Radiation protection instrumentation - Ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation -- Part 1: Portable workplace and environmental meters and monitors

EN IEC 60846-1 applies to dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent (rate) and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) from external beta, X and gamma radiation, as recommended in ICRU, Report 47. This part of IEC 60846 series applies only to portable meters and monitors which are intended to be used in both the workplace and the environment. It applies to devices that measure the dose equivalent or dose equivalent rate from external beta and/or X and gamma radiation in the dose range between 0,01 μSv and 10 Sv and the dose rate range between 0,01 μSv h-1 and 10 Sv h-1 and in the energy ranges given in the following Table. All the energy values are mean energies with respect to the prevailing dose quantity.

Strahlenschutz-Messgeräte - Umgebungs- und/oder Richtungs-Äquivalentdosis(leistungs)-Messgeräte und/oder Monitore für Beta-, Röntgen- und Gammastrahlung -- Teil 1: Tragbare Messgeräte und Monitore für den Arbeitsplatz und die Umgebung

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments pour la mesure et/ou la surveillance de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit d'équivalent de dose) ambiant et/ou directionnel pour les rayonnements bêta, X et gamma -- Partie 1: Instruments de mesure et de surveillance portables pour les postes de travail et l'environnement

La CEI 60846-1:2009 spécifie les exigences relatives à la conception et aux caractéristiques des performances des instruments de mesure de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit) destinés à la détermination de l'équivalent de dose ambiant (ou du débit) et de l'équivalent de dose directionnel (ou du débit), comme cela est défini dans le Rapport 47 de la ICRU. S'applique aux appareils de mesure et/ou de surveillance de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit), destinés à la mesure de l'équivalent de dose ambiant (ou du débit) et/ou de l'équivalent de dose directionnel (ou du débit) dû à l'exposition externe aux rayonnements bêta, X et gamma.

Oprema za zaščito pred sevanjem - Merilniki ekvivalentne doze v prostoru in/ali usmerjene ekvivalentne doze in/ali monitorji sevanja beta, rentgenskega sevanja in sevanja gama (IEC 60846-1:2009, spremenjen)

Standard EN IEC 60846-1 se uporablja za merilnike in/ali monitorje ekvivalentne doze za merjenje ekvivalentne doze v prostoru in/ali usmerjene ekvivalentne doze sevanja beta, rentgenskega sevanja in sevanja gama, kot je priporočeno v poročilu 47 ICRU. Ta del skupine standardov IEC 60846 se uporablja le za prenosne merilnike in monitorje, ki so namenjeni uporabi na delovnem mestu in v okolju. Uporablja se za naprave, ki merijo ekvivalentno dozo ali hitrost ekvivalentne doze zunanjega sevanja beta in/ali rentgenskega sevanja in sevanja gama v razponu doz med 0,01 μSv in 10 Sv ter razponu hitrosti doz med 0,01 μSv h-1 in 10 Sv h-1 ter v energetskih razponih iz naslednje preglednice. Vse energetske vrednosti so povprečja glede na prevladujočo količino doze.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Oct-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Oct-2014
Due Date
14-Dec-2014
Completion Date
13-Oct-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
01-november-2014
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SIST EN 60846:2005
2SUHPD]D]DãþLWRSUHGVHYDQMHP0HULOQLNLHNYLYDOHQWQHGR]HYSURVWRUXLQDOL

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VHYDQMDJDPD ,(&VSUHPHQMHQ

Radiation protection instrumentation - Ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate)

meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation -- Part 1: Portable workplace

and environmental meters and monitors
Strahlenschutz-Messgeräte - Umgebungs- und/oder Richtungs-Äquivalentdosis

(leistungs)-Messgeräte und/oder Monitore für Beta-, Röntgen- und Gammastrahlung --

