Crane safety - General design - Part 2: Load actions

This document specifies load actions to be used together with the standards EN 13001 1 and EN 13001 3, and as such they specify conditions and requirements on design to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes, and provides a method of verification of those requirements.
NOTE   Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular crane type.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clause 4 of this document is necessary to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with the following hazards:
a)   instability of the crane or its parts (tilting);
b)   exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
c)   elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging);
d)   exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
e)   exceeding the deformation limits.
This document is not applicable to cranes that are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.

Kransicherheit - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 2: Lasteinwirkungen

Dieses Dokument legt die Lasteinwirkungen fest, und ist zusammen mit den Normen EN 13001 1 und EN 13001 3 anzuwenden. Zusammen spezifizieren sie die Bedingungen und die Anforderungen an die konstruktive Gestaltung zur Vermeidung von mechanischen Gefährdungen bei Kranen und sie bietet eine Methode der Überprüfung dieser Anforderungen.
ANMERKUNG   Besondere Anforderungen für spezielle Krantypen sind in der zutreffenden Europäischen Norm für den speziellen Krantyp angegeben.
Im Folgenden ist eine Auflistung von signifikanten Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignissen gegeben, die Risiken für Personen während des normalen Gebrauchs und vorhersehbarem Missbrauch (des Krans) zur Folge haben könnten. Abschnitt 4 dieses Dokument wird zur Reduzierung oder Eliminierung der mit den folgenden Gefährdungen verbundenen Risiken benötigt:
a)   Instabilität des Krans oder seiner Teile (Kippen);
b)   Überschreitung der Festigkeitsgrenzwerte (Fließgrenze, Bruch-, Ermüdungsfestigkeit);
c)   elastische Instabilität des Krans oder seiner Teile (Knicken, Ausbeulen);
d)   Überschreitung von Temperaturgrenzwerten des Werkstoffs oder der Komponenten;
e)   Überschreitung der Verformungsgrenzwerte.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Krane, die vor dem Datum der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm als Europäische Norm hergestellt werden.

Sécurité des appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 2: Charges

Le présent document spécifie les actions de charge devant être utilisées conjointement avec les normes EN 13001 1 et l'EN 13001 3, et dans ce cadre, elles spécifient les conditions et prescriptions de conception visant à prévenir les dangers mécaniques liés aux appareils de levage à charge suspendue, et elle fournit une méthode de vérification de ces prescriptions.
NOTE   Des prescriptions spécifiques pour des types particuliers d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue sont données dans la Norme européenne appropriée au type particulier d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue.
La liste suivante spécifie les situations et les événements dangereux significatifs susceptibles d’entraîner des risques pour les personnes lors d’une utilisation normale et d’une mauvaise utilisation prévisible. L’Article 4 du présent document est nécessaire pour réduire ou éliminer les risques associés aux phénomènes dangereux suivants :
a)   instabilité de l’appareil de levage à charge suspendue ou de ses éléments (basculement) ;
b)   dépassement des limites de résistance (élasticité, rupture, fatigue) ;
c)   instabilité élastique de l’appareil de levage ou de ses éléments (flambage, voilement) ;
d)   dépassement des limites de température du matériau ou des composants ;
e)   dépassement des limites de déformation.
Le présent document n'est pas applicable aux appareils de levage à charge suspendue qui ont été fabriqués avant sa date de publication comme EN.

Varnost žerjava - Konstrukcija, splošno - 2. del: Učinki obremenitev

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-May-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Mar-2021
Due Date
30-May-2021
Completion Date
19-May-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13001-2:2021
01-julij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 13001-2:2014
Varnost žerjava - Konstrukcija, splošno - 2. del: Učinki obremenitev
Crane safety - General design - Part 2: Load actions
Kransicherheit - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 2: Lasteinwirkungen

Sécurité des appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 2:

Charges
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13001-2:2021
ICS:
53.020.20 Dvigala Cranes
SIST EN 13001-2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.020.20 Supersedes EN 13001-2:2014
English Version
Crane safety - General design - Part 2: Load actions

Sécurité des appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Kransicherheit - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 2:

Conception générale - Partie 2 : Charges Lasteinwirkungen

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 21 April 2021.

