Water quality - Guidance for rapid radioactivity measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency situation (ISO 22017:2020)

This standard describes the requirements for rapid testing of water samples under emergency situations in laboratories:
- taking into account a special context for analyses, e.g. an unknown and unusual contamination;
- using or adapting if possible radioactivity measurements methods used in routine to get a result
rapidly or applying specific rapid methods previously tested by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination ;
- preparing the laboratory to analyse a large number of potentially contaminated samples.
The focus thereby is on cases where rapid radioactivity test methods are applied for all kind of waters. The first steps of the analytical strategy is often based on gross alpha and gross beta as screening methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 10703). Then if necessary, specific radionuclides standards are adapted and applied (for example, Strontium 90 measurement following ISO 13160).
This guideline refers to a number of ISO standards. If appropriate, it will also refer to national or other
publically available standards.
Screening techniques that can be carried out on site are not part of this guide.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Schnellverfahren zur Radioaktivitätsmessung in nuklearen oder radiologischen Notfallsituationen (ISO 22017:2020)

Dieses Dokument enthält Leitlinien für Prüflaboratorien, die Schnellprüfverfahren bei Wasserproben, die infolge einer nuklearen oder radiologischen Notfallsituation möglicherweise kontaminiert sind, anwenden möchten. In einer Notfallsituation sollte bedacht werden, dass
- die spezifischen Rahmenbedingungen der durchzuführenden Prüfungen berücksichtigt werden, z. B. ein potentiell hoher Kontaminationsgrad,
- die in Routinesituationen angewendeten Prüfverfahren zur Radioaktivitätsmessung nach Möglichkeit angewendet oder angepasst werden, um schnell ein Ergebnis zu erhalten, oder – bei nicht routinemäßig durchgeführten Prüfungen – spezielle Schnellprüfverfahren angewendet werden, die zuvor vom Laboratorium validiert wurden (z. B. für die Bestimmung von 89Sr),
- das Prüflaboratorium darauf vorbereitet wird, eine große Anzahl an potentiell kontaminierten Proben zu messen.
Ziel dieses Dokuments ist es, sicherzustellen, dass den Entscheidungsträgern die erforderlichen zuverlässigen Ergebnisse zur Verfügung stehen, um rasch Maßnahmen zu ergreifen und die Strahlendosis für die Bevölkerung zu minimieren.
Um das Risiko für die Bevölkerung möglichst gering zu halten, wird die Qualität der Wasserversorgung durch Messungen überprüft. In Notfallsituationen werden Prüfergebnisse oft mit abgeleiteten Richtwerten verglichen.
ANMERKUNG Die abgeleiteten Richtwerte (OILs, en: operational intervention levels) stammen aus den Sicherheitsstandards der Internationalen Atomenergie-Organisation IAEO [8] oder von nationalen Behörden [9].
Ein Schlüsselelement einer raschen Analyse kann die Verwendung von routinemäßigen Verfahren mit verkürzter Durchführungszeit sein. Diese Schnellmessungen dienen häufig dazu, ungewöhnlich hohe radioaktive Belastungen in der Probe festzustellen, die vorhandenen Radionuklide und ihre Aktivitätskonzentrationen zu bestimmen sowie zu ermitteln, ob das Wasser den Eingreifrichtwerten entspricht [10], [11], [12]. Es sollte beachtet werden, dass unter diesen Umständen die für Routineanwendungen evaluierten Validierungsparameter (z. B. Vergleichpräzision, Präzision usw.) möglicherweise nicht auf das modifizierte Schnellverfahren anwendbar sind. Aufgrund der nach einem Notfall auftretenden Umstände kann das modifizierte Verfahren jedoch nach wie vor seinen Zweck erfüllen, wenngleich die mit den Prüfergebnissen verbundenen Unsicherheiten beurteilt werden müssen und gegenüber Routineanalysen zunehmen können.
Die ersten Schritte des analytischen Ansatzes sind üblicherweise Screening Verfahren, die auf Gesamt-Alpha  und Gesamt-Beta-Verfahren (Anpassung von ISO 10704 und ISO 11704) und Gammaspektrometrie (Anpassung von ISO 20042, ISO 10703 und ISO 19581) beruhen. Anschließend werden bei Bedarf [13] die Normen mit Prüfverfahren für spezifische Radionuklide (siehe Abschnitt 2) angepasst und angewendet (z. B. Messung von 90Sr nach ISO 13160), wie in Anhang A vorgeschlagen.
Dieses Dokument verweist auf veröffentlichte ISO Dokumente. An entsprechender Stelle verweist dieses Dokument auch auf nationale Normen oder andere öffentlich zugängliche Dokumente.
Screening-Techniken, die direkt vor Ort durchgeführt werden können, werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt.

