Road vehicles -- Communication between vehicle and external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics

ISO 15031-6:2010 provides uniformity for standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that electrical/electronic On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems of motor vehicles are required to report when malfunctions are detected. It also provides guidance for uniform messages (text descriptor) associated with these codes. ISO 15031-6 specifies the rules and guidelines for the definition of the DTC format, which consists of an addressing format, structure, and messages; a standardized set of DTCs and descriptions; and a standardized set of DTC subtypes known as Failure Types. ISO 15031-6:2010 specifies all general rules and guidelines to define new DTCs. It references the SAE J2012-DA (Digital Annex), which includes all standardized DTCs (number and text descriptor) as well as all DTC subtypes known as failure types.

Véhicules routiers -- Communications entre un véhicule et un équipement externe concernant le diagnostic relatif aux émissions

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
12-Aug-2010
Withdrawal Date
12-Aug-2010
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Aug-2010
Completion Date
13-Aug-2010
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15031-6
Second edition
2010-08-15
Road vehicles — Communication
between vehicle and external equipment
for emissions-related diagnostics —
Part 6:
Diagnostic trouble code definitions
Véhicules routiers — Communications entre un véhicule et un
équipement externe concernant le diagnostic relatif aux émissions —
Partie 6: Définition des codes d'anomalie de diagnostic
Reference number
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
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© ISO 2010

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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .........................................................................2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................................2

4 Conventions...........................................................................................................................................2

5 Document overview...............................................................................................................................3

6 General specification ............................................................................................................................4

6.1 General code information.....................................................................................................................4

6.2 Sensor location definition ....................................................................................................................4

7 Format structure....................................................................................................................................8

7.1 Description.............................................................................................................................................8

7.2 ISO/SAE controlled codes (core DTCs)...............................................................................................9

7.3 Manufacturer controlled codes (non-uniform DTCs).........................................................................9

7.4 Body system groupings — DTC numbers and descriptions are given in SAE J2012-DA .............9

7.5 Chassis system groupings — DTC numbers and descriptions are given in SAE J2012-DA ......10

7.6 Powertrain system groupings — DTC numbers and descriptions are given

in SAE J2012-DA..................................................................................................................................10

7.7 Generic/Network groupings — DTC numbers and descriptions are given in SAE J2012-DA.....10

8 Diagnostic trouble code descriptions ...............................................................................................11

8.1 Diagnostic trouble code application .................................................................................................11

8.2 Powertrain systems.............................................................................................................................11

8.3 Body systems ......................................................................................................................................12

8.4 Chassis systems .................................................................................................................................12

8.5 Network and vehicle integration systems.........................................................................................12

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15031-6 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 3,

Electrical and electronic equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 15031-6:2005), which has been been

technically revised.

ISO 15031 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Communication between

vehicle and external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics:
⎯ Part 1: General information and use case definition
⎯ Part 2: Guidance on terms, definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

⎯ Part 3: Diagnostic connector and related electrical circuits, specification and use

⎯ Part 4: External test equipment
⎯ Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services
⎯ Part 6: Diagnostic trouble code definitions
⎯ Part 7: Data link security
iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
Introduction
0.1 Overview

ISO 15031 consists of a number of parts which, taken together, provide a coherent self-consistent set of

specifications to facilitate emissions-related diagnostics. Parts 2 through 7 are based on SAE recommended

practices. This part of ISO 15031 is based on SAE J2012.
ISO 15031-1 provides an introduction to the series of International Standards.

This document set includes the communication between the vehicle's On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems

and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.

To achieve this, it is based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model in accordance

with ISO/IEC 7498-1 and ISO/IEC 10731, which structures communication systems into seven layers. When

mapped on this model, the services specified by ISO 15031 are broken into the following layers in accordance

with Table 1:
⎯ diagnostic services (layer 7), specified in
⎯ ISO 15031-5 (emissions-related OBD);
⎯ ISO 27145-3 (WWH-OBD);
⎯ presentation layer (layer 6), specified in
⎯ ISO 15031-2, SAE J1930-DA;
⎯ ISO 15031-5, SAE J1979-DA;
⎯ this part of ISO 15031, SAE J2012-DA (OBD);
⎯ ISO 27145-2, SAE J2012-DA (WWH-OBD);
⎯ session layer services (layer 5), specified in
⎯ ISO 14229-2 support ISO 15765-4 DoCAN and ISO 14230-4 DoK-Line protocols;
⎯ ISO 14229-2 are not applicable to the SAE J1850 and ISO 9141-2 protocols;
⎯ transport layer services (layer 4), specified in
⎯ ISO 15765-2;
⎯ SAE J1850 defined in ISO 15031-5;
⎯ ISO 9141-2 defined in ISO 15031-5;
⎯ ISO 14230-4 defined in ISO 15031-5;
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
⎯ network layer services (layer 3), specified in
⎯ ISO 15765-2;
⎯ SAE J1850 defined in ISO 15031-5;
⎯ ISO 9141-2 defined in ISO 15031-5;
⎯ ISO 14230-4 defined in ISO 15031-5;
⎯ data link layer (layer 2), specified in
⎯ ISO 15765-4, ISO 11898-1 and ISO 11898-2;
⎯ SAE J1850;
⎯ ISO 9141-2;
⎯ ISO 14230-2;
⎯ physical layer (layer 1), specified in
⎯ ISO 15765-4, ISO 11898-1 and ISO 11898-2;
⎯ SAE J1850;
⎯ ISO 9141-2;
⎯ ISO 14230-1.

