Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 4: Layout and dimensions of workstations (ISO 11064-4:2004)

ISO 11064-4 establishes general principles for the ergonomic design of workstations found in control centres. ISO 11064-4 covers all aspects of workstation design with particular emphasis on layout and dimensions, the type of workstations covered include seated and standing control room workstations, seated workstations with visual display terminals, and maintenance workstations. In addition considerations on the type and number of instruments and equipment will be given.

Ergonomische Gestaltung von Leitzentralen - Teil 4: Auslegung und Maße von Arbeitsplätzen (ISO 11064-4:2004)

Dieser Teil von ISO 11064 legt ergonomische Grundsätze, Empfehlungen und Anforderungen für die Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen in Leitzentralen fest. Dabei werden besonders Auslegung und Maße bei der Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen berücksichtigt. Diese Norm behandelt vor allem Sitzarbeitsplätze mit Bildschirmgeräten, obgleich Arbeitsplätze, die abwechselndes Sitzen und Stehen erfordern, ebenfalls angesprochen werden. Diese Arbeitsplätze finden zum Beispiel Anwendung in der Transport- und Prozesslenkung und in Sicherheitseinrichtungen.

Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 4: Agencement et dimensionnement du poste de travail (ISO 11064-4:2004)

L'ISO 11064-4:2004 spécifie les principes ergonomiques, les recommandations et les exigences pour la conception des postes de travail dans les centres de commande. Elle couvre la conception des postes de travail, en prêtant une attention particulière à l'agencement et au dimensionnement. Elle couvre principalement les postes de travail pour posture assise et équipés d'écrans de visualisation, mais traite également des postes de travail pour posture assise/debout. Ces postes de travail sont mis en place dans des applications touchant à des domaines tels que le contrôle du transport, la commande de processus et les installations de sécurité.

Ergonomsko načrtovanje krmilnih centrov - 4. del: Ureditev in mere delovnih mest (ISO 11064-4:2004)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Oct-2004
Withdrawal Date
23-Jan-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-Jan-2014
Due Date
05-Feb-2014
Completion Date
24-Jan-2014

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
English language
32 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
01-november-2004
(UJRQRPVNRQDþUWRYDQMHNUPLOQLKFHQWURYGHO8UHGLWHYLQPHUHGHORYQLKPHVW
,62

Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 4: Layout and dimensions of workstations

(ISO 11064-4:2004)
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Leitzentralen - Teil 4: Auslegung und Maße von
Arbeitsplätzen (ISO 11064-4:2004)
Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 4: Agencement et
dimensionnement du poste de travail (ISO 11064-4:2004)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
25.040.10 9HþRSHUDFLMVNLVWURML Machining centres
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11064-4
First edition
2004-07-01
Ergonomic design of control centres —
Part 4:
Layout and dimensions of workstations
Conception ergonomique des centres de commande —
Partie 4: Agencement et dimensionnement du poste de travail
Reference number
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Initial workstation layout considerations ........................................................................................... 3

5 Factors determining control workstation design .............................................................................. 5

5.1 User population..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.1 General user considerations................................................................................................................ 5

5.1.2 User requirements ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Visual tasks ........................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 General visual considerations............................................................................................................. 8

5.2.2 General visual recommendations ....................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Auditory tasks ....................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.1 General auditory considerations......................................................................................................... 9

5.3.2 General auditory requirements and recommendations.................................................................... 9

5.4 Working postures.................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4.1 Posture considerations ........................................................................................................................ 9

5.4.2 Posture requirements and recommendations ................................................................................. 10

6 Control workstation layout................................................................................................................. 12

6.1 General layout considerations .......................................................................................................... 12

6.1.1 Displays................................................................................................................................................ 12

6.1.2 Controls................................................................................................................................................ 13

6.2 Layout requirements........................................................................................................................... 13

6.2.1 Displays................................................................................................................................................ 13

6.2.2 Controls................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.2.3 Other workstation tasks ..................................................................................................................... 17

6.2.4 General................................................................................................................................................. 17

7 Control workstation dimensions ....................................................................................................... 17

7.1 Dimension considerations ................................................................................................................. 17

7.2 Seated control workstations.............................................................................................................. 17

7.3 Standing control workstations .......................................................................................................... 18

7.4 Sit-stand control workstations .......................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Arranging displays and control workstations......................................................... 19

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 30

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 11064-4 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

ISO 11064 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic design of control centres:

 Part 1: Principles for the design of control centres
 Part 2: Principles for the arrangement of control suites
 Part 3: Control room layout
 Part 4: Layout and dimensions of workstations
 Part 5: Human-system interfaces
 Part 6: Environmental requirements for control centres
 Part 7: Principles for the evaluation of control centres
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 11064 establishes ergonomic requirements, recommendations and guidelines for the design

of workplaces in control centres.

