Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 1: General principles (ISO 13164-1:2013, Correction version 2013-11-15)

ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.
The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Radon 222 - Teil 1: Grundlagen (ISO 13164-1:2013, korrigierte Fassung 2013-11-15)

Dieser Teil von ISO 13164 enthält allgemeine Leitlinien für die Probenahme, Verpackung und den Transport von Wasserproben aller Art zur Messung der Aktivitätskonzentration von Radon 222.
Die Prüfverfahren gliedern sich in zwei Kategorien:
a) direkte Messung der Wasserprobe ohne Phasenübergang (siehe ISO 13164 2);
b) indirekte Messung durch Übertragung des Radon 222 von der wässrigen Phase in eine andere Phase (siehe ISO 13164 3).
Die Prüfverfahren können entweder im Labor oder vor Ort angewendet werden.
Das Labor ist dafür verantwortlich, die Eignung dieses Prüfverfahrens für die zu prüfenden Wasserproben sicherzustellen.

Qualité de l'eau - Radon 222 - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 13164-1:2013, Version corrigée 2013-11-15)

L'ISO 13164-1:2013 fournit des lignes directrices générales pour le prélèvement, le conditionnement et le transport d'échantillons d'eau de tous types, pour la mesure de l'activité volumique du radon 222.
Les méthodes de mesure relèvent de deux catégories: a) mesure directe de l'échantillon d'eau, sans transfert de phase (voir l'ISO 13164-2); b) mesure indirecte impliquant le transfert du radon 222 de la phase aqueuse vers une autre phase (voir l'ISO 13164-3).
Les méthodes d'essais peuvent être mises en oeuvre en laboratoire ou sur site.
Il est de la responsabilité du laboratoire de s'assurer de l'adéquation de la méthode d'essai aux échantillons d'eau soumis à essai.

Kakovost vode - Radon Rn-222 - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO 13164-1:2013, popravljena izdaja 2013-11-15)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Aug-2019
Publication Date
07-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Apr-2020
Due Date
06-Jun-2020
Completion Date
08-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
01-maj-2020
Kakovost vode - Radon Rn-222 - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO 13164-1:2013,
popravljena izdaja 2013-11-15)

Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 1: General principles (ISO 13164-1:2013, Correction

version 2013-11-15)

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Radon 222 - Teil 1: Grundlagen (ISO 13164-1:2013, korrigierte

Fassung 2013-11-15)

Qualité de l'eau - Radon 222 - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 13164-1:2013, Version

corrigée 2013-11-15)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ICS:
13.060.60 Preiskava fizikalnih lastnosti Examination of physical
vode properties of water
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
EN ISO 13164-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.60; 17.240; 13.280
English Version
Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 1: General principles (ISO
13164-1:2013, Correction version 2013-11-15)

Qualité de l'eau - Radon 222 - Partie 1: Principes Wasserbeschaffenheit - Radon 222 - Teil 1: Grundlagen

généraux (ISO 13164-1:2013, Version corrigée 2013- (ISO 13164-1:2013, korrigierte Fassung 2013-11-15)

11-15)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 October 2019.

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 11 March 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 13164-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
EN ISO 13164-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
EN ISO 13164-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 13164-1:2013, Corrected version 2013-11-15 has been prepared by Technical

Committee ISO/TC 147 "Water quality” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and

has been taken over as EN ISO 13164-1:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 13164-1:2013, Corrected version 2013-11-15 has been approved by CEN as

EN ISO 13164-1:2020 without any modification.
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13164-1
First edition
2013-09-01
Corrected version
2013-11-15
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles
Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Principle of the measurement method ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Transportation and storage ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Test sample preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Degassing techniques ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Permeation technique ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Liquid extraction technique ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Detection techniques ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Gamma-spectrometry ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) scintillation .................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Air ionization ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4 Semiconductor (alpha-detection)........................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Liquid scintillation ............................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.2 Gamma-spectrometry method ...............................................................................................................................................10

9.3 Emanometric method ....................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Liquid scintillation counting methods (LSC) .............................................................................................................12

9.5 Permeation method .........................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Calibration ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Quality assurance and quality control programme ......................................................................................................12

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.2 Influence quantities .........................................................................................................................................................................12

11.3 Instrument verification.................................................................................................................................................................13

11.4 Method verification ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

11.5 Demonstration of analyst capability .................................................................................................................................13

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

13 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Radon and its decay products in water .............................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Examples of data record forms ..................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, www.iso.org/directives.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received, www.iso.org/patents.