Teil 1: Tragbare Messgeräte und Monitore für den Arbeitsplatz und die Umgebung

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments pour la mesure et/ou la surveillance

de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit d'équivalent de dose) ambiant et/ou directionnel

pour les rayonnements bêta, X et gamma -- Partie 1: Instruments de mesure et de
surveillance portables pour les postes de travail et l'environnement
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60846-1:2014
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN 60846-1:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60846-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2014
ICS 13.280 Supersedes EN 60846:2004
English Version
Radiation protection instrumentation - Ambient and/or directional
dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and
gamma radiation - Part 1: Portable workplace and environmental
meters and monitors
(IEC 60846-1:2009 , modified)

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments pour la Strahlenschutz-Messgeräte - Umgebungs- und/oder

mesure et/ou la surveillance de l'équivalent de dose (ou du
Richtungs-Äquivalentdosis(leistungs)-Messgeräte und/oder

débit d'équivalent de dose) ambiant et/ou directionnel pour Monitore für Beta-, Röntgen- und Gammastrahlung - Teil 1:

les rayonnements bêta, X et gamma - Partie 1: Instruments Tragbare Messgeräte und Monitore für den Arbeitsplatz und

de mesure et de surveillance portables pour les postes de die Umgebung
travail et l'environnement (IEC 60846-1:2009 , modifiziert)
(CEI 60846-1:2009 , modifiée)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-07-28. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60846-1:2014 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
EN 60846-1:2014 – 2 –
Foreword

This document (EN 60846-1:2014) consists of the text of IEC 60846-1:2009 prepared by IEC/SC 45B

"Radiation protection instrumentation" of IEC/TC 45 "Nuclear instrumentation", together with the

common modifications prepared by CLC/TC 45B "Radiation protection instrumentation".

The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which this document has to be implemented (dop) 2015-07-28
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national standards conflicting (dow) 2017-07-28
with this document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60846:2004.

Clauses, subclauses, notes, tables, figures and annexes which are additional to those in

IEC 60846-1:2009 are prefixed “Z”.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
– 3 – EN 60846-1:2014
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60846-1:2009 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard with agreed common modifications.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60325:2002 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60325:2004 (modified).
IEC 61005:2003 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61005:2004 (modified).
COMMON MODIFICATIONS
All over the document
Replace “1,5 MeV” with “1,33 MeV”.
3 Terms and definitions
In the note of 3.19, replace “Tables 5 to 8” with “Tables 5 to 9”.
4 Units and list of symbols
In Table 2, delete the row starting with t .
min
5 General characteristics of ambient and directional dose equivalent (rate)
meters
In 5.7, replace “Tables 4 to 8” with “Tables 5 to 9”.
8 Radiation performance requirements and tests
In 8.9.2.2, replace the second paragraph by the following:

The initial and final dose equivalent rates shall differ by a factor of 10 or more up to the factor for the

change from background dose rate to the maximum dose rate of the rated range. The measurements

shall be carried out for both an increase and a decrease in the dose equivalent rate by this factor. The

initial or the final dose equivalent rate shall be the background dose rate.
10 Mechanical characteristics of directional and ambient dose equivalent (rate)
meters
Add the following new subclause.
10.Z1 Drop test during operation
10.Z1.1 Requirements

Portable dose equivalent (rate) meters shall be able to withstand without damage, a drop from a

height of 0,3 m onto a hard steel or concrete surface.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
EN 60846-1:2014 – 4 –
10.Z1.2 Test method

The dose equivalent (rate) meter shall withstand at least one single drop from 0,3 m to each surface of

dose equivalent (rate) meter so that the unit is still operable after the drop. The test may be performed

either with one or more test units in such a way that one drop onto each surface of the dose equivalent

(rate) meter is tested. The instrument passes the test if the instrument response does not deviate after

the 6 drop tests from the original response by more than - 17 % to + 25 %. The drop can make the

instrument switch off but the user shall be able to switch the unit back on. The physical condition of the

instrument shall not be affected by these drops (for example solder joints shall hold, nuts and bolts

shall not come loose).
11 Environmental characteristics, performance requirements and tests

In 11.4.2, replace the last sentence by “The differences shall be within - 9 % to + 11 %”.

