Building construction - Organization of information about construction works - Part 2: Framework for classification (ISO 12006-2:2015)

ISO 12006-2:2015 defines a framework for the development of built environment classification systems. It identifies a set of recommended classification table titles for a range of information object classes according to particular views, e.g. by form or function, supported by definitions. It shows how the object classes classified in each table are related, as a series of systems and sub-systems, e.g. in a building information model.
ISO 12006-2:2015 does not provide a complete operational classification system, nor does it provide the content of the tables, though it does give examples. It is intended for use by organizations which develop and publish such classification systems and tables, which may vary in detail to suit local needs. However, if this part of ISO 12006 is applied in the development of local classification systems and tables, then harmonization between them will be facilitated.
ISO 12006-2:2015 applies to the complete life cycle of construction works, including briefing, design, documentation, construction, operation and maintenance, and demolition. It applies to both building and civil engineering works, including associated engineering services and landscaping.

Hochbau - Organisation des Austausches von Informationen über die Durchführung von Hoch- und Tiefbauten - Teil 2: Struktur für die Klassifizierung (ISO 12006-2:2015)

Dieser Teil von ISO 12006 definiert eine Struktur für die Entwicklung von Klassifizierungssystemen für die gebaute Umwelt. Er enthält einen Satz von empfohlenen Titeln von Tabellen für eine Reihe von Informationsobjektklassen für die Klassifizierung nach bestimmten Aspekten, z. B. Form oder Funktion, die durch Definitionen unterstützt sind. Er zeigt die Beziehungen zwischen den in jeder Tabelle enthaltenen Objektklassen als Reihe von Systemen und Untersystemen, z. B. in einem Gebäudedatenmodell.
Dieser Teil von ISO 12006 enthält kein vollständiges System für die Klassifizierung von Operationen und keine Tabelleninhalte, auch wenn Beispiele angegeben sind. Er ist zur Anwendung durch Organisationen vorgesehen, die derartige Klassifizierungssysteme und  tabellen erarbeiten und veröffentlichen, deren Details abhängig von örtlichen Bedürfnissen variieren können. Sollte dieser Teil von ISO 12006 jedoch bei der Entwicklung von örtlichen Klassifizierungssystemen und  tabellen angewendet werden, so wird die Harmonisierung der Systeme und Tabellen erleichtert.
Dieser Teil von ISO 12006 gilt für den kompletten Lebenszyklus von Bauwerken einschließlich Projekt-beschreibung, Bemessung und Konstruktion, Dokumentation, Errichtung, Betrieb und Instandhaltung sowie Abriss. Er gilt für den Hoch- und Tiefbau einschließlich der damit verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen Dienstleistungen und Landschaftsgestaltung.

Construction immobilière - Organisation de l'information des travaux de construction - Partie 2: Plan type pour la classification (ISO 12006-2:2015)

La présente partie de l'ISO 12006 définit un cadre pour l'élaboration de systèmes de classification du cadre bâti. Elle identifie un ensemble d'intitulés de tableaux de classification recommandés pour une série de classes d'objets d'information en fonction de points de vue particuliers, par exemple par forme ou fonction, avec l'appui de définitions. Elle montre comment les classes d'objets répertoriées dans chaque tableau sont liées, sous la forme d'une série de systèmes et de sous-systèmes, par exemple dans un modèle d'informations de la construction.
La présente partie de l'ISO 12006 ne fournit pas de système de classification opérationnel complet, ni le contenu des tableaux, bien que des exemples soient donnés. Elle est destinée aux organismes qui élaborent et publient de tels systèmes et tableaux de classification, dont les détails peuvent varier en fonction des besoins locaux. Toutefois, si la présente partie de l'ISO 12006 est appliquée pour l'élaboration des systèmes et des tableaux de classification locaux, cela facilitera alors leur harmonisation mutuelle.
La présente partie de l'ISO 12006 s'applique à l'ensemble du cycle de vie des travaux de construction, comprenant la préparation, la conception, la documentation, la construction, l'exploitation, la maintenance et la démolition. Elle s'applique aux bâtiments et ouvrages de génie civil, y compris les services d'ingénierie et d'aménagement paysager connexes.

