Basic standard to demonstrate the compliance of fixed equipment for radio transmission (110 MHz - 40 GHz) intended for use in wireless telecommunication networks with the basic restrictions or the reference levels related to general public exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, when put into service

This basic standard applies to Base Stations as defined in Clause 4, operating in the frequency range 110 MHz to 40 GHz. The objective of this basic standard is to specify, for such equipment and when it is put into service in its operational environment, the methods to assess the value of the Total Exposure Ratio or to establish whether the Total Exposure Ratio is less than or equal to one in relevent areas where the general public has access.

Grundnorm zum Nachweis der Übereinstimmung von stationären Einrichtungen für Funkübertragungen (110 MHz bis 40 GHz), die zur Verwendung in schnurlosen Telekommunikationsnetzen vorgesehen sind, bei ihrer Inbetriebnahme mit den Basisgrenzwerten oder den Referenzwerten bezüglich der Exposition der Allgemeinbevölkerung gegenüber hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Feldern

Diese Grundnorm gilt für Basisstationen entsprechend der Definition in Abschnitt 4, die im Frequenzbereich 110 MHz bis 40 GHz betrieben werden. Zweck dieser Grundnorm ist, für die Inbetriebnahme dieser Geräte und Einrichtungen in ihrer Betriebsumgebung das Verfahren festzulegen, nach dem der Wert des Gesamtexpositionsverhältnisses bewertet wird oder nach dem ermittelt wird, ob das Gesamtexpositionsverhältnis in zu berücksichtigenden Bereichen, zu denen die Algemeinbevölkerung Zugang hat, kleiner oder gleich 1 ist.

Norme de base pour démontrer la conformité des équipements fixes de transmission radio (110 MHz - 40 GHz) destinés à une utilisation dans les réseaux de communication sans fil, aux restrictions de base ou aux niveaux de référence relatives à l'exposition des personnes aux champs électromagnétiques de fréquence radio, lors de leur mise en service

La présente norme de base s’applique aux stations de base radio telles que définies dans l’Article 4, opérant dans la gamme de fréquence de 110 MHz à 40 GHz. L’objectif de cette norme est de spécifier pour de tels équipements et lors de leur mise en service dans leur environnement opérationnel, les méthodes pour évaluer la valeur du ratio d’exposition totale (TER) ou pour établir si le ratio d’exposition totale est inférieur ou égal à un dans les zones pertinentes auxquelles le public a accès.

Osnovni standard za prikaz skladnosti stacionarne opreme za radijski prenos (110 MHz–40 GHz), namenjene za uporabo v brezžičnih telekomunikacijskih omrežjih z osnovnimi ali izvedenimi mejnimi vrednostmi v povezavi z izpostavljenostjo prebivalstva elektromagnetnim sevanjem

Ta osnovni standard velja za bazne postaje, kot je določeno v točki 4, ki delujejo v frekvenčnem razponu od 110 MHz do 40 GHz. Cilj tega osnovnega standarda je za tako opremo, kadar je dana v uporabo v svojem delovnem okolju, določiti metode za ocenitev vrednosti celotnega razmerja izpostavljenosti ali ugotoviti, ali je celotno razmerje izpostavljenosti manjše ali enako tistemu v ustreznih področjih, kamor ima dostop širša javnost.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2006
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2006
Due Date
01-Dec-2006
Completion Date
01-Dec-2006

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 50400:2006
English language
47 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

6/29(16., 6,67(1
67$1'$5'
GHFHPEHU
2VQRYQLVWDQGDUG]DSULND]VNODGQRVWLVWDFLRQDUQHRSUHPH]DUDGLMVNLSUHQRV
0+]±*+] QDPHQMHQH]DXSRUDERYEUH]åLþQLKWHOHNRPXQLNDFLMVNLK
RPUHåMLK]RVQRYQLPLDOLL]YHGHQLPLPHMQLPLYUHGQRVWPLYSRYH]DYL]
L]SRVWDYOMHQRVWMRSUHELYDOVWYDHOHNWURPDJQHWQLPVHYDQMHP
%DVLFVWDQGDUGWRGHPRQVWUDWHWKHFRPSOLDQFHRIIL[HGHTXLSPHQWIRUUDGLR
WUDQVPLVVLRQ 0+]*+] LQWHQGHGIRUXVHLQZLUHOHVVWHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ

QHWZRUNVZLWKWKHEDVLFUHVWULFWLRQVRUWKHUHIHUHQFHOHYHOVUHODWHGWRJHQHUDOSXEOLF

H[SRVXUHWRUDGLRIUHTXHQF\HOHFWURPDJQHWLFILHOGVZKHQSXWLQWRVHUYLFH
,&6 5HIHUHQþQDãWHYLOND

6,67(1 HQ
!"#$%&’( )&!*+,%- .
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 50400
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2006
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.220.20; 33.070.01
English version
Basic standard to demonstrate the compliance of fixed equipment
for radio transmission (110 MHz - 40 GHz)
intended for use in wireless telecommunication networks
with the basic restrictions or the reference levels
related to general public exposure to radio frequency
electromagnetic fields, when put into service
Norme de base pour démontrer la Grundnorm zum Nachweis der
conformité des équipements fixes de Übereinstimmung von stationären
transmission radio (110 MHz - 40 GHz), Einrichtungen für Funkübertragungen

destinés à une utilisation dans les réseaux (110 MHz bis 40 GHz), die zur Verwendung

de communication sans fil, aux restrictions in schnurlosen Telekommunikationsnetzen

de base ou aux niveaux de référence vorgesehen sind, bei ihrer Inbetriebnahme
relatives à l'exposition des personnes mit den Basisgrenzwerten oder den
aux champs électromagnétiques Referenzwerten bezüglich der Exposition
de fréquence radio, lors de leur der Allgemeinbevölkerung gegenüber
mise en service hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen
Feldern

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-12-06. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2006 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 50400:2006 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 2 -
Foreword
This European Standard was prepared by Technical Committee CENELEC TC 106X,
Electromagnetic fields in the human environment.

The text of the draft was submitted to the formal vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 50400 on 2005-12-06.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2007-01-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2009-01-01
This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the
European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 50400:2006
Contents

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................6

3 Physical quantities, units and constants ...........................................................................6

3.1 Quantities................................................................................................................6

3.2 Constants................................................................................................................7

4 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................7

5 General process .............................................................................................................12

5.1 Alternative routes to determine the total exposure ratio where the general public

has access ............................................................................................................12

5.2 General method.....................................................................................................12

5.2.1 Description of the general method .............................................................12

5.2.2 Comprehensive total exposure ratio assessment .......................................14

5.3 Pre-analysis method..............................................................................................15

6 Determination of domains and relevant sources .............................................................16

6.1 Principle of relevance............................................................................................16

6.2 Determination of domains......................................................................................16

6.2.1 Relevant domain........................................................................................16

6.2.2 Scatter domain ..........................................................................................16

6.2.3 Domain of investigation .............................................................................17

6.3 Determination of relevant sources .........................................................................17

7 Calculation specifications ...............................................................................................18

7.1 General .................................................................................................................18

7.2 Calculation methods ..............................................................................................19

7.2.1 Definition of equivalent free space conditions ............................................19

7.2.2 Calculation methods in equivalent free space conditions ...........................19

7.2.3 Calculation methods when equivalent free space conditions do not apply..19

7.3 Summation of exposure ratio estimated using calculation ......................................22

8 Measurement specifications ...........................................................................................22

8.1 General requirement .............................................................................................22

8.2 Exposure ratio measurement.................................................................................23

8.2.1 Basic requirements....................................................................................23

8.2.2 Conditions for the use of broadband measurements ..................................23

8.2.3 Conditions for the use of frequency selective measurement.......................24

8.3 Summation of exposure ratios estimated using measurement................................24

8.4 Uncertainty............................................................................................................24