All types of control centres are covered, including those for the process industry, transport and dispatching

systems or emergency services. Although this part of ISO 11064 is primarily intended for non-mobile control

centres, many of the principles are relevant to mobile centres such as those found on ships, locomotives and

aircraft.

User requirements are a central theme of this part of ISO 11064 and the processes described are designed to

take into account the needs of users at all stages. The overall strategy for dealing with the user requirements

is presented in ISO 11064-1. ISO 11064-2 provides guidance on the design and planning of the control room

in relation to its supporting areas. Requirements for the layout of the control room are covered by ISO 11064-3.

Displays and controls, human computer interaction and the physical working environment are presented in

ISO 11064-5 and ISO 11064-6. Evaluation principles are dealt with in ISO 11064-7.

The ultimate beneficiaries of this part of ISO 11064 will be the operator within the control room and other

users. It is the needs of these users that provide the ergonomic requirements that are addressed by the

International Standards developers. Although it is unlikely that the end user will read this International

Standard, or even know of its existence, its application should provide the user with interfaces that are more

usable, and a working environment which is more consistent with operational demands and result in a solution

which will improve system performance and will minimize error and enhance productivity.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
Ergonomic design of control centres —
Part 4:
Layout and dimensions of workstations
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11064 specifies ergonomic principles, recommendations and requirements for the design of

workstations found in control centres. It covers workstation design with particular emphasis on layout and

dimensions. This standard covers primarily seated, visual-display-based workstations although sit/stand

workstations are also addressed. These workstations are to be found in applications such as transportation

control, process control and security installations.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-3:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 3:

Visual display requirements

ISO 9241-5:1998, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 5:

Workstation layout and postural requirements

ISO 9355-2:1999, Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control actuators — Part 2: Displays

ISO 11064-3:1999, Ergonomic design of control centres — Part 3: Control room layout

ISO 11428:1996, Ergonomics — Visual danger signals — General requirements, design and testing

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO 11064, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
control workstation

single or multiple working position, including all equipment such as computers and communication terminals

and furniture at which control and monitoring functions are conducted
[ISO 11064-3:1999, definition 3.7]
3.2
cone of fixations

angular extend to which the line of sight can be swept by rotating the eyeball in the skull while the head rests

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
3.3
legibility

visual properties of a character or symbol that determine the ease with which it can be recognized

[ISO 9241-3:1992, definition 2.17]
3.4
line-of-sight
line connecting the point of fixation and the centre of the pupil
[ISO 9241-3:1992, definition 2.18]
3.5
nearpoint
nearest viewing distance to which the eye accommodates
3.6
normal line-of-sight

inclination of the line-of-sight with respect to the horizontal plane, when the muscles assigned for the

orientation of the eyes are relaxed
3.7
percentile

percentage of population of which specific characteristics fall below or are equal to a given value in a

cumulative distribution
3.8
reach envelope

three-dimensional space in which an operator can comfortably reach and manipulate controls by either hand

while assuming a posture normally anticipated for the task
3.9
task zone

space determined by the equipment and activities required for the conduct of a particular task

3.10
visual angle
angle subtended at the eye by the viewed object, e.g. a character or symbol
3.11
visual field, field of vision
physical space visible to an eye in a given position
[ISO 8995:1989, definition 3.1.10]

NOTE 1 In this standard the use of both eyes is assumed for visual field considerations.

NOTE 2 The position of the visual field depends on the direction of the line-of-sight.

NOTE 3 Separate, distinct stimuli in the visual field will be detected even if they appear simultaneously.

NOTE 4 While the extent of the visual field is approximately ± 35° around the line-of-sight, only 1° ... 2° of these are for

sharp vision.
3.12
work environment

physical, chemical, biological, organizational, social and cultural factors surrounding a person in his or her

work space
[EN 614-1:1995, definition 3.5]
2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
3.13
work space

volume allocated to one or more persons in the work system to complete the work task

[EN 614-1:1995, definition 3.4]
3.14
workstation
combination of work equipment for a particular person in a work space
[ISO 11064-2:2000, definition 3.5]

NOTE It is possible that several persons share a particular control workstation, or that several persons alternate

several workstations within any period of time (i.e., on an hourly, daily, weekly basis).