Gradnja objektov - Organizacija informacij v gradbeništvu - 2. del: Okviri za klasifikacijo (ISO 12006-2:2015)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
20-Oct-2019
Publication Date
09-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-Feb-2020
Due Date
19-Apr-2020
Completion Date
10-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
01-april-2020
Gradnja objektov - Organizacija informacij v gradbeništvu - 2. del: Okviri za
klasifikacijo (ISO 12006-2:2015)

Building construction - Organization of information about construction works - Part 2:

Framework for classification (ISO 12006-2:2015)

Hochbau - Organisation des Austausches von Informationen über die Durchführung von

Hoch- und Tiefbauten - Teil 2: Struktur für die Klassifizierung (ISO 12006-2:2015)

Construction immobilière - Organisation de l'information des travaux de construction -

Partie 2: Plan type pour la classification (ISO 12006-2:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ICS:
35.240.67 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in building
gradbeništvu and construction industry
91.010.01 Gradbeništvo na splošno Construction industry in
general
SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
EN ISO 12006-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.010.01
English Version
Building construction - Organization of information about
construction works - Part 2: Framework for classification
(ISO 12006-2:2015)

Construction immobilière - Organisation de Hochbau - Organisation des Austausches von

l'information des travaux de construction - Partie 2: Informationen über die Durchführung von Hoch- und

Plan type pour la classification (ISO 12006-2:2015) Tiefbauten - Teil 2: Struktur für die Klassifizierung (ISO

12006-2:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 11 December 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12006-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
EN ISO 12006-2:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
EN ISO 12006-2:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 12006-2:2015 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59 "Buildings and

civil engineering works” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken

over as EN ISO 12006-2:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 442 “Building Information Modelling

(BIM)” the secretariat of which is held by SN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12006-2:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12006-2:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12006-2
Second edition
2015-05-01
Building construction —
Organization of information about
construction works —
Part 2:
Framework for classification
Construction immobilière — Organisation de l’information des
travaux de construction —
Partie 2: Plan type pour la classification
Reference number
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Construction resource ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Construction process ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Construction result .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.5 Construction property ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Basic principles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Object and process model ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Classification and composition ................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Classification (type-of) .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Systems and compositional structuring (part-of) .................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Other classification tables ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.6 Properties .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Recommended classification tables ..............................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Classification table titles and examples ...........................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Classification concepts .......................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 59, Buildings and civil engineering works,

Subcommittee SC 13, Organization of information about construction works.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12006-2:2001), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 12006 consists of the following parts, under the general title Building construction — Organization

of information about construction works:
— Part 2: Framework for classification
— Part 3: Framework for object-oriented information
Annexes A and B of this part of ISO 12006 are for information only.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
Introduction
0.1 Background

This part of ISO 12006 was first produced when there was little international standardization of

classification systems for construction. Now, several national classification systems have been

developed, for example, in North America, Scandinavia, and the UK, that implement the 2001 edition.

Lessons learned in these implementations have been applied in this second edition.

This part of ISO 12006 has also been revised to take into account developments in information technology

(notably building information modelling) and construction procurement (for example, design-build

and design-build-operate). It has been extended and definitions have been refined to better serve all

construction sectors, including building, civil engineering, and even process engineering. However, it

continues to serve traditional information technologies and procurement methods.

A survey conducted as part of the work towards this edition showed that the most widely used

classifications remain work results (mainly for specifications) and elements (mainly for cost analysis).

They are also the most widely varied classification tables not only in their itemization and structure but

also in the range of purposes to which they are put. There are other classifications, potentially just as

important, which are used to a lesser degree, e.g. for construction products and properties.

0.2 The need for standardization

Building information modelling and modern forms of procurement require all these construction

object classes to be used, along with many others. Building information modelling, in particular, is

about exchange of information of all types along the project time line and between participants and

applications. This is also the case for cooperative forms of procurement. For this exchange to be

successful, a complete and consistent approach to construction object classification is required within

the project, and between projects. This part of ISO 12006 is intended to facilitate this exchange.

Information types include geometrical data, functional and technical data, and cost data and

maintenance data. The project timeline runs from inception to eventual demolition. Participants include

clients, designers, authorities, constructors, end users, and operators. Applications include modelling,

specification, product information, and cost information systems. Even now, there is still pressure for

each of these to retain, or even develop, its own classification silo. This is not sustainable.