9 TER assessment ............................................................................................................25

10 Exposure assessment report ..........................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Examples of pre-analysis design guidelines ......................................27

A.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................27

A.2 Installations designed inclusive of a specified exposure ratio allowance for other

radio sources ........................................................................................................27

A.3 Combined compliance boundaries .........................................................................28

A.4 Installation designed so that a minimum build height is maintained at all

distances from the antenna less than the compliance boundary distance...............33

A.5 Equipment Under Test with less than 10 W average EIRP .....................................34

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 4 -

Annex B (informative) Simplified procedure to determine scatter domain and relevant

domain boundaries .........................................................................................................36

B.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................36

B.2 Analysis ................................................................................................................36

Annex C (informative) Calculations under non-equivalent free space conditions ..................38

C.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................38

C.2 Determination if an object is a significant reflector.................................................39

C.3 Determination of power density multiplication factor in several domains ................39

C.3.1 No line of sight from the radio source to the point of investigation .............39

C.3.2 Reflecting surface to the side of the direct path from radio source to

point of investigation .................................................................................40

C.3.3 Reflecting surface below the direct path from source to point of

investigation ..............................................................................................40

C.3.4 Point of investigation between the radio source and reflecting surface.......41

C.3.5 Radio source between reflecting surface and the point of investigation......42

C.3.6 Power density multiplication factor for use in summing multiple bands.......42

C.4 Establishing total exposure ratio from a set of transmissions on different

frequencies ...........................................................................................................42

Annex D (informative) Selection of points of investigation for distant radio sources..............44

D.1 Objective...............................................................................................................44

D.2 Principles ..............................................................................................................44

D.3 Establish δr with respect to distance to radio source .............................................44

D.3.1 Consider change of field strength with distance .........................................44

D.3.2 Consider variation of field strength due to antenna directivity ....................45

D.3.3 Example 1 .................................................................................................45

D.3.4 Example 2 .................................................................................................46

D.4 Selecting points of investigation ............................................................................46

Annex E (informative) A-deviations ......................................................................................47

Figures

Figure 1 – Alternative routes to determine the total exposure ratio where the general

public has access .................................................................................................................12

Figure 2 – Overview of the general method to estimate the total exposure ratio ....................13

Figure 3 – Borders of a restricted area located in the domain of investigation .......................14

Figure 4 – Location of the three assessments for each point of investigation ........................15

Figure 5 – Representation of the relevant domain, domain of investigation, scatter domain

and the compliance boundary surrounding the antenna.........................................................17

Figure 6 – Calculation methodology ......................................................................................18

Figure 7 – Configurations used to identify positions of reflectors...........................................20

Figure 8 – Establishing the PDMF.........................................................................................21

Figure A.1 – Compliance boundary extension due to proximity of other RF sources ..............29

Figure A.2 – Compliance boundaries merging due to proximity of other RF sources..............29

Figure A.3 – Combined compliance boundaries around antennas on a head frame. ..............30

Figure A.4 – Significant parameters relating to antenna positioning and orientation ..............33

Figure B.1 – Relative field and exposure ratio relationships near an emitting antenna ..........36

Figure C.1 – Relative magnitude of reflected ray for polarisation normal and parallel to

reflecting surface ..................................................................................................................39

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
- 5 - EN 50400:2006

Figure D.1 - Change of field strength with distance ...............................................................44

Figure D.2 - Variation of field strength due to antenna directivty ...........................................45

Tables

Table 1 – Maximum sampling step versus frequency.............................................................14

Table 2 – Uncertainty assessment ........................................................................................25

Table A.1 – Table of figures showing minimum distances separation multipliers ...................32

Table A.2 – Values for the compliance boundary factor and exposure ratios .........................35

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 6 -
1 Scope

This basic standard applies to Base Stations as defined in Clause 4, operating in the frequency

range 110 MHz to 40 GHz.