3.15
work task
task

activity or activities required to achieve an intended outcome of the work system

[EN 614-1:1995, definition 3.2]
4 Initial workstation layout considerations

The starting point for control workstation design (shape and dimensions) is a list of work tasks and related

work characteristics. The human operator may need certain facilities, such as displays, input devices, and

communication equipment. Work space may also be required for special control-room-related tasks such as

paper work. For each task, a compilation of the requirements of the associated devices is needed. By taking

account of job designs, task zones are combined together into control workstation arrangements. The

grouping of control workstations into control room layouts is discussed in ISO 11064-2 and ISO 11064-3.

Requirements identified for each task zone are inputs for detailed engineering of workstations.

The following iterative procedure, outlined in Figure 1, can be used as a systematic approach to designing

workstations. The order of stages may vary according to the design situation.

A systematic approach to designing workstations is presented in Figure 1. The sequence of stages involved in

this process may vary as a result of iterations and this may have an impact on the appropriate tasks, which

need to be undertaken at each stage.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)

NOTE Each design stage in the process may result in a feedback loop to one of the earlier steps.

Figure 1 — Control workstation design steps
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
5 Factors determining control workstation design

This clause is mainly concerned with control workstations with one or more visual displays, communication

tools and space for administrative functions and documentation.
5.1 User population
th th

Workstations shall be designed to accommodate from the 5 to the 95 percentiles of the intended user

population. When considering the user population, account shall be taken of all features likely to be exhibited

by the intended users including gender, age, ethnic backgrounds and disabilities, e.g. if users are expected

th th

from both genders, consider the anthropometric data of the 5 percentile women up to 95 percentile men.

5.1.1 General user considerations

Workstations shall be designed according to human capabilities, limitations and needs. Consequently, the

design shall take into consideration the characteristics of the user population including working postures,

visual and aural needs, reach envelopes and their collective influences on workstation layout and dimensions.

5.1.2 User requirements

The layout and dimensioning of control workstations shall be governed by the anthropometric dimensions of

the user and any requirements for movement to accomplish their tasks. Anthropometric data are usually given

in terms of percentiles.
General anthropometric requirements are the following.

a) The percentile values referred to in this part of ISO 11064 shall be computed from the set of

anthropometric data of the expected user population.
th th

b) Control workstation dimensions shall accommodate at least a range from the 5 to the 95 percentile of

the user population.

c) The following anthropometric data shall be used to primarily determine the control workstation

dimensions:

 Reach envelope: 5 percentile of the user population, e.g. reach to critical dimensions.

 Clearances: 95 percentile of the user population, e.g. clearances under worksurfaces.

The key anthropometric dimensions for consideration of a seated operator are shown in Figure 2. Any design

solution selected should not unnecessarily disadvantage members presenting extreme anthropometric

dimensions of the user population. Design parameters proposed should be checked against the relevant

characteristics of the user population.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
Key
1 normal line of sight d desk thickness

2 optimal cone of fixations (i.e. allows fixation of any position e elbow/surface height

just by eye movement, no head movement required)
3 display f feet clearance
D viewing Distance k popliteal height
a eye height l upper leg clearance
b thigh clearance
NOTE For details see 6.2.2, 7.1 and 7.2.

Figure 2 — Illustration of the key anthropometric dimensions of a seated control console

EXAMPLE

For standing vertical panels, controls should not be so low that the standing-tall user must stoop to reach down to them.

 In those cases where no clothing allowances are specified in the anthropometric database, the dimensional effects of

footwear and clothing shall be considered.

 The effects of different postures shall be considered. (See Figure 3 for the effects on reach envelopes and

clearances based on different postures.)
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
th th

If it is impossible to cope with this range from the 5 percentile to the 95 with a fixed control workstation, an

adjustable workstation shall be considered.

It may be necessary to combine anthropometric data though caution should be exercised when doing this.

Usually the native anthropometric data set is based on “nude” subjects. Some data sources, however, include

clothing allowance on certain dimensions.

Another allowance concerns the so-called slump factor (a correction made to data collected in an erect

posture). The slump factor is an attempt to simulate more natural and relaxed postures. In some sources, this

factor is included, in others this is not the case. Therefore, data sources should be checked carefully before

being applied.

Typically, control workstations will be operated by multiple users who might exhibit a range of anthropometric

features. Control workstation design and layout should take account of this variable user population.

Adjustability should be considered for those workstation-related dimensions which do not accommodate the

th th

5 to 95 percentile users. This might be achieved by adjustable desk heights, the foot clearances, viewing

distances, or the orientation of displays.

 Adjustable control workstations should be considered to accommodate at least a range from the 5

percentile to the 95 percentile of the determining body dimensions of the user population (see 7.2).

