Information and documentation -- Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources

This document describes a set of principles, guidelines, and requirements for the preparation of bibliographic references and citations in works that are not themselves primarily bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations for all kinds of information resources, including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions within monographs and serials, patents, cartographic materials, artworks, performances and diverse electronic resources, such as research datasets, databases, programs and applications, Web archives and social media, music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audio-visual materials, archival sources and moving images.
This document provides a system for citing information resources that renders deterministic output, such that a citation generated by this system can be uniquely mapped back to the originally defined set of source elements. This system is intended to be applicable across multiple languages. Citations generated by this system are machine-parseable. The citation system described in this document can be used as a configurable framework for building citation styles.
This document does not specify a data model for machine‑readable citations, although such specification may be provided in a separate document or added to a later edition of ISO 690.
Guidelines for legal citations, such as references to cases, statutes or treatises, are not addressed in this document, since such guidelines are usually country-specific1. Recommendations with regards to what kind of information resources may or may not be cited, or describing the risks involved with, for example, citing social media, are not within the scope of this document2.
  
1 For example, the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation, and Bluebook, are commonly used in the USA depending on jurisdiction acceptance.
2 Academic institutions or scientific publishers may not accept references for some information resources such as Wikipedia articles for research papers and other scientific documents.

Information et documentation -- Principes directeurs pour la rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des ressources d'information

Informatika in dokumentacija - Smernice za bibliografske navedbe in citiranje virov informacij

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Sep-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Aug-2021
Due Date
28-Oct-2021
Completion Date
09-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 690:2021
01-oktober-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 690:2010

Informatika in dokumentacija - Smernice za bibliografske navedbe in citiranje virov

informacij

Information and documentation -- Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to

information resources

Information et documentation -- Principes directeurs pour la rédaction des références

bibliographiques et des citations des ressources d'information
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 690:2021
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST ISO 690:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 690
Fourth edition
2021-06
Information and documentation —
Guidelines for bibliographic
references and citations to
information resources
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la
rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des
ressources d'information
Reference number
ISO 690:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
ISO 690:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
ISO 690:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles for creating references ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Principle 1: Ensure metadata accuracy ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Principle 2: Prioritize identification and retrieval ................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Principle 3: Unify reference presentation ....................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Principle 4: Determine appropriate specificity .......................................................................................................... 9

5 Guidelines for creating references .................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Facilitate location of the cited information resource ............................................................................................. 9

5.3 Reflect the content used accurately ...................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Reference derivative works alongside the original ..............................................................................................10

5.5 Faithfully reference the manifestation and item .....................................................................................................10

5.6 Consider retrievability of unpublished information resources .................................................................11

5.7 Adopt a uniform presentation scheme ............................................................................................................................11

5.8 Accurately indicate specificity level ...................................................................................................................................11

6 Metadata ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Data source ..............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.2 Cited information resource ..................................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 External metadata sources ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Verifying correctness and completeness .......................................................................................................................13

6.4 Handling conflicting data ............................................................................................................................................................13

7 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1.1 Architecture of a citation .......................................................................................................................................13

7.1.2 Common rules .................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1.3 Manifestation and item............................................................................................................................................23

7.2 Creator ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Selection ...............................................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.4 Personal names ..............................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.5 Organization or group names ............................................................................................................................30

7.2.6 Multiple creators ...........................................................................................................................................................32

7.2.7 Pseudonyms ......................................................................................................................................................................34

7.2.8 Anonymous works .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.1 Preferred form ................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.2 Alternative forms ..........................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.3 Popular or original title ...........................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Long title ..............................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.5 Additional title parts .................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.6 Ambiguous or incorrect title ..............................................................................................................................36

7.3.7 No title ...................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.8 Translated title ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.3.9 Titles of translated works .....................................................................................................................................37

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
ISO 690:2021(E)

7.3.10 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Component parts ................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.4.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................38

7.5 Formats and resource types .....................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.1 Formats .................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.2 Resource types ................................................................................................................................................................41

7.5.3 Digital file formats .......................................................................................................................................................42

7.5.4 Migrated medium .........................................................................................................................................................43