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 3,

Radioactivity measurements.

ISO 13164 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Radon-222:

— Part 1: General principles
— Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry
— Part 3: Test method using emanometry
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 4: Test method using two-phase liquid scintillation counting

This corrected version of ISO 13164-1:2013 incorporates the following corrections:

— Table 2: The check marks which printed out incorrectly in the last two columns have been

changed to X’s. The X’s from the cells “Gamma spectrometry – On-site” and “Liquid scintillation –

On-site” have been removed.

— Annex B: The examples of data record forms for B.2 and B.3 were inversed. They are now in the

right places.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally occurring and human-made sources is present throughout the

environment. Thus, water bodies (surface waters, groundwaters, sea waters) can contain radionuclides

of natural and human-made origin.

— Natural radionuclides, including potassium-40, and those of the thorium and uranium decay series,

in particular radium-226, radium-228, uranium-234, uranium-238, lead-210, can be found in water

for natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash-off by rain water) or releases from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use).

— Human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

curium), tritium, carbon-14, strontium-90 and gamma-emitting radionuclides can also be found in

natural waters as they can be authorized to be routinely released into the environment in small

quantities in the effluent discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities and following their used in

unsealed form in medicine or industry. They are also found in water due to the past fallout of the

explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Drinking-water can thus contain radionuclides at activity concentration which could present a risk to

human health. In order to assess the quality of drinking-water (including mineral waters and spring

waters) with respect to its radionuclide content and to provide guidance on reducing health risks by

taking measures to decrease radionuclide activity concentrations, water resources (groundwater, river,

lake, sea, etc.) and drinking water are monitor for their radioactivity content as recommended by the

World Health Organization (WHO).

Standard test methods for radon-222 activity concentrations in water samples are needed by test

laboratories carrying out such measurements in fulfillment of national authority requirements.

Laboratories may have to obtain a specific accreditation for radionuclide measurement in drinking

water samples.

The radon activity concentration in surface water is very low, usually below 1 Bq l . In groundwater, the

−1 −1 −1

activity concentration varies from 1 Bq l up to 50 Bq l in sedimentary rock aquifers, from 10 Bq l

−1 −1 −1

up to 300 Bq l in wells, and from 100 Bq l up to 1 000 Bq l in crystalline rocks. The highest activity

concentrations are normally measured in rocks with high concentration of uranium (Reference [30]).

High variations in the activity concentrations of radon in aquifers have been observed. Even in a region

with relatively uniform rock types, some well water may exhibit radon activity concentration greatly

higher than the average value for the same region. Significant seasonal variations have also been

recorded (see Annex A).

Water may dissolve chemical substances as it passes from the soil surface to an aquifer or spring waters.

The water may pass through or remain for some time in rock, some formations of which may contain a

high concentration of natural radionuclides. Under favourable geochemical conditions, the water may

selectively dissolve some of these natural radionuclides.

Guidance on radon in drinking-water supplies provided by WHO in 2008 suggests that controls should be

implemented if the radon concentration of drinking-water for public water supplies exceeds 100 Bq l .

It also recommended that any new, especially public, drinking-water supply using groundwater should

be tested prior to being used for general consumption and that if the radon concentration exceeds

100 Bq l , treatment of the water source should be undertaken to reduce the radon levels to well below

that level (Reference [41]).

This International Standard is one of a series dealing with the measurement of the activity concentration

of radionuclides in water samples.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles

WARNING — Persons using this document should be familiar with normal laboratory practice.

This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to

ensure compliance with any national regulatory conditions.

IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests conducted in accordance with this document

be carried out by suitably qualified staff.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13164 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of

water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories:

a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164-2);

b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another

phase (see ISO 13164-3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.

The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by high

resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-2, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-3, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 3: Test method using emanometry

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 13164-1:2020
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3 Terms, definitions, and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

3.1.1
activity

number of spontaneous nuclear disintegrations occurring in a given quantity of material during a

suitably small interval of time divided by that interval of time
23]
[SOURCE: ISO 921:1997,
3.1.2
activity concentration in water
activity per volume of water

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in water is expressed in becquerels per litre.

