Cranes - General Design - Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of steel structure

This European Standard is to be used together with EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 and as such they
specify general conditions, requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by
design and theoretical verification.
NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of cranes are given in the appropriate European Standard
for the particular crane type.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks
to persons during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this standard are
necessary to reduce or eliminate risks associated with the following hazards:
a) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
c) elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).
This European Standard is not applicable to cranes which are manufactured before the date of its
publication as EN and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types
(see Annex I).
NOTE EN 13001-3-1 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.

Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken

Diese Europäische Norm ist zusammen mit EN 13001-1 und EN 13001-2 anzuwenden. Sie legen allgemeine Bedingungen, Anforderungen und Methoden zur Vermeidung mechanischer Gefahren von Kranen durch Konstruktion und theoretische Nachweisverfahren fest.
ANMERKUNG   Spezifische Anforderungen an spezielle Krantypen sind in der jeweiligen Europäischen Norm für den speziellen Krantyp enthalten.
Im Folgenden ist eine Liste der signifikanten Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignisse aufgeführt, die Risiken für Personen bei Normaleinsatz und vorhersehbarem Missbrauch zur Folge haben könnten. Die Abschnitte 4 bis 8 dieser Norm enthalten Vorgaben zur Verminderung oder Ausschaltung von Risiken, die mit folgenden Gefahren verbunden sind:
a)   Überschreiten der Festigkeitsgrenzwerte (Fließen, Bruch, Ermüdung);
b)   Überschreiten der Temperaturgrenzwerte des Werkstoffs oder der Komponenten;
c)   elastische Instabilität des Krans oder seiner Teile (Knicken, Beulen).
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Krane, die vor dem Datum der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm als EN gefertigt werden, und dient als Referenzgrundlage für Europäische Normen für spezielle Krantypen (siehe Anhang I).
ANMERKUNG   EN 13001-3-1 umfasst nur die Methode der Grenzzustände entsprechend EN 13001-1.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 3-1 : Etats limites et vérification d'aptitude des charpentes en acier

Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-1. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti jeklene nosilne konstrukcije

Ta evropski standard je namenjen uporabi s standardoma EN 13001-1 in EN 13001-2. Ti standardi skupaj določajo splošne pogoje, zahteve in metode za preprečevanje mehanskih nevarnosti žerjavov s preverjanjem konstrukcije in teoretičnih predpostavk.
OPOMBA Posebne zahteve za posamezne vrste žerjavov so navedene v ustreznem evropskem standardu za posamezne vrste žerjavov.
Spodaj je naveden seznam pomembnih nevarnih razmer in dogodkov, zaradi katerih bi lahko prišlo do ogroženosti
oseb med običajno uporabo in predvideno nepravilno uporabo. Točki 4 in 8 v tem standardu sta potrebni za omejitev ali odpravo tveganj, povezanih z naslednjimi nevarnostmi:
a) prekoračitev mej trdnosti (meja prožnosti, končna meja, meja utrujanja);
b) prekoračitev temperaturnih omejitev materiala ali komponent;
c) elastična nestabilnost žerjava ali njegovih delov (uklon, izbočenost).
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za žerjave, ki so izdelani pred datumom objave te publikacije kot standard EN in služi kot referenčna osnova evropskim standardom za posamezne vrste žerjavov.
OPOMBA Standard EN 13001-3-1 v skladu s standardom EN 13001-1 obravnava le metodo mejnega stanja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Mar-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Jan-2018
Due Date
01-Apr-2018
Completion Date
19-Mar-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-1. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti jeklene nosilne konstrukcijeKrane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von StahltragwerkenAppareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 3-1 : Etats limites et vérification d'aptitude des charpentes en acierCranes - General Design - Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of steel structure53.020.20DvigalaCranesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018en,fr,de01-maj-2018SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2
January
t r s z ICS
w uä r t rä t r Supersedes EN
s u r r sæ uæ sã t r s t ªA sã t r s uEnglish Version
Cranes æ General Design æ Part

uæ sã Limit States and proof competence of steel structure Appareils de levage à charge suspendue æ Conception générale æ Partie

uæ s ã Etats limites et vérification d 5aptitude des charpentes en acier
Krane æ Konstruktion allgemein æ Teil

uæ sã Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken This European Standard was approved by CEN on