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 January 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13001-2:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations ........................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 7

4 Safety requirements and/or measures ................................................................................................ 11

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Loads ................................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2.2 Regular loads ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.2.3 Occasional loads ........................................................................................................................................... 22

4.2.4 Exceptional loads ......................................................................................................................................... 29

4.3 Load combinations ...................................................................................................................................... 38

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

4.3.2 High risk situations ..................................................................................................................................... 38

4.3.3 Favourable and unfavourable masses .................................................................................................. 39

4.3.4 Partial safety factors for the mass of the crane ................................................................................. 39

4.3.5 Partial safety factors to be applied to loads determined by displacements ........................... 40

4.3.6 Partial safety factors to be applied to measured load effects limited by control

system .............................................................................................................................................................. 41

4.3.7 Load combinations for the proof of competence .............................................................................. 41

4.3.8 The proof of crane stability ...................................................................................................................... 47

Annex A (informative) Aerodynamic coefficients ........................................................................................... 50

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 50

A.2 Individual members .................................................................................................................................... 52

A.3 Plane and spatial lattice structure members ..................................................................................... 58

A.4 Structural members in multiple arrangement .................................................................................. 61

Annex B (informative) Illustration of the types of hoist drives .................................................................. 63

Annex C (informative) Calculation of load factor for indirect lifting force limiter .............................. 66

Annex D (informative) Guidance on selection of the risk coefficient ....................................................... 68

Annex E (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane family standards ........................................ 70

Annex F (informative) Requirements in Directive 2016/1629/EU .......................................................... 72

Annex G (informative) List of hazards ................................................................................................................. 73

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered ..................................................... 74

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 75

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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13001-2:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 “Cranes —

Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by September 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 13001-2:2014.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of

EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

CEN/TC 147 WG 2 has reviewed EN 13001-2:2014 to adapt the document to the technical progress, new

requirements and changes in the document referred. The main topics and changes include:

— Cranes on vessels which are within the scope of the Directive 2016/1629/EU (Inland Waterway

Vessels) and “European Standard laying down Technical Requirements for Inland Navigation

vessels” (ES-TRIN:2019/1);
— Loads relevant to cranes on vessels were added;

— The clause on favourable/unfavourable masses and the clause on high risk applications including

Annex D were modified;
— A new 4.3.6 for measured load effects was added;
— 4.3.8 on rigid body stability was modified;
— A new 4.2.1.5 added, on internal loads inside mechanisms;

— Requirements for loads on access ways were replaced by a reference to EN 13586:2004+A1:2008;

— Annex ZA has been revised.
This document is Part 2 of the EN 13001 series. The other parts are as follows:
— Part 1: General principles and requirements
— Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structures

— Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes in reeving systems

— Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail contacts
— Part 3-4: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery — Bearings
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
— Part 3-5: Limit states and proof of competence of forged hooks and cast hooks

— Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery — Hydraulic cylinders

For the relationship with other European Standards for cranes, see Annex E.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Introduction

This document has been prepared to be a harmonized standard to provide one means for the mechanical

design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform to the essential health and safety requirements

of the EU Directive 2006/42/EC (Machinery), as amended. This document also establishes interfaces

between the user (purchaser) of the crane and the designer, as well as between the designer and the

component manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting cranes and components.

This document is a type C standard as stated in the EN ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards are covered are indicated in the scope of this

document.

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those, which are stated in type A or

B standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this

type C standard.
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies load actions and load combinations for the calculation of load effects as basis for

the proof of competence of a crane and its main components. It will be used together with the other

generic parts of the EN 13001 series of standards, see Annex E. As such they specify conditions and

requirements on design to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes and provide a method of verification of

those requirements.

NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European product

standards for the particular crane type, see Annex E.

The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks

to persons during normal use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Clause 4 of this document provides

means to reduce or eliminate the risks of mechanical failures due to the following:

a) rigid body instability of the crane or its parts (tilting);
b) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);

c) elastic instability of the crane or its parts or components (buckling, bulging).

The hazards covered by this document are identified by Annex G.

This document is not applicable to cranes that are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13001-1:2015, Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13586:2004+A1:2008, Cranes — Access
ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4306-1:2007, Clause 6 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
hoist load

sum of the masses suspended from the crane, taken as the sum of payload, the fixed and non-fixed load

lifting attachments and the suspended portion of the hoist medium

Note 1 to entry: “hoist load” is equivalent to “gross load” as defined in ISO 4306-1:2007.