3.1.3
activity concentration in air
activity per volume of air following the degassing phase

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in air is expressed in becquerels per cubic metre.

3.1.4
test sample
part of the total sample subjected to analysis
3.1.5
Bunsen coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at standard temperature (273,15 K) and standard partial pressure (0,1 MPa)

divided by the volume of the solvent at a temperature, T, and standard pressure (0,1 MPa)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 239.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or

mole ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Bunsen

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in water increases as the water temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.6
continuous measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration of continuous samples at a given sampling point in the

water environment

Note 1 to entry: This form of analysis is used to monitor variations in the activity concentration of radon in the

water at the sampling point over time.
3.1.7
continuous sampling
process whereby samples are taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32, modified]
3.1.8
degassing

transfer of dissolved radon from water to air, usually by means of a physical process

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.9
direct in-situ measurement

automatic analysis system in which at least the measurement probe is immersed in the body of water

3.1.10
discrete sample
localized discrete sample
single sample taken from a body of water at a random time or place
3.1.11
dissolution
mixing of two phases with the formation of one new homogeneous phase
3.1.12
drinking water
potable water
water of a quality suitable for drinking purposes
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 30]
3.1.13
groundwater

water which is held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 41, modified]
3.1.14
intermittent sampling
process whereby discrete samples are taken from a body of water
3.1.15
mains water

water fed from a drinking water treatment station, spring or borehole into a distribution system or reservoir

3.1.16
Ostwald coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at a given temperature and pressure divided by the volume of the solvent at

the same temperature and pressure
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 1147.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or mole

ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Ostwald

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in a liquid increases as the liquid temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.17
radon transport by permeation

transfer of radon from one medium to another across a third homogeneous medium (membrane)

3.1.18
raw water

water which has received no treatment whatsoever, or water entering a plant for treatment or

further treatment
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 59]
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.19
reservoir

construction, partially or wholly man-made, for storage or regulation and control of water

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 107, modified]
3.1.20
surface water
water which flows over, or rests on, the surface of a land mass
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 74]
3.1.21
sample

portion, ideally representative, removed from a specified body of water, either discretely or continuously,

for the purpose of examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 111]
3.1.22
sampling

process of removing a portion, intended to be representative, of a body of water for the purpose of

examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 114]
3.1.23
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.1.24
sampling zone
extent of a body of water over which samples are taken
3.1.25
222
short-lived Rn decay products
222

radionuclides with a half-life <1 h produced by the decay of radon-222 ( Rn), namely polonium-218

218 214 214 214
( Po), lead-214 ( Pb), bismuth-214 ( Bi), and polonium-214 ( Po)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.26
spot measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration in a water discrete sample carried out either

immediately or after a known delay

Note 1 to entry: The result obtained is only representative of the time the sample was taken.

3.1.27
transfer
displacement or transport of radon from one phase to another
3.2 Symbols

For the purpose of this document, the symbols given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

c activity concentration in air following degassing, in becquerels per cubic metre

c activity concentration in water, in becquerels per litre
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
decision threshold, in becquerels per litre
detection limit, in becquerels per litre
lower and upper limits of the confidence interval, in becquerels per litre
cc,
c activity concentration in a liquid, in becquerels per litre
L Ostwald coefficient
T temperature of water sample, in degrees Celsius
U expanded uncertainty calculated by U = k.u( ) with k = 2
u(c ) standard uncertainty associated with the measurement result
V volume of the test sample, in litres
α Bunsen coefficient
4 Principle of the measurement method
222 226

Radon-222 ( Rn) is a radioactive gas produced by the decay of radium-226 ( Ra), which is one of the

238

decay products of the uranium-238 ( U) that is naturally present in the Earth’s crust (see Annex A).

The decay of radon-222 proceeds through a series of non-volatile radioactive elements resulting in

stable lead-206 (see Figure 1) (Reference [9]).
Figure 1 — Uranium-238 and its decay products

A large number of methods are available to measure the activity concentration of radon-222 in water.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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