While national classifications that implement this part are still likely to differ in their detail (for

example, due to differences in construction culture and legislation), mapping between them should be

fairly straightforward. This is because they will be using the same overarching classification framework

and construction object class definitions. This, in turn, will help with international construction project

work (with participants from many countries), and with development of applications intended to be

used internationally.
0.3 The content of this part

This part of ISO 12006 defines a framework for construction-sector classification systems and identifies

a set of recommended classification tables and their titles for a range of construction object classes

according to particular views, supported by definitions.
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
Building construction — Organization of information
about construction works —
Part 2:
Framework for classification
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12006 defines a framework for the development of built environment classification

systems. It identifies a set of recommended classification table titles for a range of information object

classes according to particular views, e.g. by form or function, supported by definitions. It shows how

the object classes classified in each table are related, as a series of systems and sub-systems, e.g. in a

building information model.

This part of ISO 12006 does not provide a complete operational classification system, nor does it provide

the content of the tables, though it does give examples. It is intended for use by organizations which

develop and publish such classification systems and tables, which may vary in detail to suit local needs.

However, if this part of ISO 12006 is applied in the development of local classification systems and tables,

then harmonization between them will be facilitated.

This part of ISO 12006 applies to the complete life cycle of construction works, including briefing, design,

documentation, construction, operation and maintenance, and demolition. It applies to both building

and civil engineering works, including associated engineering services and landscaping.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 22274, Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content — Concept-related aspects for

developing and internationalizing classification systems
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 General
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE 1 The definitions are arranged in the following order: construction resource, construction process,

construction result, and construction properties.

NOTE 2 In the definitions, terms that are defined elsewhere within this clause are shown in italics.

NOTE 3 Examples are given in Annex A.
3.1.1
object
any part of the perceivable or conceivable world

Note 1 to entry: An object is something abstract or physical toward which thought, feeling, or action is directed.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
3.1.2
construction object
object (3.1.1) of interest in the context of a construction process (3.3.2)
3.1.3
construction system

interacting construction objects (3.1.2) organized to achieve one or more purposes

Note 1 to entry: Construction systems can be classified in accordance with this International Standard.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 15288:2008, modified]
3.1.4
type-of relation

relation between two concepts where the intention of one of the concepts includes that of the other

concept and at least one additional delimiting characteristic
Note 1 to entry: Type-of relation is also known as generic relation.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.21]
3.1.5
part-of relation

relation between two construction objects where one object constitutes the whole and the other a part

of that whole

Note 1 to entry: Part-of relation is also known as partitive relation, part-whole relation, or whole-part relation.

Note 2 to entry: See also ISO/IEC 81346-1.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.22, modified]
3.1.6
natural environment
non-artificial environment of any physical construction object (3.1.2)
3.1.7
built environment

physical construction result (3.4.6) intended to serve a function or user activity

Note 1 to entry: The built environment may be viewed as a system of either built space or built structure.

3.1.8
space
limited three-dimensional extent defined physically or notionally
3.1.9
activity space
space (3.1.8) defined by the spatial extension of an activity

Note 1 to entry: A spatial extension of an activity, for example, a table or a bed, and the activity space around them.

3.2 Construction resource
3.2.1
construction agent
human construction resource (3.2.5) carrying out a construction process (3.3.2)
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SIST EN ISO 12006-2:2020
ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
3.2.2
construction aid

construction resource (3.2.5) intended to assist in carrying out a construction process (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: A construction aid is generally not intended for incorporation in a permanent manner in a

construction entity.
3.2.3
construction information
information of interest in a construction process (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Construction information may be seen both as a construction resource and as a construction result.

3.2.4
construction product
product intended to be used as a construction resource (3.2.5)

Note 1 to entry: Construction products have different complexity and can, by themselves or together with others,

make up the parts in any level of assembly of construction entities.
3.2.5
construction resource

construction object (3.1.2) used in a construction process (3.3.2) to achieve a construction result (3.4.6)

3.3 Construction process
3.3.1
construction activity
component process of construction process
3.3.2
construction process

process which uses construction resources (3.2.5) to achieve construction results (3.4.6)

Note 1 to entry: Each construction process may be split up into its component processes.

Note 2 to entry: See also ISO 22263:2008.
3.3.3
construction process lifecycle
sequence of stages from the start to the end of the construction process (3.3.2)
3.3.4
pre-design process

construction process (3.3.2) determining construction properties (3.5.1) for the built environment (3.1.7)

before it is designed
3.3.5
design process

construction process (3.3.2) determining construction properties (3.5.1) for the built environment (3.1.7)

before it is made physical
3.3.6
production process
construction process (3.3.2) resulting in built environment (3.1.7)
Note 1 to entry: Production process includes demolition and recycling process.
3.3.7
maintenance process

construction process (3.3.2) preserving the function of, or operating, the built environment (3.1.7)