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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
3.1.2
single failure proof system

force carrying arrangement of several components, arranged so that in case of a failure of any single

component in the arrangement, the capability to carry the force is not lost
3.1.3
vessel
floating installation the crane is mounted on

Note 1 to entry: The above definition is limited to vessels which are within the scope of the EU Directive

2016/1629 EU (Inland Waterway Vessels).
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the symbols and abbreviations given in Table 1 apply.

Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbols, abbreviations Description
A1 to A4 Load combinations including regular loads
A Characteristic area of a crane member
Projection of the hoist load on a plane normal to the direction of the wind
velocity
Area enclosed by the boundary of a lattice work member in the plane of its
characteristic height d
Area of an individual crane member projected to the plane of the
characteristic height d
Width of the rail head
b Characteristic width of a crane member
B1 to B5 Load combinations including regular and occasional loads
c Spring constant
c , c , c , c
Aerodynamic coefficients
o a oy oz
C1 to C11 Load combinations including regular, occasional and exceptional loads
CFF, CFM Coupled wheel pairs of system F/F or F/M
d Characteristic dimension of a crane member
d , d
Distance between wheel pair i or n and the guide means
i n
Width of the gap of a rail
f Friction coefficient
Loads
natural frequency
Term used in calculating v(z)
rec
F Force in general
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Symbols, abbreviations Description
F, F , F
Wind loads
y z
Maximum buffer force
F F
Initial and final drive force
i, f
ΔF Change of drive force
F , F , F , F
Tangential wheel forces
x1i x2i y1i y2i
Guide force
F , F
Vertical wheel forces
z1i z2i
Abbreviations for Fixed/Fixed and Fixed/Moveable, characterizing the
F/F, F/M
possibility of lateral movements of the crane wheels
g Acceleration due to gravity
Distance between instantaneous slide pole and guide means of a skewing
crane
h(t) Time dependent unevenness function
Height of the step of a rail
Lateral wheel forces induced by drive forces acting on a crane or trolley
H , H
1 2
with asymmetrical mass distribution
HC1 to HC4 Stiffness classes
HD1 to HD5 Classes of the type of hoist drive and its operation method
i Serial number
IFF, IFM Independent wheel pairs of system F/F or F/M
j Serial number
k Serial number
K Drag coefficient of terrain
K , K
Roughness factors
1 2
l Span of a crane
Aerodynamic length of a crane member
Geometric length of a crane member
Mass of the hoist load
m Mass of the crane and the hoist load
Released or dropped part of the hoist load
n Number of wheels at each side of the crane runway
Exponent used in calculating the shielding factor η
p Number of pairs of coupled wheels
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Symbols, abbreviations Description
q Equivalent static wind pressure
q Mean wind pressure
q(z) Equivalent static storm wind pressure
q(3) Wind pressure at v(3)
r Wheel radius
R Out-of-service wind recurrence interval
Re Reynold number
Slack of the guide
Lateral slip at the guide means
Lateral slip at wheel pair i
S Load effect
Maximum load effect
S , S
Initial and final load effects
i f
ΔS Change of load effect
t Time
u Buffer stroke
û Maximum buffer stroke
v Travelling speed of the crane
v Constant mean wind velocity
Constant mean wind velocity if the wind direction is not normal to the
longitudinal axis of the crane member under consideration
v(z) Equivalent static storm wind velocity
Equivalent static storm wind velocity if the wind direction is not normal to
v(z)*
the longitudinal axis of the crane member under consideration
v(3) Gust wind velocity averaged of a period of 3 seconds
Three seconds gust amplitude
Hoisting speed
Maximum steady hoisting speed
h,max
Steady hoisting creep speed
h,CS
v (z)
Ten minutes mean storm wind velocity in the height z
Reference storm wind velocity
ref
Distance between the guide means
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Symbols, abbreviations Description
z Height above ground level
z(t) Time-dependent coordinate of the mass centre
Relative aerodynamic length
Angle between the direction of the wind velocity v or v(z) and the
longitudinal axis of the crane member under consideration
α Skewing angle
Part of the skewing angle α due to the slack of the guide
α , α Terms used in calculating ϕ
G s 4
Part of the skewing angle α due to tolerances
Part of the skewing angle α due to wear
β Angle between horizontal plane and non-horizontal wind direction
β Term used in calculating ϕ
2 2
β Term used in calculating ϕ
3 3
Overall safety factor
Resistance coefficient
Risk coefficient
Partial safety factor
Additional safety factor for stability
Term used in calculating ϕ
Conventional start force factor
Conventional mean drive force factor
η Shielding factor
Factor for remaining hoist load in out of service condition
λ Aerodynamic slenderness ratio
μ, μ′ Parts of the span l
Term used in calculating the guide force F
F , F Terms used in calculating F and F
1i 2i y1i y2i
Term used in calculating ϕ
ξ , ξ Term used in calculating F and F
1i 2i x1i x2i
ξ (α ), ξ (α )
Curve factors
G G s s
ρ Density of the air
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Symbols, abbreviations Description
φ Solidity ratio
Dynamic factors
Dynamic factor acting on the mass of the crane
Dynamic factor on hoist load when hoisting an unrestrained grounded
load in regular operation
Dynamic factor on hoist load when hoisting an unrestrained grounded
load under exceptional conditions
ϕ Term used in calculating ϕ
2,min 2
Dynamic factor for inertial and gravity effects by sudden release of a part
of the hoist load
Dynamic factor for loads caused by travelling on uneven surface
Dynamic factor for loads caused by acceleration of all crane drives
Dynamic factor for test loads
Dynamic factor for loads due to buffer forces
Gust response factor
Factors for calculation of force in case the load or moment limiter is
ϕ , ϕ
L ML
activated
ψ Reduction factor used in calculating aerodynamic coefficients
4 Safety requirements and/or measures
4.1 General