Table 1 — Legislated emissions-related OBD/WWH -OBD diagnostic specifications applicable

to the OSI layers
Emissions-related OBD communication Emissions-related WWH-OBD
Applicability OSI 7 layers
requirements communication requirements
Application (layer 7) ISO 15031-5 ISO 27145-3
ISO 15031-2, ISO 15031-5, ISO 15031-6 ISO 27145-2
Presentation
(layer 6) SAE J1930-DA/SAE J1979-DA/
SAE J2012-DA (WWH-OBD)
SAE J2012-DA (OBD)
Seven layer
Session (layer 5) ISO 14229-2 Not Applicable ISO 14229-2
according to
ISO/IEC 7498-1
Transport (layer 4)
and
ISO 15765-2 ISO 15031-5
ISO/IEC 10731
Network (layer 3)
ISO
ISO
ISO 15765-4
Data link (layer 2)
14230-4
14230-2
ISO 11898-1
SAE J1850 ISO 9141-2
ISO 11898-2
ISO
Physical (layer 1)
14230-1
1) World-Wide Harmonized
vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
0.2 SAE document reference concept

ISO 15031 references several SAE documents which contain all terms, data and DTC (diagnostic trouble

code) definitions.

This is illustrated in Figure 1 Additional information on the content of the referenced documents is given

below:

⎯ SAE J1930: the document is concerned with a procedure for naming objects and systems and with the

set of words from which names are built. It references SAE J1930-DA which contains all standardized

naming objects, terms and abbreviations.

⎯ SAE J1979: the document is concerned with the definition of emissions-related diagnostic services

(diagnostic test modes). It references SAE J1979-DA which contains all standardized data items like PIDs,

Test Ids, Monitor Ids and InfoType Ids.

⎯ SAE J2012: the document is concerned with the procedure for defining emissions-related DTCs. It

references SAE J2012-DA which contains all standardized data items like DTCs and FTBs (failure type

bytes).
ISO 15031-2
ISO 15031-5 ISO 15031-6
Terms, definitions,
Emissions-related Diagnostic trouble
abbreviations and
diagnostic services code (DTC) definitions
acronyms
SAE J2012-DA
SAE J1930-DA SAE J1979-DA OBD
Emissions-related Emissions-related Emissions-related
acronym definition data definition diagnostic trouble
code definition
SAE J1930
SAE J1979 SAE J2012
Terms, definitions
Emissions-related Diagnostic trouble
abbreviations and
diagnostic services code (DTC) definitions
acronyms
Key
1 SAE Digital Annexes
Figure 1 — SAE Digital Annex document reference

On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light, medium and heavy duty trucks, to

support a minimum set of diagnostic information to external (off-board) “generic” test equipment.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
0.3 SAE J2012-DA (OBD) Digital Annex

This part of ISO 15031 references SAE J2012-DA. SAE J2012-DA is concerned with the definition of DTCs

and FTB information.
SAE J2012-DA (OBD) includes several appendices for:
⎯ DTC naming guidelines;
⎯ powertrain system DTCs;
⎯ network communication system, body systems, and chassis systems;
⎯ DTC failure category and subtype definition.
0.4 SAE Digital Annex revision procedure

New emissions-related regulatory requirements drive new in-vehicle technology to lower emissions. New

technology-related OBD monitor data and DTCs need to be standardized to support the external (off-board)

“generic” test equipment. All relevant information is proposed by the automotive industry represented by

members of the appropriate SAE task force.

Revision request forms and instructions for updating the registers to this part of ISO 15031 can be obtained on

the Registration Authority's website at:
http://www.sae.org/servlets/works/committeeHome.do?comtID=TEVDS9

The column titled “Resources” shows a document with the title: J2012-DA_Revision_Request_Form.doc.

Double click on the name and you will be asked to download the document with the filename:

SAE J2012-DA_Revision_Request_Form.doc
Fill out the revision request form with your request.

Please send an e-mail with the completed revision request form as an attachment to:

SAE Headquarters
755 West Big Beaver Road
Suite 1600
Troy, MI 48084-4093, USA
Fax: +1 (248) 273-2494
mailto: saej2012@sae.org
viii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
Road vehicles — Communication between vehicle and external
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics —
Part 6:
Diagnostic trouble code definitions
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15031 provides uniformity for standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that

electrical/electronic On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems of motor vehicles are required to report when

malfunctions are detected. It also provides guidance for uniform messages (text descriptor) associated with

these codes.
This part of ISO 15031 specifies the rules and guidelines for the definition of:
a) the DTC format, which consists of:
1) addressing format;
2) structure;
3) messages;
b) a standardized set of DTC and descriptions;
c) a standardized set of DTC subtypes known as failure types.