7.6 Edition and version ..........................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.1 Edition ....................................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.2 Version ...................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.6.3 Differentiated and adaptive content ............................................................................................................45

7.6.4 Publication stages ........................................................................................................................................................45

7.7 Date ................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................46

7.7.3 Date of publication ......................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.4 Date of citation................................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.5 Reissuance and surrogate dates ......................................................................................................................48

7.7.6 Incorrect dates ................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8 Production information ................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.3 Place .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.9 Numeration and pagination ......................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.2 Part cited ..............................................................................................................................................................................54

7.9.3 Plain citations and references ...........................................................................................................................54

7.10 Serials and series ...............................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.2 Qualifiers for titles .......................................................................................................................................................55

7.10.3 Key title and the abbreviated key title .......................................................................................................55

7.10.4 Earlier titles .......................................................................................................................................................................56

7.10.5 Conference information ..........................................................................................................................................56

7.10.6 Series title and numbering ...................................................................................................................................56

7.10.7 New series ..........................................................................................................................................................................56

7.11 Identifiers .................................................................................................................................................................................................57

7.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................57

7.11.2 International standard identifiers .................................................................................................................58

7.11.3 Persistent identifiers .................................................................................................................................................59

7.12 Availability and location ..............................................................................................................................................................60

7.12.1 Physical location............................................................................................................................................................60

7.12.2 Network location and access ..............................................................................................................................63

7.12.3 Permanent links and URL shorteners .........................................................................................................66

7.12.4 Access restrictions and extinct resources ...............................................................................................67

7.13 Item and event attributes ...........................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.2 Item attributes ................................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.3 Event attributes .............................................................................................................................................................69

7.14 Relationship ............................................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.2 Translation .........................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.3 Commentary .....................................................................................................................................................................71

7.14.4 Annotated editions ......................................................................................................................................................72

7.14.5 Arranger ...............................................................................................................................................................................72

7.14.6 Abridgement and adaptation .............................................................................................................................72

7.14.7 Reviews and critiques ..............................................................................................................................................73

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2021
ISO 690:2021(E)

7.14.8 Surrogate .............................................................................................................................................................................74

7.14.9 Inclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................................75

7.14.10 Performance..................................................................................................................................................................76

7.14.11 Multiple relationships ..........................................................................................................................................76

7.15 Other elements .....................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.2 Subject....................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.3 Dimensions and size ..................................................................................................................................................77

7.15.4 File size ..................................................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.5 Price .........................................................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.6 Registered trademark ...............................................................................................................................................78

7.15.7 Rights metadata .............................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.8 Provenance and authenticity ..............................................................................................................................79

7.15.9 System requirements ................................................................................................................................................80

7.15.10 Restoration .....................................................................................................................................................................81

7.15.11 Other information ....................................................................................................................................................81

8 Resource categories .......................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1.2 Metadata elements to display ............................................................................................................................81

8.2 Monographs ............................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.2 Simple monographs ...................................................................................................................................................82

8.2.3 Composed of multiple volumes ........................................................................................................................83

8.2.4 E-books .................. .................................................... ............................................................................................................83

8.2.5 Audiobooks ........................................................................................................................................................................83

8.2.6 Plays, librettos and scripts ...................................................................................................................................83

8.2.7 Item ..........................................................................................................................................................................................84

8.3 Monograph components ..............................................................................................................................................................84

8.3.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................84

8.3.2 Component parts of a monograph .................................................................................................................86

8.4 Serials and their component parts .....................................................................................................................................86

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................86

8.4.2 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................86

8.4.3 Serials and their component parts ................................................................................................................88

8.4.4 Newspaper articles .....................................................................................................................................................89

8.4.5 Monograph series and their component parts ...................................................................................90

8.5 Programs and applications ........................................................................................................................................................90

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................90

8.5.2 Metadata elements ...........................
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 690
Fourth edition
2021-06
Information and documentation —
Guidelines for bibliographic
references and citations to
information resources
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la
rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des
ressources d'information
Reference number
ISO 690:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 690:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 690:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles for creating references ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Principle 1: Ensure metadata accuracy ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Principle 2: Prioritize identification and retrieval ................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Principle 3: Unify reference presentation ....................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Principle 4: Determine appropriate specificity .......................................................................................................... 9