and includes Amendment
t approved by CEN on
u r October
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s u r r sæ uæ sã t r s t ªA tã t r s z ESIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms ,definitions, symbols and abbreviations ................................................................................... 9 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9 4 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12 4.1 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 12 4.2 Materials for structural members .......................................................................................................... 13 4.2.1 Grades and qualities.................................................................................................................................... 13 4.2.2 Impact toughness ......................................................................................................................................... 16 4.3 Bolted connections ...................................................................................................................................... 18 4.3.1 Bolt materials ................................................................................................................................................ 18 4.3.2 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18 4.3.3 Shear and bearing connections ............................................................................................................... 19 4.3.4 Friction grip type (slip resistant) connections .................................................................................. 19 4.3.5 Connections loaded in tension ................................................................................................................ 19 4.4 Pinned connections ..................................................................................................................................... 19 4.5 Welded connections .................................................................................................................................... 20 4.6 Proof of competence for structural members and connections .................................................. 20 5 Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 21 5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 5.2 Limit design stresses and forces ............................................................................................................. 21 5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members ......................................................................................... 21 5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolted connections........................................................................................... 23 5.2.4 Limit design forces in pinned connections ......................................................................................... 31 5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections ..................................................................................... 35 5.3 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................ 38 5.3.1 Proof for structural members .................................................................................................................. 38 5.3.2 Proof for bolted connections .................................................................................................................... 38 5.3.3 Proof for pinned connections .................................................................................................................. 39 5.3.4 Proof for welded connections .................................................................................................................. 40 6 Proof of fatigue strength ............................................................................................................................ 40 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 40 6.2 Limit design stresses ................................................................................................................................... 42 6.2.1 Characteristic fatigue strength ................................................................................................................ 42 6.2.2 Weld quality ................................................................................................................................................... 44 6.2.3 Requirements for fatigue testing ............................................................................................................ 45 6.3 Stress histories .............................................................................................................................................. 45 6.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45 6.3.2 Frequency of occurence of stress cycles .............................................................................................. 45 6.3.3 Stress history parameter ........................................................................................................................... 46 6.3.4 Stress history classes S ............................................................................................................................... 47 6.4 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................ 48 SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 3 6.5 Determination of the limit design stress range ................................................................................. 49 6.5.1 Applicable methods ..................................................................................................................................... 49 6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter ................................................................................................. 49 6.5.3 Use of class S ................................................................................................................................................... 49 6.5.4 Combined effect of normal and shear stresses .................................................................................. 51 7 Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints .................................................................. 51 8 Proof of elastic stability .............................................................................................................................. 52 8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 52 8.2 Lateral buckling of members loaded in compression ..................................................................... 52 8.2.1 Critical buckling load .................................................................................................................................. 52 8.2.2 Limit compressive design force ............................................................................................................... 54 8.3 Buckling of plate fields subjected to compressive and shear stresses ...................................... 57 8.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 57 8.3.2 Limit design stress with respect to longitudinal stress xσ=...........................................................=59 8.3.3 Limit design stress with respect to transverse stress yσ=..............................................................=61 8.3.4 Limit design stress with respect to shear stress τ=...........................................................................=63 8.4 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................. 64 8.4.1 Members loaded in compression ............................................................................................................ 64 8.4.2 Plate fields ....................................................................................................................................................... 64 Annex A (informative)

Limit design shear force Fv,Rd per bolt and per shear plane for multiple shear plane connections .......................................................................................................... 66 Annex B (informative)

Preloaded bolts ............................................................................................................. 67 Annex C (normative)

Design weld stresses W,Sd and W,Sd .......................................................................... 69 C.1 Butt joint .......................................................................................................................................................... 69 C.2 T-joint with fillet or partial penetration weld ................................................................................... 70 C.3 Effective distribution length under concentrated load .................................................................. 71 C.4 Other types of welds .................................................................................................................................... 72 Annex D (normative)

Values of slope constant m

and characteristic fatigue strength c, c ....................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Annex Rd Rd,1 ...................... 94 Annex F (informative)

Evaluation of stress cycles (example) .................................................................. 96 Annex G (informative)

Calculation of stiffnesses for connections loaded in tension ....................... 98 Annex H (informative)

Hollow Sections ........................................................................................................ 101 Annex I (informative)

Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application .... 113 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ..................................................................................... 114

SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 “Cranes - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 11 May 2013. This document includes Amendment 2 approved by CEN on 30 October 2017. This document supersedes #EN 13001-3-1:2012+A1:2013$. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !" or #$. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. !CEN/TC 147/WG 2 has made a new edition of EN 13001-3-1 to adapt the standard as follows:

Subclause 4.2.1 is changed in such a way that Table 2 is permanently valid and requirements for other materials are added, and

editorial changes are done to improve the document." # CEN/TC 147/WG 2 has made a new consolidation of EN 13001-3-1 to adapt the standard as follows: — New steel qualities from EN 10149-2 and stainless steels from EN 10088-2 added to 4.2.1. — Application of bolt preloading scatter in 5.2.3.3 was modified. — Table 8 changed to exclude matching material for ultra-high strength steel. — Fatigue strength specific resistance factors were adjusted in 6.1. — Requirements for fatigue testing were modified. — Formula for assessing combined effect of normal and shear stresses was changed in 6.5.4. — Annex C improved for calculation of fillet welds. SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 5 — Characteristic fatigue strengths modified for notch cases D.1.1, D.1.2, D.3.29 and D.3.30. — Number of minor changes for reasons of editorial and technical accuracy.$ This European Standard is one Part of EN 13001, Cranes — General design. The other parts are as follows: — Part 1: General principles and requirements; — Part 2: Load actions; — Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes in reeving systems; — Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail contacts; — Part 3-4: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery; — Part 3-5: Limit states and proof of competence of forged hooks.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 6 Introduction This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard to provide one means for the mechanical design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform #to$ the essential health and safety requirements of the Machinery Directive, as amended. This standard also establishes interfaces between the user (purchaser) and the designer, as well as between the designer and the component manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting cranes and components. This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100. The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are covered are indicated in the scope of this standard. When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard. SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard is to be used together with EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 and as such they specify general conditions, requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical verification. NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of cranes are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular crane type. The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this standard are necessary to reduce or eliminate risks associated with the following hazards: a) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue); b) exceeding temperature limits of material or components; c) elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging). This European Standard is not applicable to cranes which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types (see Annex I). NOTE EN 13001-3-1 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. #deleted reference$ EN 1993-1-8:2005, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-8: Design of joints EN 10025-2:2004, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels EN 10025-3:2004, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for normalized/normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels EN 10025-4:2004, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 4: Technical delivery conditions for thermomechanical rolled weldable fine grain structural steels EN 10025-6:2004, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 6: Technical delivery conditions for flat products of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition EN 10029:2010, Hot rolled steel plates 3 mm thick or above — Tolerances on dimensions and shape #deleted references$ SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 8 # EN 10088-2:2014, Stainless steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes EN 10149-2:2013, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 2: Delivery conditions for thermomechanically rolled steels EN 10149-3:2013, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 3: Delivery conditions for normalized or normalized rolled steels $ EN 10160:1999, Ultrasonic testing of steel flat product of thickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflection method) EN 10163-1:2004, Delivery requirements for surface conditions of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections — Part 1: General requirements EN 10163-2:2004, Delivery requirements for surface conditions of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections — Part 2: Plate and wide flats EN 10163-3:2004, Delivery requirements for surface conditions of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections – Part 3: Sections EN 10164:2004, Steel products with improved deformation properties perpendicular to the surface of the product — Technical delivery conditions EN 13001-1, Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements EN 13001-2, Crane safety — General design — Part 2: Load actions EN 20273:1991, Fasteners — Clearance holes for bolts and screws (ISO 273:1979) #EN ISO 148-1:2016 Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: test method$ EN ISO 286-2:2010, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — ISO code system for tolerances on linear sizes — Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance classes and limit deviations for holes and shafts