Qualité de l'eau - Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique (ISO 22017:2020)

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour les laboratoires d'essai désireux d'utiliser des méthodes d'essai rapides sur des échantillons d'eau susceptibles d'être contaminés suite à une situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique. Dans une situation d'urgence, il convient :
— de prendre en compte le contexte spécifique des essais à effectuer, par exemple un niveau de contamination potentiellement élevé ;
— d'utiliser ou d'ajuster, lorsque cela est possible, les méthodes d'essai pour la détermination de la radioactivité mises en œuvre dans des situations de routine pour obtenir rapidement un résultat ou, pour les essais non effectués dans des situations de routine, d'appliquer des méthodes d'essai rapides spécifiques préalablement validées par le laboratoire, par exemple pour la détermination de l'activité volumique de 89Sr ;
— de préparer le laboratoire d'essai à mesurer un grand nombre d'échantillons potentiellement contaminés.
Le présent document a pour objectif de s'assurer que les décideurs disposent de résultats fiables pour prendre des mesures rapidement et pour réduire au minimum la dose pour le public.
Les mesurages sont effectués lors du contrôle de la qualité de l'eau des ressources d'eau afin de réduire au minimum le risque pour le public. Pour les situations d'urgence, les résultats d'essai sont souvent comparés aux niveaux opérationnels d'intervention.
NOTE Les niveaux opérationnels d'intervention (NOI) proviennent des normes de sureté l'AIEA[8] ou des autorités nationales[9].
Un élément clé d'analyse rapide peut consister à utiliser les méthodes de routine mais dans un délai plus court. L'objectif de ces mesurages rapides est souvent de contrôler des niveaux de radioactivité inhabituels dans l'échantillon pour essai, d'identifier les radionucléides présents et leurs activités volumiques ainsi que d'établir la conformité de l'eau avec les niveaux d'intervention[10][11][12]. Il convient de noter que dans ces cas, les paramètres de validation évalués pour l'usage en routine (par exemple, reproductibilité, fidélité, etc.) ne sont pas nécessairement applicables à la méthode rapide modifiée. Cependant, en raison des conséquences découlant d'une situation d'urgence, la méthode modifiée peut rester adaptée à l'usage prévu, bien que les incertitudes associées aux résultats d'essai doivent être évaluées et puissent augmenter par rapport aux analyses de routine.
Les premières étapes de la méthode d'analyse reposent généralement sur les méthodes d'essai des activités volumiques alpha globale et bêta globale considérées comme des méthodes de dépistage (adaptation de l'ISO 10704 et de l'ISO 11704) et sur la spectrométrie gamma (adaptation de l'ISO 20042, de l'ISO 10703 et de l'ISO 19581). Puis, si nécessaire[13], les normes sur les méthodes d'essai relatives à des radionucléides spécifiques (voir l'Article 2) sont adaptées et appliquées (par exemple, mesurage du 90Sr conformément à l'ISO 13160) comme cela est proposé à l'Annexe A.
Le présent document fait référence à des documents ISO publiés. Le cas échéant, le présent document fait également référence à des normes nationales ou à d'autres documents publics disponibles.
Les méthodes de dépistage qui peuvent être appliquées directement sur site ne font pas partie du présent document.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za hitre meritve radioaktivnosti v nujnih primerih (ISO 22017:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Sep-2019
Publication Date
07-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Oct-2020
Due Date
02-Jan-2021
Completion Date
08-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
01-januar-2021
Kakovost vode - Navodilo za hitre meritve radioaktivnosti v nujnih primerih (ISO
22017:2020)

Water quality - Guidance for rapid radioactivity measurements in nuclear or radiological

emergency situation (ISO 22017:2020)

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Schnellverfahren zur Radioaktivitätsmessung in

nuklearen oder radiologischen Notfallsituationen (ISO 22017:2020)

Qualité de l'eau - Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de la radioactivité en

situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique (ISO 22017:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22017:2020
ICS:
13.060.60 Preiskava fizikalnih lastnosti Examination of physical
vode properties of water
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN ISO 22017:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
EN ISO 22017
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.60; 13.280; 17.240
English Version
Water quality - Guidance for rapid radioactivity
measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency
situation (ISO 22017:2020)

Qualité de l'eau - Recommandations pour les Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Schnellverfahren

mesurages rapides de la radioactivité en situation zur Radioaktivitätsmessung in nuklearen oder

d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique (ISO 22017:2020) radiologischen Notfallsituationen (ISO 22017:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 August 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22017:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
EN ISO 22017:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
EN ISO 22017:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22017:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147 "Water

quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22017:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22017:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22017
First edition
2020-08
Water quality — Guidance for rapid
radioactivity measurements in
nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
Qualité de l'eau — Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de
la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique
Reference number
ISO 22017:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Guidance on emergency measurement ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Routine screening levels versus intervention levels .............................................................................................. 4