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ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
3.3.8
management

control activity in a construction process (3.3.2) by one or more construction agents

3.4 Construction result
3.4.1
construction complex

aggregate of one or more construction entities (3.4.2) intended to serve at least one function or user activity

Note 1 to entry: A construction complex can be analysed and the construction entities that go to make it up, can

be identified; e.g. an airport typically is composed of the construction entities runway, control tower, terminal

building, aircraft hangar, etc. A business park typically is composed of a number of buildings, access roads, and

landscaping (each a construction entity in its own right). A motorway from A to B typically is composed of service

stations, the motorway pavement, bridges, embankments, landscaping, etc.
3.4.2
construction entity

independent unit of the built environment (3.1.7) with a characteristic form and spatial structure,

intended to serve at least one function or user activity

Note 1 to entry: A construction entity is the basic unit of the built environment. It is recognizable as a physically

independent construction even though a number of construction entities might be seen as parts of a particular

construction complex. Ancillary works such as access roads, landscaping, service connections, may be regarded

as part of a construction entity. Conversely, when ancillary works are of sufficient scale, they may be regarded as

construction entities in their own right.
3.4.3
construction element

constituent of a construction entity (3.4.2) with a characteristic function, form, or position

Note 1 to entry: For practical purposes, such as when carrying out a cost analysis of a construction entity, it is vital

that construction elements are mutually exclusive, in order to ensure that each part is counted once and only once.

3.4.4
built space

space (3.1.8) defined by built (3.1.7) or natural environment (3.1.6) or both, intended for user activity or

equipment

Note 1 to entry: A built space is, for example, a room defined by floor, ceiling, and wall, or a footpath, or power-line

corridor defined by a natural forest.

Note 2 to entry: Spaces occupied by construction elements are known as construction spaces, and are handled as

properties of construction elements themselves.
3.4.5
zone
space (3.1.8) or spaces with a particular function

Note 1 to entry: Zones may be defined by physical or notional properties, e.g. fire safety zone, climate zone,

smoking area, and quiet zone.
3.4.6
construction result

construction object (3.1.2) which is formed or changed in state as the result of one or more construction

processes (3.3.2) using one or more construction resources (3.2.5)
3.4.7
construction result lifecycle
period of time from inception to the demolition of a construction result (3.4.6)
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3.4.8
work result
view of construction result (3.4.6) by type of work activity and resources used
Note 1 to entry: A production work result can be enabling, creating resources.
3.5 Construction property
3.5.1
construction property
property of a construction object (3.1.2)
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4 Basic principles
4.1 Object and process model
This text is supported by Figure 1.

The starting point for the design of construction complexes and construction entities is a need.

Documentation of user activities and functional requirements is an important part of the information

needed in the construction process. However, classification of user activity is considered outside the

scope of this International Standard.

The different classes in the standard are related in a basic process model which states that a construction

process uses construction resources to achieve construction results. It creates a principal structure

for the classes of greatest interest. The stage of the construction process lifecycle characterizes a

construction process. There are four main types of construction processes: pre-design process, design

process, production process, and maintenance process.

Construction entities enable user activities and functional requirements. They can be aggregated into

construction complexes. Construction entities consist of construction elements which can be made up

of parts in several levels of complexity.

A space is an activity space, a built space, or a construction space. A built space is defined by construction

results. Spaces can have spatial relationships such as ‘contained in’ or ‘adjoining’.

Construction resources comprise construction products, construction aids, construction agents, and

construction information. The difference between a construction resource and a construction result

is a question of its relation to a construction process and not of difference in object class. For example,

construction information may be used as a resource to inform and control a construction process, or

may be the result of such a process itself.

Construction objects have construction properties. Properties are represented as attributes in

construction information.
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ISO 12006-2:2015(E)
Organization model.
User activity
uses
Construction
Built space
complex
aggregateof
defined by
part of
view on
Work result Construction result Construction entity
resultsin
part of
Construction
element
part of
occursduring part of
Construction
Management
process lifecycle
controls
Construction Construction
Pre-design process
product process
uses
Construction aid Design process
Construction
resource
Constructionagent Production process
Construction Maintenance
information process
Figure 1 — Classes and the general relationship between them
The schema notation is in simplified form of EXPRESS-G.

A bold line with a circle depicts a type-of relation and a non-bold line other relations. The rounded box

represents reference to another schema.

Figure 1 is simplified and should be read together with other parts of this International Standard.

4.2 Classification and composition

Classification systems may, apart from a level order of specialization (classes and subclasses),

...

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