(ISO 286-2:2010) #EN ISO 898 1:2013, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs with specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898 1:2013)$ #EN ISO 5817:2014, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:2014)$ EN ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting — Classification of thermal cuts — Geometrical product specification and quality tolerances (ISO 9013:2002) EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction (ISO 12100:2010) EN ISO 17659:2004, Welding — Multilingual terms for welded joints with illustrations (ISO 17659:2002) ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 9 3 Terms ,definitions, symbols and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010 #deleted text$ apply. For the definitions of loads, Clause 6 of ISO 4306-1:2007 applies. 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations The symbols and abbreviations used in this Part of the EN 13001 are given in Table 1. Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations (1 of 4) Symbols, abbreviations Description A cross section An net cross section AS stress area of a bolt AS shear area of the tear-out section (pinned connections) a length of plate in buckling a throat thickness of fillet welds ar effective weld thickness b width of plate c edge stress ratio factor (buckling) Do, Di outer, inner diameter of hollow pin d diameter (shank of bolt, pin) do diameter of hole E modulus of elasticity Fb tensile force in bolt Fd limit force !Fk" characteristic value (force) Fp preloading force in bolt FRd limit design force Fe external force (on bolted connection) Fb, Rd limit design bearing force Fb, Sd; Fbi, Sd design bearing force Fcs, Rd limit design tensile force Fp, d design preloading force Fcr reduction in compression force due to external tension SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 10 Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations (2 of 4) Symbols, abbreviations Description Ft, Rd Ft,Sd limit design tensile force in bolt external tensile force per bolt Fv, Sd design shear force per bolt and shear plane Fvp, Rd limit design shear force per pin and shear plane Fvp, Sd design shear force per pin and shear plane Fs,Rd limit design slip force per bolt and shear plane Fvs, Rd limit design shear force of the connected part Fvd, Sd design force in the connected part Fvt, Rd limit design tensile force of the connected part F acting normal/shear force f maximum imperfection fd limit stress !fk" characteristic value (stress) fRd limit design stress fu ultimate strength of material fub ultimate strength of bolts fw, Rd limit design weld stress fy #yield stress of material, specified or measured$ fyb yield stress of bolts fyp #yield stress of pins, specified or measured$ !hd distance between weld and contact level of acting load" I, Ii moments of inertia of members k stress concentration factor (pinned connections) Kb stiffness of bolt Kc stiffness of connected parts k* specific spectrum ratio factor km stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration k3 stress spectrum factor based on m = 3 k, k k buckling factors L element length (buckling) lm gauge length lr relevant weld length lW weld length MRd limit design bending moment MSd design bending moment m -curve N compressive force (buckling) SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 11 Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations (3 of 4) Symbols, abbreviations Description NC notch class Nk critical buckling load Nref reference number of cycles

extreme values of stresses PS probability of survival p penetration of weld Q shear (evaluation of stress cycles) qi impact toughness parameter

cross section parameter (lateral buckling) b characteristic factor for bearing connection L load introduction factor (bolted connection) w characteristic factor for limit weld stress m general resistance factor mf fatigue strength specific resistance factor p partial safety factor R resulting resistance factor S specific resistance factor Rb resulting resistance factor of bolt sbb, sbs, sbt specific resistance factors of bolted connections Rm resulting resistance factor of members sm specific resistance factor of members Rp resulting resistance factor of pins spm ,sps , spb ,spt specific resistance factors of pins Rs resulting resistance factor of slip-resistance connection ss specific resistance factor of slip-resistance connection Rc resulting resistance factor for tension on section with holes st specific resistance factor for tension on section with holes Rw resulting resistance factor of welding connection sw specific resistance factor of welding connection p elongation from preloading Ö2 dynamic factor

dispersion angle (wheel pressure) xy reduction factors (buckling)
width of contact area in weld direction SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 12 Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations (4 of 4) Symbols, abbreviations Description xy non-dimensional plate slenderness (buckling)

edge stress ratio (buckling) b additional force t additional elongation µ slip factor

relative total number of stress cycles !deleted text" D ratio of diameters c characteristic value of stress range (normal stress) c characteristic value of stress range (shear stress) e reference stress (buckling) b lower extreme value of stress range u upper extreme value of stress range Sd design stress (normal) Sd design stress (shear) w, Sd w, Sd Rd design weld stress (normal) design weld stress (shear) limit design stress range (normal) Rd,1 limit design stress range for k* = 1 Rd limit design stress range (shear) Sd design stress range (normal) Sd design stress range (shear) 4 General 4.1 Documentation The documentation of the proof of competence shall include: — design assumptions including calculation models, — applicable loads and load combinations, — material grades and qualities, — weld quality levels, in accordance with EN ISO 5817, — materials of connecting elements, — relevant limit states, — results of the proof of competence calculation. and tests when applicable. SIST EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018 (E) 13 4.2 Materials for structural members 4.2.1 Grades and qualities European Standards specify materials and specific values. This standard gives a preferred selection. For structural members, steel according to following European Standards should be used: a) Non-alloy structural steels EN 10025-2; b) Weldable fine grain structural steels in conditions: 1) normalized (N) EN 10025-3;

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