This part of ISO 15031 specifies all general rules and guidelines to define new DTCs. This part of ISO 15031

references the SAE J2012-DA (Digital Annex), which includes all standardized DTCs (number and text

descriptor) as well as all DTC subtypes known as failure types.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15031-2, Road vehicles — Communication between vehicle and external equipment for emissions-related

diagnostics — Part 2: Guidance on terms, definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

ISO 15031-5, Road vehicles — Communication between vehicle and external equipment for emissions-related

diagnostics — Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 15031-2 apply.

3.2 Abbreviated terms
B1S1 bank 1 sensor 1
B1S2 bank 1 sensor 2
B1S3 bank 1 sensor 3
B2S1 bank 2 sensor 1
B2S2 bank 2 sensor 2
B2S3 bank 2 sensor 3
BARO barometric atmospheric pressure
CVN calibration verification number
DTC diagnostic trouble code
ECM engine control module
ISR interrupt service routine
LSB least significant bit
MAF mass air flow
MAP manifold absolute pressure
MIL malfunction indicator light
MSB most significant bit
OBD on-board diagnostics
OSI open systems interconnection
PCM powertrain control module
SI international system of units
TCM transmission control module
4 Conventions

ISO 15031 is based on the conventions discussed in the OSI Service Conventions (ISO/IEC 10731:1994) as

they apply for diagnostic services.

The protocol initialization identifies whether ISO 15765-4 DoCAN, SAE J1850, ISO 14230-4 DoK-Line or

ISO 9141-2 is the data link layer supported by the vehicle. ISO 15031 references the standards as an

applicable data link for emissions-related OBD.

ISO 15031-5 specifies the applicable emissions-related diagnostic services. This part of ISO 15031 specifies

the data record structures and references SAE J1930-DA, SAE J1979-DA and SAE J2012-DA which include

all emissions-related OBD data definitions.
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
5 Document overview
Figure 2 illustrates the document references.
Emissions-related diagnostic services
15031-1
ISO
Emissions OBD
Part 1:
General information
and use case definition
ISO 15031-5 SAE J1930-DA
Terms, ...
Part 5:
Emissions-related
diagnostic services
OSI Layer 7
SAE J1979-DA
Application
PIDs, MIDs, RIDs,
infotypes
ISO 15031-2,
ISO 15031-5,
ISO 15031-6
SAE J2012-DA
1 : 1
OSI Layer 6
Emissions-related
DTCs
Presentation
terms, data, DTCs
ISO 14229-2 ISO 14229-2
Not applicable
UDS
OSI Layer 5 UDS
(no document available)
Session Part 2: Session layer services Part 2: Session layer services
Standardized service Standardized service
Not applicable
primitive interface primitive interface
ISO 15765-4 SAE ISO ISO 14230-4
J1850 9141-2
ISO 15765-2
ISO 15031-5
DoCAN
OSI Layer 4
Communication between vehicle and
Part 2:
Transport
external test equipment for
Transport
emissions-related diagnostics
protocol
and
Part 5:
network
Emissions-related diagnostic services
layer services
OSI Layer 3
ISO 15765-4 ISO 14230-4
Network
DoCAN
DoK-Line
ISO 11898-1
CAN
Part 4:
Part 4:
Part 1: Requirements Requirements
for emissions- for emissions-
Data link layer
ISO 14230-2
and physical related related systems
DoK-Line
ISO 9141-2
OSI Layer 2
SAE J1850
signalling systems Part 2:
Data Link
Data link
Part 2:
Class B
layer
CARB
Data
requirements
communi-
ISO 11898-2
for
cations
interchange
CAN ISO 14230-1
network
of digital
DoK-Line
Part 2:
OSI Layer 1 interface
information Part 1:
High-speed
Physical
Physical
medium access
layer
unit

Figure 2 — Emissions-related OBD on ISO 15765-4, SAE J1850, ISO 9141-2, ISO 14230-4 document

reference according to OSI model
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 15031-6:2010(E)
6 General specification
6.1 General code information

Table 2 specifies systems, code categories, hexadecimal values and particular sections of electrical/electronic

systems diagnostic.
Table 2 — General code specifications
System Code categories Hex value Appendix
B0xxx – B3xxx 8xxx - Bxxx
Body B
Chassis C0xxx – C3xxx 4xxx - 7xxx C
Powertrain P0xxx – P3xxx 0xxx - 3xxx P
Generic/network U0xxx – U3xxx Cxxx - Fxxx U

The recommended DTCs consist of a three digit numeric code preceded by an alphanumeric designator. The

alphanumeric designators are “B0”, “B1”, “B2”, “B3”, “C0”, “C1”, “C2”, “C3”, “
...

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