 Adjustment devices should be easy and safe to use from a seated position.
Key
1 display A eye-points in “bent forward” posture
B eye-points in “erected” posture
eye-point of the 95 percentile dimensions, see Table 1
C eye-points in “reclined” posture
eye-point of the 5 percentile
D eye-points in “relaxed” posture
shoulder joint of the 5 percentile bent forward
R handreach of the 5 percentile
Figure 3 — Seated work postures corresponding to Table 1
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)
5.2 Visual tasks
The basic visual tasks are “Detection” and “Identification” (see A.3).
5.2.1 General visual considerations

When arranging displays, the following factors and their interrelationship should be taken into account:

a) The eye heights which depend on
 anthropometric data of the user population, and

 the postures (cf. Figure 3 and Table 2) of the users while accomplishing their tasks (e.g. monitoring,

interacting).

The influence of work surface adjustability, i.e. chair height on the eye height, shall be considered. Refer to

the appropriate anthropometric data set for input to the calculations.
b) Viewing distances should be chosen taking full account of
 eye strain,
 the nearpoint of the eye,
 the visual angle required to identify the characters on the screen, and
 the task.
c) The normal line-of-sight (see Table 2).

NOTE See Annex A for guidance on determining the arrangement of control workstation displays.

5.2.2 General visual recommendations

Accurate identification of a character depends on its legibility (its contrast, font style, colour, size, etc.), as well

as the viewing distance (see Annex A for further details):

 The viewing distance shall be based on the following considerations concerning character height.

 For VDUs, the minimum height of monochrome Latin characters shall subtend 15 minutes of angle (in

accordance with ISO 9355-2). Recommended Latin character heights are, however, 18 to 20 minutes of

angle (in accordance with ISO 9241-3). For a quick approximation, the following calculation shall be used:

 Maximum viewing distance (for rectangular view on the middle of a display area) = 215 × Latin

character's height
NOTE For a detailed calculation of the arrangement of displays, see Annex A.

 Character height is given by the height of capitals and numerals of the smallest font size in use on

the screen.

 Viewing distance, for identification of characters and symbols, shall be > 500 mm, since large groups of

users (for instance older users without spectacles) will have difficulties to accommodate their eyes to

shorter distances.

 For minimizing eye strain, the viewing distance should be 700 mm or greater (see Bibliography [9]).

Larger viewing distances improve depth of focus.
8 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11064-4:2004
ISO 11064-4:2004(E)

NOTE Typically, control workstations need to accommodate writing areas, keyboards, phones and communication

equipment, etc. in front of the display. For this reason, larger viewing distances may be required which would have an

impact on, for example, font sizes, display formats.

Assuming a reclined seated position, the normal line-of-sight is straight forward in the horizontal plane and

approximately 15° below the horizontal in the vertical plane (see Table 1). This is the starting point for the

following requirements:

 Displays (see ISO 11064-3) requiring frequent or critical monitoring (e.g. operator working screens) shall

be arranged in front of the operator in the primary display zone. The primary display zone, when the

line-of-sight direction is not imposed by external task requirements, is in the vertical plane within an angle

of 40° above and below the normal line-of-sight. In the horizontal plane, this range will be approximately

35° left and right of the line-of-sight for monitoring tasks (see ISO 11428) and more if head and body

movement are taken into account.

 Where information from off-workstation displays (such as large screens, wall and mimic panels, etc.) is

required for the operator's task, this shall be fully visible from all expected working positions in the control

room (see ISO 11064-3).
5.3 Auditory tasks
5.3.1 General auditory considerations

Control workstations may be equipped with a variety of sound-generating devices. They may be used in

alerting operators to normal (e.g. feedback, phone) and abnormal events, providing feedback to keyboard

operations, and conveying person-to-person messages. Unlike the visual systems that require direct lines of

sight to be effective, audible devices, e.g. speakers, bells, buzzers, etc. can be mounted in a variety of

locations and still be effective in conveying information to the operator. The location of the devices is often

governed by operating practices, areas of responsibility, shared or dedicated control workstation allocations,

etc.
5.3.2 General auditory requirements and recommendations
General aural requirements and recommendations include the following.

 Sound-producing devices shall be located and mounted such that their function is not compromised.

 Where alarm indications can be provided by other than auditory means, silencing may be permissible.

Silencing should be possible from the normal working position of the operator.

 Global silencing, i.e. silencing from any one workstation where multiple workstations exist, may be

employed depending on specific operational and safety practices.

 It shall be possible to readily associate a particular audible signal with a unique workstation in multiple

control workstation configurations.

 Use of spatial separation to aid identification when multiple auditory sources are present.

 The impact of background noise should be considered when designing auditory alarms (see

ISO 11064-6)
5.4 Working postures
5.4.1 Posture considerations

An operator assumes several postures while accomplishing a task, seated, standing and alternating between

seated and standing positions. The desig
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.