The objective of this basic standard is to specify, for such equipment and when it is put into

service in its operational environment, the methods to assess the value of the Total Exposure

Ratio or to establish whether the Total Exposure Ratio is less than or equal to one in relevent

areas where the general public has access.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the

general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
(Official Journal L 199 of 30 July 1999)

EN 50383, Basic standard for the calculation and measurement of electromagnetic field strength

and SAR related to human exposure from radio base stations and fixed terminal stations for

wireless telecommunication systems (110 MHz - 40 GHz)

EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories (ISO/IEC 17025:1999)
ISO “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement”: Ed.1 1995

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (1998), Guidelines for limiting

exposure in time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)

Health physics 74, 494-522
3 Physical quantities, units and constants
3.1 Quantities
The internationally accepted SI-units are used throughout the standard.
Quantity Symbol Unit Dimensions
Electric field strength E volt per meter V/m
Electric flux density D coulomb per square meter C/m
Frequency f hertz Hz
Magnetic field strength H ampere per meter A/m
Magnetic flux density B tesla (Vs /m) T
Mass density ρ kilogram per cubic meter kg/m
Permeability µ Henry per meter H/m
Permittivity ε farad per meter F/m
Specific absorption rate SAR watt per kilogram W/kg
Wavelength λ meter m
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
- 7 - EN 50400:2006
3.2 Constants
Physical constant Symbol Magnitude
Speed of light in a vacuum c 2,997 x 10 m/s
-12
Permittivity of free space ε 8,854 x 10 F/m
Permeability of free space µ 4 π x 10 H/m
Impedance of free space η 120 π Ω (approx. 377 Ω)
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
antenna

device that serves as a transducer between a guided wave (e.g. coaxial cable) and a free space wave, or

vice versa. It can be used either to emit or to receive a radio signal. In the present standard, if not

mentioned, the term antenna is used only for emitting antenna(s)
4.2
average emitted power

the average emitted power is the time-averaged rate of energy transfer defined by

P = P(t)dt
aep
t − t
2 1
where

t – t is the averaging time, t defined as a function of frequency in the Council Recommendation

avg
2 1
1999/519/EC of 12 July 1999;

P(t) is the power radiated by the antenna at the maximum duty cycle of the equipment

4.3
average equivalent isotropic radiated power (average EIRP)

the product of the power supplied to the antenna and the maximum antenna gain relative to an isotropic

antenna
P = P *G
aEIRP aep
where
P is the average emitted power;
aep
G is the maximum gain of the antenna relative to an isotropic antenna
4.4
base station (BS)

fixed equipment for radio transmission used in cellular communication and/or wireless local area

networks. Point-to-point communication and point-to-multipoint communication equipment integral to the

above networks are also included. For the purpose of this standard, the term base station includes the

radio transmitter(s) and the associated antenna(s)
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 8 -
4.5
basic restriction

restrictions on exposure to time - varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields that are based

directly on established health effects. Depending upon the frequency of the field, the physical quantities

used to specify these restrictions are current density (J), specific absorption rate (SAR) and power density

(S)
4.6
compliance boundary (CB)
the compliance boundary is defined according to EN 50383
4.7
domain of investigation (DI)

sub-domain of relevant domain where the general public may have access when the base station is put

into service
4.8
electric field strength (E)

the magnitude of a field vector at a point that represents the force (F) on a small test charge (q) divided

by the charge
E =
Electric field strength is expressed in units of volt per meter (V/m)
4.9
equipment under test (EUT)

base station that is the subject of the specific test investigation being described

4.10
equivalent free space conditions (EFSC)
conditions allowing re-use of free space methods defined in EN 50383
4.11
equivalent plane wave power density

the power per unit area normal to the direction of propagation of a plane wave in free space is related to

the electric and magnetic fields by the expression
S = =120π * H
120π
4.12
exposure ratio (ER)

the assessed exposure parameter at a specified location for each operating frequency of a radio source,

expressed as the fraction of the related limit
For assessment against the basic restrictions
Between 100 kHz and 10 GHz:
SARwb SARpb
 