5 Guidelines for creating references .................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Facilitate location of the cited information resource ............................................................................................. 9

5.3 Reflect the content used accurately ...................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Reference derivative works alongside the original ..............................................................................................10

5.5 Faithfully reference the manifestation and item .....................................................................................................10

5.6 Consider retrievability of unpublished information resources .................................................................11

5.7 Adopt a uniform presentation scheme ............................................................................................................................11

5.8 Accurately indicate specificity level ...................................................................................................................................11

6 Metadata ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Data source ..............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.2 Cited information resource ..................................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 External metadata sources ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Verifying correctness and completeness .......................................................................................................................13

6.4 Handling conflicting data ............................................................................................................................................................13

7 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1.1 Architecture of a citation .......................................................................................................................................13

7.1.2 Common rules .................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1.3 Manifestation and item............................................................................................................................................23

7.2 Creator ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Selection ...............................................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.4 Personal names ..............................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.5 Organization or group names ............................................................................................................................30

7.2.6 Multiple creators ...........................................................................................................................................................32

7.2.7 Pseudonyms ......................................................................................................................................................................34

7.2.8 Anonymous works .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.1 Preferred form ................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.2 Alternative forms ..........................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.3 Popular or original title ...........................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Long title ..............................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.5 Additional title parts .................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.6 Ambiguous or incorrect title ..............................................................................................................................36

7.3.7 No title ...................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.8 Translated title ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.3.9 Titles of translated works .....................................................................................................................................37

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 690:2021(E)

7.3.10 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Component parts ................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.4.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................38

7.5 Formats and resource types .....................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.1 Formats .................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.2 Resource types ................................................................................................................................................................41

7.5.3 Digital file formats .......................................................................................................................................................42

7.5.4 Migrated medium .........................................................................................................................................................43

7.6 Edition and version ..........................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.1 Edition ....................................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.2 Version ...................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.6.3 Differentiated and adaptive content ............................................................................................................45

7.6.4 Publication stages ........................................................................................................................................................45

7.7 Date ................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................46

7.7.3 Date of publication ......................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.4 Date of citation................................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.5 Reissuance and surrogate dates ......................................................................................................................48

7.7.6 Incorrect dates ................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8 Production information ................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.3 Place .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.9 Numeration and pagination ......................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.2 Part cited ..............................................................................................................................................................................54

7.9.3 Plain citations and references ...........................................................................................................................54

7.10 Serials and series ...............................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.2 Qualifiers for titles .......................................................................................................................................................55

7.10.3 Key title and the abbreviated key title .......................................................................................................55

7.10.4 Earlier titles .......................................................................................................................................................................56

7.10.5 Conference information ..........................................................................................................................................56

7.10.6 Series title and numbering ...................................................................................................................................56

7.10.7 New series ..........................................................................................................................................................................56

7.11 Identifiers .................................................................................................................................................................................................57

7.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................57

7.11.2 International standard identifiers .................................................................................................................58

7.11.3 Persistent identifiers .................................................................................................................................................59

7.12 Availability and location ..............................................................................................................................................................60

7.12.1 Physical location............................................................................................................................................................60

7.12.2 Network location and access ..............................................................................................................................63

7.12.3 Permanent links and URL shorteners .........................................................................................................66

7.12.4 Access restrictions and extinct resources ...............................................................................................67

7.13 Item and event attributes ...........................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.2 Item attributes ................................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.3 Event attributes .............................................................................................................................................................69

7.14 Relationship ............................................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.2 Translation .........................................................................................................................................................................70

7.14.3 Commentary .....................................................................................................................................................................71

7.14.4 Annotated editions ......................................................................................................................................................72

7.14.5 Arranger ...............................................................................................................................................................................72

7.14.6 Abridgement and adaptation .............................................................................................................................72

7.14.7 Reviews and critiques ..............................................................................................................................................73

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 690:2021(E)

7.14.8 Surrogate .............................................................................................................................................................................74

7.14.9 Inclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................................75

7.14.10 Performance..................................................................................................................................................................76

7.14.11 Multiple relationships ..........................................................................................................................................76