Table 9 – Mechanical performance under test conditions
Add the following at the end of Table 9.
Drop during operation 0,3 m 6 drops from a given height onto 10.Z1
steel or concrete surface
Annexes
Add the following new annex.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
– 5 – EN 60846-1:2014
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-151 2001 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) - -
Part 151: Electrical and magnetic devices
IEC 60050-393 2003 International Electrotechnology Vocabulary - -
Part 393: Nuclear instrumentation - Physical
phenomena and basic concepts
IEC 60050-394 2007 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
Part 394: Nuclear instrumentation - Instruments,
systems, equipment and detectors
IEC 60068-2-31 2008 Environmental testing EN 60068-2-31 2008
Part 2-31: Tests - Test Ec: Rough handling
shocks, primarily for equipment-type specimens
IEC 60086-1 2006 Primary batteries EN 60086-1 2007
Part 1: General
IEC 60086-2 2006 Primary batteries EN 60086-2 2007
+ corr. April 2007 Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications
IEC 60359 2001 Electrical and electronic measurement EN 60359 2002
equipment - Expression of performance
IEC 60529 1989 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures EN 60529 1991
+ A1 1999 (IP Code) + corr. May 1993
+ A1 2000
IEC 61000-4-2 1995 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-4-2 1995
+ A1 1998 Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques - + A1 1998
+ A2 2000 Electrostatic discharge immunity test + A2 2001
IEC 61000-4-3 2006 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-4-3 2006
+ A1 2007 Part 4-3: Testing and measurement techniques - + A1 2008
Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field
immunity test
IEC 61000-4-6 2008 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-4-6 2009
Part 4-6: Testing and measurement techniques -
Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by
radio-frequency fields
IEC 61000-4-8 1993 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-4-8 1993
+ A1 2000 Part 4-8: Testing and measurement techniques - + A1 2001
Power frequency magnetic field immunity test

1) EN 60086-1 is superseded by EN 60086-1:2011, which is based on IEC 60086-1:2011.

2) EN 60086-2 is superseded by EN 60086-2:2011, which is based on IEC 60086-2:2011.

3) EN 61000-4-2 is superseded by EN 61000-4-2:2009, which is based on IEC 61000-4-2:2008.

4) EN 61000-4-6 is superseded by EN 61000-4-6:2014, which is based on IEC 61000-4-6:2013.

5) EN 61000-4-8 is superseded by EN 61000-4-8:2010, which is based on IEC 61000-4-8:2009.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
EN 60846-1:2014 – 6 –
IEC 61000-6-2 2005 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-6-2 2005
Part 6-2: Generic standards - Immunity for + corr. September 2005
industrial environments

IEC 61187 (mod) 1993 Electrical and electronic measuring equipment - EN 61187 1994

Documentation + corr. March 1995
IEC/TR 62461 2006 Radiation protection instrumentation - - -
Determination of uncertainty in measurement
ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 2008 Uncertainty of measurement - -
Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in
measurement (GUM:1995)
ISO/IEC Guide 99 2007 International vocabulary of metrology - Basic and - -
general concepts and associated terms (VIM)
ISO 4037-1 1996
X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating - -
dosemeters and doserate meters and for
determining their response as a function of
photon energy
Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production
methods
ISO 4037-2 1997 X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating - -
dosemeters and doserate meters and for
determining their response as a function of
photon energy
Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over
the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and
4 MeV to 9 MeV
ISO 4037-3 1999 X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating - -
dosemeters and doserate meters and for
determining their response as a function of
photon energy
Part 3: Calibration of area and personal
dosemeters and the measurement of their
response as a function of energy and angle of
incidence
ISO 4037-4 2004 X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating - -
dosemeters and doserate meters and for
determining their response as a function of
photon energy
Part 4: Calibration of area and personal
dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation
fields
ISO 6980-1 2006 Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle - -
radiation
Part 1: Methods of production
ISO 6980-2 2004 Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle - -
radiation
Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic
quantities characterizing the radiation field
ISO 6980-3 2006 Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle - -
radiation
Part 3: Calibration of area and personal
dosemeters and the determination of their
response as a function of beta radiation energy
and angle of incidence
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
IEC 60846-1
Edition 1.0 2009-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Radiation protection instrumentation – Ambient and/or directional dose
equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation –
Part 1: Portable workplace and environmental meters and monitors
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Instruments pour la mesure et/ou la
surveillance de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit d'équivalent de dose) ambiant
et/ou directionnel pour les rayonnements bêta, X et gamma –
Partie 1: Instruments de mesure et de surveillance portables pour les postes de
travail et l’environnement
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 13.280 ISBN 978-2-88910-308-9
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
– 2 – 60846-1 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................6