ER = MAX ,
 
SARWBL SARPBL
 
Between 10 GHz and 40 GHz:
 
ER =
 
 
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
- 9 - EN 50400:2006
For assessments against reference levels:
Between 100 kHz and 40 GHz:
2 2
 
E H
   
ER = MAX ,
    
EL HL
   
 
 
or between 10 MHz and 40 GHz:
 S 
ER =
 
 
where
ER is the exposure ratio at each operating frequency for the source;
EL is the investigation E-field limit at frequency f;
HL is the investigation H-field limit at frequency f;
SARWBL is the SAR whole body limit at frequency f;
SARPBL is the SAR partial body limit at frequency f;
SL is the equivalent plane wave power density limit at frequency f;
E is the assessed E-field at frequency f for the source;
H is the assessed H-field at frequency f for the source;
SARwb is the assessed whole body SAR at frequency f for the source (EN 50383);
SARpb is the assessed partial body SAR at frequency f for the source (EN 50383);

S is the assessed equivalent plane wave power density at frequency f for the source;

f is each operating frequency of the source.
ER is applicable to limits based on ICNIRP principles
4.13
intrinsic impedance (of free space η ) η

the ratio of the electric field strength to the magnetic field strength of a propagating electromagnetic wave.

The intrinsic impedance of a plane wave in free space (120 π) is approximately 377 Ω

4.14
isotropy

physical property that is invariant of direction. The axial isotropy is defined by the maximum deviation of

the measured quantity when rotating the probe along its main axis with the probe exposed to a reference

wave with normal incidence with regard to the axis of the probe. The hemispherical isotropy is defined by

the maximum deviation of the measured quantity when rotating the probe along its main axis with the

probe exposed to a reference wave with varying angles of incidences and polarization with regard to the

axis of the probe in the half space in front of the probe
4.15
linearity

the maximum deviation over the measurement range of the measured quantity value from the closest

linear reference curve defined over a given interval
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 10 -
4.16
magnetic field strength (H)

the magnitude of a field vector in a point that results in a force ( F ) on a charge q moving with the velocity

F = q (v × µH)
The magnetic field strength is expressed in units of amperes per meter (A/m)
4.17
magnetic flux density (B)

the magnitude of a field vector that is equal to the magnetic field strength H multiplied by the permeability

(µ) of the medium
B = µ H
Magnetic flux density is expressed in units of tesla (T)
4.18
permeability (µ )

the magnetic permeability of a material is defined by the magnetic flux density B divided by the magnetic

field strength H:
µ =
where µ is the permeability of the medium expressed in henry per metre (H/m)
4.19
permittivity (ε )

the property of a dielectric material (e.g., biological tissue). In case of an isotropic material, it is defined by

the electrical flux density D divided by the electrical field strength E
ε =
The permittivity is expressed in units of farad per metre (F/m)
4.20
point of investigation (PI)

the location within the domain of investigation at which the value of E-field, H-field or power density is

evaluated. This location is defined in cartesian, cylindrical or spherical co-ordinates relative to the

reference point on the Equipment Under Test as defined in EN 50383
4.21
power density (S)

the radiant power incident perpendicular to a surface, divided by the area of the surface. The power

density is expressed in units of watt per square metre (W/m )
4.22
PDMF
power density multiplication factor
4.23
reference levels

reference levels are provided for the purpose of comparison with exposure quantities in air. Respect of

the reference levels will ensure respect of the basic restriction. In the frequency range 110 MHz to

40 GHz the reference levels are expressed as electric field strength, magnetic field strength and power

density values
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
- 11 - EN 50400:2006
4.24
reference point

the antenna is referenced by the centre of the rear reflector, in case of panel antennas, and by the centre

of the antenna in case of omni-directional antennas. For other configurations, appropriate references

must be defined
4.25
relevant domain (RD)

domain surrounding the antenna where the equipment under test may be considered as a relevant source