Loads and load combinations, as given in 4.2 and 4.3, shall only be applied as relevant for specified

configurations and operational conditions of the crane.

The load actions shall be taken into account in proofs against failure by uncontrolled movement, yielding,

elastic instability and, where applicable, against fatigue.
4.2 Loads
4.2.1 General
4.2.1.1 Introduction

The loads acting on a crane are divided into the categories of regular, occasional and exceptional as given

in 4.2.1.2, 4.2.1.3 and 4.2.1.4. Combinations of regular, occasional and exceptional loads into load

combinations A, B and C are given in 4.3.

Internal loads inside mechanisms are mentioned in 4.2.1.5 and should be considered where relevant.

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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
4.2.1.2 Regular loads
Regular loads are those loads that occur frequently under normal operation.
a) Hoisting and gravity effects acting on the mass of the crane;
b) inertial and gravity effects acting vertically on the hoist load;
c) loads caused by travelling on uneven surface;
d) loads caused by acceleration of all crane drives;
e) loads induced by displacements;
f) loads due to vessel inclinations and motions.
4.2.1.3 Occasional loads
a) Loads due to in-service wind;
b) snow and ice loads;
c) loads due to temperature variation;
d) loads caused by skewing.

Occasional loads occur infrequently. They are usually neglected in fatigue assessment.

4.2.1.4 Exceptional loads
a) Loads caused by hoisting a grounded load under exceptional circumstances;
b) loads due to out-of-service wind;
c) test loads;
d) loads due to buffer forces;
e) loads due to tilting forces;
f) loads caused by emergency cut-out;
g) loads due to dynamic cut-off by lifting force limiting device;
h) loads due to dynamic cut-off by lifting moment limiting device;
i) loads due to unintentional loss of hoist load;
j) loads caused by failure of mechanism or components;
k) loads due to external excitation of crane support;
l) loads caused by erection and dismantling;

m) loads due to vessel inclinations and motions while the crane is in stowage position.

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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)

Exceptional loads are also infrequent and are likewise usually excluded from fatigue assessment.

4.2.1.5 Internal loads inside mechanisms

Load effects in drive mechanisms shall be derived both from the global, external load actions on the crane

and from the internal loads inside the mechanisms. The latter depend on one hand on the arrangement

of the mechanism and on the other hand on the physical quantities determining the internal load effects,

e.g.:
— brake torques;
— inertia of rotating components;
— friction in driving contacts.