4.3 Operational intervention levels (OILs) from EU, USA and IAEA................................................................... 5

5 Rapid measurements ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Adaptation of the methods used .............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Rapid test methods .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 Pre-screening: Identification of most contaminated samples .................................................. 6

5.3.2 Selection of the analytical strategy .................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.3 Appropriate sample volumes and counting times related to intervention levels ... 9

5.3.4 Gross-alpha and gross-beta determination and gamma spectrometry .........................10

5.3.5 Specific separations for alpha emitters or pure beta emitters measurement .........11

6 Laboratory management to perform rapid measurements .................................................................................12

6.1 Protection of laboratory staff ..................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Sample management.......................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Material and staff ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Quality management .......................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Expression of results and test report ...............................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) World Health Organization screening for radionuclides in drinking

water ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) from EU, US and IAEA .................................15

Annex C (informative) Overview of different types of rapid measurements during a nuclear

or radiological emergency.......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) Example of a decision scheme for rapid measurements in the early

phase ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, SC 3, Radioactivity

measurements.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally-occurring and anthropogenic sources is present throughout

the environment. Thus, water bodies (e.g. surface waters, ground waters, sea waters) can contain

radionuclides of natural, human made, or both origins:
40 3 14

— Natural radionuclides, including K, H, C, and those originating from the thorium and uranium

226 228 234 238 210 210
decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U, Po and Pb can be found in water for

natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash off by rain water) or can be released from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizers production and use);

— Human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium and

3 14 90

curium), H, C, Sr, and some gamma emitting radionuclides can also be found in natural waters.

Small quantities of these radionuclides may be discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities into

the environment as the result of authorized routine releases. Some of these radionuclides used for

medical and industrial applications are also released into the environment after use. Anthropogenic

radionuclides are also found in waters as the result of past fallout contaminations resulting from

the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and accidents such as those that occurred in

Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Radionuclide activity concentration in water bodies can vary according to local geological

characteristics and climatic conditions and can be locally and temporally enhanced by releases from

[1]

nuclear installation during planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations . Drinking-water

may thus contain radionuclides at activity concentrations which could present a risk to human health.

The radionuclides present in liquid effluents are usually controlled before being discharged into

[2]

the environment and water bodies. Drinking waters are monitored for their radioactivity as

[3]

recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) so that proper actions can be taken to ensure

that there is no adverse health effect to the public. Following these international recommendations,

national regulations usually specify radionuclide authorized concentration limits for liquid effluent

discharged to the environment and radionuclide guidance levels for waterbodies and drinking waters

for planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations. Compliance with these limits can be assessed

using measurement results with their associated uncertainties as requested by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3

[4]
and ISO 5667-20 .

Depending of the exposure situation, there are different limits and guidance levels that would result in

an action to reduce health risk.

NOTE 1 The guidance level is the activity concentration with an intake of 2 ld of drinking water for one year,

that results in an effective dose of 0,1 mSva for members of the public. This is an effective dose that represents

[3]

a very low level of risk that is not expected to give rise to any detectable adverse health effect .

[5]

In the event of a nuclear emergency, the WHO Codex Guideline Levels indicates the activity

concentrations corresponding to operational intervention levels.

NOTE 2 The Codex guidelines levels (GLs) apply to radionuclides contained in foods destined for human

consumption and traded internationally, which have been contaminated following a nuclear or radiological

emergency. These GLs apply to food after reconstitution or as prepared for consumption, i.e. not to dried or

concentrated foods, and are based on an intervention exemption level of 1 mSv in a year for members of the

[5]
public (infant and adult) .

Thus, the test method can be adapted so that the characteristic limits, decision threshold and detection

limit, and the uncertainties ensure that the radionuclide activity concentration test results can be

verified to be below the guidance levels required by a national authority for either planned-existing

[6][7]
situations or an emergency situation .

Usually, the test methods can be adjusted to measure the activity concentration of the radionuclide(s)

in either wastewaters before storage or in liquid effluents before being discharged to the environment.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)

The test results will enable the plant/installation operator to verify that, before their discharge,

wastewaters/liquid effluent radioactive activity concentrations do not exceed authorized limits.

The test methods described in this document for emergency exposure situations may also be used

during planned, existing exposure situations as well as for wastewaters and liquid effluents with

specific modifications that could change the overall uncertainty, detection limit, and threshold.

The test method(s) may be used for water samples after proper sampling, sample handling, and test

sample preparation (see the relevant part of ISO 5667 series).

This document has been developed to answer the need of test laboratories carrying out these

measurements that may be required by national authorities during a nuclear or radiological emergency

exposure situation.