4.26
relevant source (RS)

a radio source, in the frequency range 100 kHz to 40 GHz, which at a given point of investigation has an

exposure ratio larger than 0,05
4.27
specific absorption rate (SAR)

the time derivative of the incremental energy (dW) absorbed by (dissipated in) an incremental mass (dm)

contained in a volume element (dV) of given mass density ( )
d dW d dW 
 
SAR = =
 
dt dm dt  ρdV
SAR is expressed in units of watt per kilogram (W/kg).
NOTE SAR can be calculated by
σ E
SAR =
where
E is r.m.s. value of the electric field strength in the tissue in V/m;
σ is conductivity of body tissue in S/m;
ρ is density of body tissue in kg/m
4.28
scatter domain (SD)

domain surrounding the antenna where a structure may cause reflected or diffracted fields, interfering

with the incident fields and resulting in significant modifications of the compliance boundary estimated in

free space according to EN 50383. Structures to be considered are extensive surfaces like walls, not

railings, ladders, etc.
4.29
total exposure ratio (TER)

the total exposure ratio is the maximum value of the sum of exposure ratios of the Equipment Under Test

and all relevant sources over the frequency range 100 kHz to 40 GHz
TER = ER + ER
EUT RS
where
ER is the assessed Exposure Ratio from the Equipment Under Test;
EUT
ER is the assessed Exposure Ratio of all the Relevant Sources
4.30
transmitter

device to generate radio frequency electrical power to be connected to an antenna for communication

purpose
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 12 -
5 General process

5.1 Alternative routes to determine the total exposure ratio where the general public has

access

This standard defines the methods that shall be used to determine, or overestimate, the total

exposure ratio in relevant areas where the general public has access. i.e. in the domain of

investigation. For this assessment, alternative routes (Figure 1) can be used and any completed

route is valid.

Choose either, the general method described in 5.2, or the pre-analysis method according to 5.3.

Start
Select
assessment
method
General method Pre-analysis method
(Sub(clausclaue 5.se 52).2) (clause 5.3)
(Subclause 5.3)
Yes No
Is TER <= 1 in DI?
The TER is <= 1 in DI
The TER may be > 1 in DI

Figure 1 – Alternative routes to determine the total exposure ratio where the general

public has access

For sources with time-varying power, the value of the average emitted power at the maximum

power setting of the equipment shall be used.
5.2 General method
5.2.1 Description of the general method

The total exposure ratio shall be determined following the process in the flow chart in Figure 2.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
- 13 - EN 50400:2006
Start
Step 1 - Determine the CB of the EUT
(EN 50383)
Does general public have
access to the volume defined
by the EUT CB?
Step 2 - Determine the RD & DI of the EUT (clause 6)
Does the DI exist in RD?
Yes
Yes
Step 3 - Determine the SD of the EUT (clause 6)
Determine the RS (clause 6)
Is there a reflecting
Yes
structure in SD?
Does DI overlap the
Yes
RD of other RS?
Step 4 - Perform assessment
(clause 5.2.2)
(Subclause 5.2.2)
Is TER<=1 in DI?
Yes
The TER is <= 1 in DI
The TER may be > 1 in DI
Figure 2 – Overview of the general method to estimate the total exposure ratio

The process described by the four steps below and illustrated in Figure 2 shall be followed in

order to determine or overestimate the total exposure ratio in relevant areas where the general

public has access.

Step 1 - Evaluate the compliance boundary of the base station according to EN 50383. If the

general public has access to the volume defined by the compliance voundary, the total exposure

ratio may exceed one in relevant areas where the general public has access.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
EN 50400:2006 - 14 -

Step 2 - Determine the relevant domain and the domain of investigation according to Clause 6. If

the general public has no access to the relevant domain, i.e. there is no domain of investigation,

the total exposure ratio is less than or equal to one in relevant areas where the general public

has access.

Step 3 - Determine the scatter domain and the relevant sources according to Clause 6. If there is

no structure in the scatter domain and if the relevant domain(s) of other relevant source(s) do not

overlap with the domain of investigation, then the t
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.