Special consideration shall be given to internal load effects in mechanisms due to exceptional loads given

in 4.2.4, such as:
— 4.2.4.4, buffer forces;
— 4.2.4.7, emergency cut-out;
— 4.2.4.8, dynamic cut-off by lifting force limiter;
— 4.2.4.9, dynamic cut-off by lifting moment limiter;
— 4.2.4.11, apprehended failure of duplicated mechanism.

Special consideration should be given to rotating components that might be subjected to fatigue from this

internal loading.
4.2.2 Regular loads
4.2.2.1 Mass of the crane

When lifting the load off the ground or when releasing the load or parts of the load, the crane structure is

under effect of vibration excitation, which shall be taken into account as a load effect. The gravitational

force induced by the mass of the crane or crane part shall be multiplied by the factor ϕ . Dependent upon

the gravitational load effect of the mass and load combination in question, the factor ϕ is calculated in

accordance with either Formula (1) or (2). For definitions of unfavourable and favourable load effects see

4.3.3.
The gravitational load effect of the mass is unfavourable, Formula (1) applies:
φδ=1+ with 0≤≤δ 0,1 (1)
The gravitational load effect of the mass is favourable, Formula (2) applies:
φδ=1− with 0≤≤δ 0,05 (2)

The maximum values of δ from the Formulae (1) and (2) shall be used unless other values are justified

by measurements, calculations or obtained from the appropriate European Standard for the particular

type of crane.

The mass of the crane includes those components which are always in place during operation except for

the net load itself. For some cranes or applications, it is necessary to add mass to account for accumulation

of debris.
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
4.2.2.2 Hoisting an unrestrained grounded load
4.2.2.2.1 General

When hoisting an unrestrained grounded load, the crane is subject to dynamic effects of transferring the

load off the ground onto the crane. These dynamic effects shall be taken into account by multiplying the

gravitational force due to the mass of the hoist load m by a factor ϕ , see Figure 1.

H 2
Figure 1 — Dynamic effects when hoisting a grounded load

The mass of the hoist load includes the masses of the payload, lifting attachments and the suspended

portion of the hoist ropes or chains.

The values of ϕ and ϕ shall be either calculated from the Formula (3) applying the specified stiffness

2 2C

and hoist drive classes or determined experimentally or by dynamic analysis. Where stiffness and hoist

drive classes are not applied, the true characteristics of the drive system and the elastic properties of the

overall load supporting system shall be taken into account.
4.2.2.2.2 Application of stiffness and hoist drive classes

For the purposes of this document, cranes may be assigned to stiffness classes ranging from HC1 to HC4

in accordance with the elastic properties of the crane and its support. The stiffness classes given in the

Table 2 shall be selected on the basis of the characteristic vertical load displacement δ.

The dynamic factor ϕ (and respectively ϕ for Load combination C1, see 4.2.4.1) is calculated with the

2 2C
Formula (3):
φφ +β ×v (3)
2 2,min 2 h
where

β is the factor dependent upon the stiffness class of the crane in accordance with the

Table 2,

v is the characteristic hoisting speed of the load in [m/s] in accordance with the Table 3,

different for calculations of ϕ and ϕ ,
2 2C
ϕ is the minimum value of ϕ and ϕ in accordance with Table 4.
2,min 2 2C
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SIST EN 13001-2:2021
EN 13001-2:2021 (E)
Table 2 — Stiffness classes
Characteristic vertical load displacement Factor
Stiffness class
β [s/m]
HC1 0,8 m ≤ δ 0,17
HC2 0,3 m ≤ δ < 0,8 m 0,34
HC3 0,15 m ≤ δ < 0,3 m 0,51
HC4 δ < 0,15 m 0,68

The stiffness classes were called hoisting classes in the earlier versions of this document.

The characteristic vertical load displacement δ shall be obtained by measurement or calculated from the

elasticity of the crane structure, the rope system and the crane support, using the maximum hoist load

value and setting the partial safety factors and dynamic factors to 1,0. Product type crane standards may

give specific guidance on selection of stiffness classes.

Where the characteristic vertical load displacement δ varies for differing crane configurations, the

maximum value of δ may be used for the selection of the stiffness class.

For the purposes of this document, hoist drives shall be assigned to classes HD1 to HD5

...

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