11 compliant security features including
password protection, electronic signatures and assignable permissions.
A.1.2 Microtrac S3500 particle size analysis procedure
A.1.2.1 Sample preparation
Typical sample preparation is as follows:

a) It is important to ensure the sample taken is representative of the lot of test dust to be tested and

mixed well before placing into a clean 20-50 mL sample vial.

b) Obtain a clean vial and add the required representative sample quantity based on the following table:

Table A.2 — Microtrac S3500 Sample Weights
ISO grade Sample amount in mg
ISO ultrafine 14-16
ISO fine 29-31
ISO medium 39-41
ISO coarse 54-56

c) Add one drop of dispersant to the vial. It is very important that dispersant used does not create bubbles.

d) Add approximately 10 mL distilled water to the vial and mix by gently moving the vial in a circular

motion. Avoid creating bubbles.

e) Place sample vial and contents in an external low power ultrasonic bath, having a water depth of

2 cm, for 30 s. The ultrasonic bath should be in the range of 50 W to 100 W, 50 kHz to 80 kHz. Do not

use the Microtrac internal ultrasonic as it may cause bubbles.
A.1.2.2 Analyser software sample set-up
Analyser software sample set-up is done as follows:
a) Open the Microtrac FLEX software program.
b) Click “Measure” on the main program window and select S3500/S3000.

c) Click “File” and select “Open Measurement Database”, select appropriate database for the material

being analysed.

d) Click “SOP” (Standard Operating Procedure) icon on the measure toolbar. Click Options button to

setup appropriate measurement setup parameters. Set measurement parameters per the followings:

1) Timing tab is set as follows:
— Set Zero time = 30 s;
— Run time = 30 s;
— Number of runs = 3.
2) Identifier tab is used to enter general information if desired.
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 12103-1:2015(E)
3) Analysis tab is set using the following tabs:
i) Particle information tab
I) Select Refractive Index of 1,51 and save with the appropriate particle name.
II) Particle characteristics box.
— Set transparency; Transparent.
— Set Shape; Irregular.
ii) Fluid information tab
— Select fluid; water;
— Select refractive index; 1,333.
iii) Analysis options tab
— Select S3000 from Analysis Mode drop down list;
— Select Enabled Standard from Filter drop down list.

iv) Sample loading tab is used to enter user defined loading index limits for each grade per Table A.2.

Table A.3 — Microtrac S3500 loading index limits
ISO grade Loading index limits
ISO ultrafine 0,89 – 0,90
ISO fine 0,86 – 0,87
ISO medium 0,86 – 0,87
ISO coarse 0,87 – 0,88
v) Perspective tab is set as follows:
— Select Geom 4 Root from Progression drop down list;
— Select Volume from the Distribution drop down list.
vi) SDC tab is set as follows:
I) SDC options; Set the following parameters:
— Number of Rinses = 3;
— Number of Deaerate Cycles = 3;
— Flow = 55.
II) Click OK button when all parameters have been entered.

III) Enter appropriate name in the SOP Name to Save or Delete box on the Measurement

SOP dialogue box and then click the save button.
f) Open the identifiers (ID) tab. Set the identifiers per the followings:

1) Enter material description in the title section, i.e. ISO 12103-1, A2 fine test dust.

2) Enter ID in first line of Sample ID section.
g) Click “Flow” icon on SDC/ASVR toolbar on the right side of the
...

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