1 Scope and object..............................................................................................................8

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................9

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................10

4 Units and list of symbols.................................................................................................15

4.1 Units .....................................................................................................................15

4.2 List of symbols ......................................................................................................16

5 General characteristics of ambient and directional dose equivalent (rate) meters ...........18

5.1 Indication ..............................................................................................................18

5.2 Read-out ...............................................................................................................18

5.3 Dose equivalent rate range....................................................................................18

5.4 Effective range of measurement ............................................................................18

5.5 Minimum range of measurement............................................................................19

5.6 Rated range of an influence quantity .....................................................................19

5.7 Minimum rated range of influence quantity ............................................................19

5.8 Alarm levels ..........................................................................................................19

5.9 Additional indication ..............................................................................................20

5.10 Failure operation of indication ...............................................................................20

5.11 Ease of decontamination .......................................................................................20

5.12 Information given on the instruments.....................................................................20

5.13 Algorithm to evaluate the indicated value ..............................................................20

5.14 Classification of the dosemeters............................................................................20

6 General test procedures .................................................................................................20

6.1 Instructions for use................................................................................................20

6.2 Nature of tests.......................................................................................................21

6.3 Reference conditions and standard test conditions ................................................21

6.4 Tests for influence quantities of type F ..................................................................21

6.5 Tests for influence quantities of type S..................................................................21

6.6 Consideration of non-linearity................................................................................21

6.7 Consideration of several detectors or signals in a dosemeter ................................21

6.8 Position of dose equivalent (rate) meter for test purposes .....................................22

6.9 Low dose equivalent rates.....................................................................................22

6.10 Statistical fluctuations ...........................................................................................22

6.11 Production of reference radiation...........................................................................22

6.12 Reference photon radiation ...................................................................................22

6.13 Reference beta radiation .......................................................................................23

6.14 Determination of dose equivalent (rate) response..................................................23

7 Additivity of indicated value ............................................................................................23

7.1 Requirements........................................................................................................23

7.2 Method of test .......................................................................................................23

7.3 Interpretation of the results ...................................................................................24

8 Radiation performance requirements and tests ...............................................................24

8.1 General .................................................................................................................24

8.2 Consideration of the uncertainty of the conventional quantity value .......................24

8.3 Model function.......................................................................................................24

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
60846-1 © IEC:2009 – 3 –
8.4 Variation of the response due to photon radiation energy and angle of

incidence...............................................................................................................24

8.4.1 Measuring quantity H'(0,07) or H'(0,07) .....................................................24

8.4.2 Measuring quantity H*(10) or H*(10) ........................................................25

8.5 Variation of the response due to beta radiation energy and angle of

incidence...............................................................................................................26