7.15 Other elements .....................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.2 Subject....................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.3 Dimensions and size ..................................................................................................................................................77

7.15.4 File size ..................................................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.5 Price .........................................................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.6 Registered trademark ...............................................................................................................................................78

7.15.7 Rights metadata .............................................................................................................................................................78

7.15.8 Provenance and authenticity ..............................................................................................................................79

7.15.9 System requirements ................................................................................................................................................80

7.15.10 Restoration .....................................................................................................................................................................81

7.15.11 Other information ....................................................................................................................................................81

8 Resource categories .......................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.1.2 Metadata elements to display ............................................................................................................................81

8.2 Monographs ............................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.2 Simple monographs ...................................................................................................................................................82

8.2.3 Composed of multiple volumes ........................................................................................................................83

8.2.4 E-books .................. .................................................... ............................................................................................................83

8.2.5 Audiobooks ........................................................................................................................................................................83

8.2.6 Plays, librettos and scripts ...................................................................................................................................83

8.2.7 Item ..........................................................................................................................................................................................84

8.3 Monograph components ..............................................................................................................................................................84

8.3.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................84

8.3.2 Component parts of a monograph .................................................................................................................86

8.4 Serials and their component parts .....................................................................................................................................86

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................86

8.4.2 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................86

8.4.3 Serials and their component parts ................................................................................................................88

8.4.4 Newspaper articles .....................................................................................................................................................89

8.4.5 Monograph series and their component parts ...................................................................................90

8.5 Programs and applications ........................................................................................................................................................90

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................90

8.5.2 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................90

8.5.3 Data elements and guidance specific to type .......................................................................................91

8.5.4 Operating systems .......................................................................................................................................................92

8.5.5 General programs .........................................................................................................................................................93

8.5.6 Games .....................................................................................................................................................................................93

8.6 Cartographic material ........................................................

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 690
ISO/TC 46/SC 9
Information and documentation —
Secretariat: ANSI
Guidelines for bibliographic
Voting begins on:
2021­02­12 references and citations to
information resources
Voting terminates on:
2021­04­09
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la
rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des
ressources d'information
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 690:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 690:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 690:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles for creating references ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Principle 1: Ensure metadata accuracy ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Principle 2: Prioritize identification and retrieval ................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Principle 3: Unify reference presentation ....................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Principle 4: Determine appropriate specificity .......................................................................................................... 9

5 Guidelines for creating references .................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Facilitate location of the cited information resource ............................................................................................. 9

5.3 Reflect the content used accurately ...................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Reference derivative works alongside the original ..............................................................................................10

5.5 Faithfully reference the manifestation and item .....................................................................................................10

5.6 Consider retrievability of unpublished information resources .................................................................11

5.7 Adopt a uniform presentation scheme ............................................................................................................................11

5.8 Accurately indicate specificity level ...................................................................................................................................11

6 Metadata ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Data source ..............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.2 Cited information resource ..................................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 External metadata sources ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Verifying correctness and completeness .......................................................................................................................13

6.4 Handling conflicting data ............................................................................................................................................................13

7 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1.1 Architecture of a citation .......................................................................................................................................13

7.1.2 Common rules .................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1.3 Manifestation and item............................................................................................................................................23

7.2 Creator ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Selection ...............................................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.4 Personal names ..............................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.5 Organization or group names ............................................................................................................................30

7.2.6 Multiple creators ...........................................................................................................................................................32

7.2.7 Pseudonyms ......................................................................................................................................................................33

7.2.8 Anonymous works .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.1 Preferred form ................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.2 Alternative forms ..........................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.3 Popular or original title ...........................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Long title ..............................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.5 Additional title parts .................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.6 Ambiguous or incorrect title ..............................................................................................................................36

7.3.7 No title ...................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.8 Translated title ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.3.9 Titles of translated works .....................................................................................................................................37

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7.3.10 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Component parts ................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.4.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................38

7.5 Formats and resource types .....................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.1 Formats .................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.2 Resource types ................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.3 Digital file formats .......................................................................................................................................................41

7.5.4 Migrated medium .........................................................................................................................................................43

7.6 Edition and version ..........................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.1 Edition ....................................................................................................................................................................................43