This document is one of a set of International Standards on test methods dealing with the measurement

of the activity concentration of radionuclides in water samples.

The ISO documents produced for radioactivity measurements in water are detailed methods. In most

cases, these methods have been used in laboratory practice for a number of years and the analytical

characteristics have been documented. However, these methods are generally time consuming and

require well trained analysts to carry them out.

Over the last years, an increasing need was recognized for the addition of guidance on the use of so-

called “rapid methods”. The nuclear accident at Fukushima in March 2011 accentuated the need for

these rapid measurements. During the initial stages of such incidents, decision makers had to deal with

taking protective measures for the population, such as sheltering, evacuation, and the distribution

of iodine prophylaxis. It has been found that time is critical and limited for taking these protective

measures.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22017:2020(E)
Water quality — Guidance for rapid radioactivity
measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on

water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an

emergency situation, consideration should be given to:

— taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of

contamination;

— using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations

to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods

previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for Sr determination;

— preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples.

The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions

quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public.

Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water

supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels.

[8]

NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards or national

[9]
authorities .

A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time.

The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample,

to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance

[10][11][12]

of the water with intervention levels . It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation

parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the

modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified

method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be

evaluated and may increase from routine analyses.

The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and

gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation

[13]

of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required , test method standards for specific

radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, Sr measurement according to

ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A.

This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to

national standards or other publicly available documents.

Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9696, Water quality — Gross alpha activity — Test method using thick source
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
ISO 9697, Water quality — Gross beta activity — Test method using thick source

ISO 9698, Water quality — Tritium — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by

high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 10704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using thin source deposit

ISO 11704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using liquid scintillation

counting

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 13160, Water quality — Strontium 90 and strontium 89 — Test methods using liquid scintillation

counting or proportional counting

ISO 13161, Water quality — Measurement of polonium 210 activity concentration in water by alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13162, Water quality — Determination of carbon 14 activity — Liquid scintillation counting method

ISO 13163, Water quality — Lead-210 — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165-1, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 1: Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165-2, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 2: Test method using emanometry

ISO 13165-3, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 3: Test method using coprecipitation and gamma-

spectrometry

ISO 13166, Water quality — Uranium isotopes — Test method using alpha-spectrometry

ISO 13167, Water quality — Plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium — Test method using alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13168, Water quality — Simultaneous determination of tritium and carbon 14 activities — Test method

using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 17294-2, Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) —

Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes

ISO 19581, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma emitting radionuclides — Rapid screening method

using scintillation detector gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 20042, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides — Generic test method

using gamma-ray spectrometry
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
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For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
3.1
emergency situation

non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or

adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment

Note 1 to entry: This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as

fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is

[14]
warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard .
3.2
intervention

any protective action or countermeasure aimed at reducing, or averting, human exposure to radiation

during a nuclear or radiological emergency
3.3
operational intervention level
OIL
set level of a measurable quantity that corresponds to a generic criterion

Note 1 to entry: OILs are calculated levels, measured by instruments or determined by laboratory analysis

that correspond to an intervention level or action level. These are typically expressed in terms of dose rates

or of activity of radioactive material released, time integrated air activity concentrations, ground or surface

concentrations, or activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental, food or water samples. OILs are

used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions on

[14]
the basis of an environmental measurement .
[SOURCE: IAEA safety glossary 2016 Rev. Mod]
3.4
reference level

level of dose or risk, in emergency or existing controllable exposure situations, above which it is judged

to be inappropriate to allow exposures to occur, and below which optimisation of protection should be

implemented

Note 1 to entry: Note1 to entry: The chosen value for a reference level depends upon the prevailing circumstances

[8][9]
of the exposure under consideration .
3.5
screening level

value that takes into account the characteristics of the measuring equipment and the test method to

guarantee that the test results and their uncertainties obtained are fit for purpose for comparison with

the operational intervention levels (OILs) (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For example, when the screening levels are not exceeded, the OILs are also note exceeded, and

the water is considered safe for consumption. If the screening level is exceeded so is the OIL and consumption of

non-essential food should be stopped, and essential food should be replaced or the people should be relocated if

[13][14]
replacements are not available .
3.6
intervention level
radiation dose above which a specific protective action is generally justified
3.7
iodine prophylaxis

administration of stable iodine to limit the uptake of inhaled/ingested radioactive iodine into the

thyroid gland
3.8
emergency exposure situation

situation of exposure where exposure at an elevated level is inevitable due to unexpected events or

needs of important action
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 22017:2021
ISO 22017:2020(E)
4 Guidance on emergency measurement
4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement

The type of nuclear or radiological emergency and the initial measurement results provide information

...

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