8.5.1 Measuring quantity H'(0,07) or H'(0,07) .....................................................26

8.5.2 Measuring quantity H*(10) or H*(10) ........................................................27

8.6 Response to neutron radiation...............................................................................28

8.6.1 Requirements ............................................................................................28

8.6.2 Test method ..............................................................................................28

8.7 Linearity and statistical fluctuations .......................................................................28

8.7.1 General .....................................................................................................28

8.7.2 Requirements ............................................................................................28

8.7.3 Method of test ...........................................................................................28

8.7.4 Interpretation of the results........................................................................29

8.8 Overload characteristics ........................................................................................30

8.8.1 Dose equivalent meters .............................................................................30

8.8.2 Dose equivalent ratemeters .......................................................................30

8.9 Response time ......................................................................................................31

8.9.1 Dose equivalent meters .............................................................................31

8.9.2 Dose equivalent ratemeters .......................................................................31

8.10 Interrelation between response time and statistical fluctuations.............................32

8.11 Variation of the response due to dose rate dependence of dose

measurements.......................................................................................................32

8.11.1 General .....................................................................................................32

8.11.2 Requirements ............................................................................................32

8.11.3 Method of test using radiation sources ......................................................33

8.11.4 Method of test using natural radiation ........................................................33

8.11.5 Interpretation of the results........................................................................33

8.12 Response to pulsed ionizing radiation fields ..........................................................33

8.12.1 Requirements ............................................................................................33

8.12.2 Test method ..............................................................................................33

8.13 Requirements on the accuracy of alarm of dose equivalent (rate) monitors............33

8.13.1 Dose equivalent alarm ...............................................................................33

8.13.2 Dose equivalent rate alarm........................................................................34

9 Electrical characteristics of directional and ambient dose equivalent (rate) meters .........35

9.1 Stability of zero indication with time.......................................................................35

9.1.1 Requirements ............................................................................................35

9.1.2 Test method ..............................................................................................35

9.1.3 Interpretation of the results........................................................................35

9.2 Warm-up time........................................................................................................35

9.2.1 Requirements ............................................................................................35

9.2.2 Test method ..............................................................................................35

9.2.3 Interpretation of the results........................................................................35

9.3 Power supplies......................................................................................................36

9.3.1 General .....................................................................................................36

9.3.2 Requirements ............................................................................................36

9.3.3 Test method ..............................................................................................36

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60846-1:2014
– 4 – 60846-1 © IEC:2009
10 Mechanical characteristics of directional and ambient dose equivalent (rate)

meters ............................................................................................................................37

10.1 Shock during operation (microphonics)..................................................................37

10.1.1 General .....................................................................................................37

10.1.2 Requirements ............................................................................................37

10.1.3 Method of test and interpretation of the results ..........................................37

10.2 Drop test during transport......................................................................................38

10.2.1 Requirements ............................................................................................38

10.2.2 Test method ..............................................................................................38

10.2.3 Interpretation of the results........................................................................38

10.3 Orientation of dose equivalent (rate) meter (geotropism) .......................................38

10.3.1 General .....................................................................................................38

10.3.2 Requirements ............................................................................................38

10.3.3 Test method ..............................................................................................38

11 Environmental characteristics, performance requirements and tests ...............................39

11.1 General .................................................................................................................39

11.2 Ambient temperature .............................................................................................39

11.2.1 Requirements ............................................................................................39

11.2.2 Test method ..............................................................................................39

11.2.3 Interpretation of the results........................................................................39

11.3 Relative humidity...................................................................................................39

11.3.1 Requirements ............................................................................................39

11.3.2 Test method ..............................................................................................39

11.3.3 Interpretation of the results........................................................................40

11.4 Atmospheric pressure............................................................................................40

11.4.1 Requirements ............................................................................................40

11.4.2 Test method ..............................................................................................40

11.5 Sealing against moisture .......................................................................................40

11.6 Storage and transport............................................................................................40

11.7 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................40

11.7.1 General .....................................................................................................40

11.7.2 Emission of electromagnetic radiation........................................................41

11.7.3 Electrostatic discharge ..............................................................................41

11.7.4 Radiated electromagnetic fields.................................................................41

11.7.5 Conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequencies ..............................42

11.7.6 50 Hz/60 Hz magnetic field........................................................................42

12 Software.......................................................................

...

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