7.6.2 Version ...................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.6.3 Differentiated and adaptive content ............................................................................................................44

7.6.4 Publication stages ........................................................................................................................................................45

7.7 Date ................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.2 Representation ...............................................................................................................................................................45

7.7.3 Date of publication ......................................................................................................................................................47

7.7.4 Date of citation................................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.5 Reissuance and surrogate dates ......................................................................................................................48

7.7.6 Incorrect dates ................................................................................................................................................................48

7.8 Production information ................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.8.3 Place .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.9 Numeration and pagination ......................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.2 Part cited ..............................................................................................................................................................................53

7.9.3 Plain citations and references ...........................................................................................................................54

7.10 Serials and series ...............................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.2 Qualifiers for titles .......................................................................................................................................................54

7.10.3 Key title and the abbreviated key title .......................................................................................................55

7.10.4 Earlier titles .......................................................................................................................................................................55

7.10.5 Conference information ..........................................................................................................................................55

7.10.6 Series title and numbering ...................................................................................................................................56

7.10.7 New series ..........................................................................................................................................................................56

7.11 Identifiers .................................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.11.2 International standard identifiers .................................................................................................................57

7.11.3 Persistent identifiers .................................................................................................................................................58

7.12 Availability and location ..............................................................................................................................................................59

7.12.1 Physical location............................................................................................................................................................59

7.12.2 Network location and access ..............................................................................................................................62

7.12.3 Permanent links and URL shorteners .........................................................................................................66

7.12.4 Access restrictions and extinct resources ...............................................................................................67

7.13 Item and event attributes ...........................................................................................................................................................67

7.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................67

7.13.2 Item attributes ................................................................................................................................................................68

7.13.3 Event attributes .............................................................................................................................................................68

7.14 Relationship ............................................................................................................................................................................................69

7.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................69

7.14.2 Translation .........................................................................................................................................................................69

7.14.3 Commentary .....................................................................................................................................................................71

7.14.4 Annotated editions ......................................................................................................................................................71

7.14.5 Arranger ...............................................................................................................................................................................71

7.14.6 Abridgement and adaptation .............................................................................................................................72

7.14.7 Reviews and critiques ..............................................................................................................................................72

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7.14.8 Surrogate .............................................................................................................................................................................73

7.14.9 Inclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................................74

7.14.10 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................75

7.14.11 Multiple relationships ..............................................................................................................................................75

7.15 Other elements .....................................................................................................................................................................................75

7.15.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................75

7.15.2 Subject....................................................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.3 Dimensions and size ..................................................................................................................................................76

7.15.4 File size ..................................................................................................................................................................................77

7.15.5 Price .........................................................................................................................................................................................77

7.15.6 Registered trademark ...............................................................................................................................................77

7.15.7 Rights metadata .............................................................................................................................................................77

7.15.8 Provenance and authenticity ..............................................................................................................................78

7.15.9 System requirements ................................................................................................................................................79

7.15.10 Restoration ...................................................................... ...................................................................................................80

7.15.11 Other information ........................................................................................................................................................80

8 Resource categories .......................................................................................................................................................................................80

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................80

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................80

8.1.2 Metadata elements to display ............................................................................................................................80

8.2 Monographs ............................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.2 Simple monographs ...................................................................................................................................................81

8.2.3 Composed of multiple volumes ........................................................................................................................82

8.2.4 E­books .................. .................................................... ............................................................................................................82

8.2.5 Audiobooks ........................................................................................................................................................................82

8.2.6 Plays, librettos and scripts ...................................................................................................................................83

8.2.7 Item ..........................................................................................................................................................................................83

8.3 Monograph components ..............................................................................................................................................................83

8.3.1 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................83

8.3.2 Component parts of a monograph .................................................................................................................85

8.4 Serials and their component parts .....................................................................................................................................85

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................85

8.4.2 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................85

8.4.3 Serials and their component parts ................................................................................................................87

8.4.4 Newspaper articles .....................................................................................................................................................88

8.4.5 Monograph series and their component parts ...................................................................................89

8.5 Programs and applications ........................................................................................................................................................89

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................89

8.5.2 Metadata elements ......................................................................................................................................................89

8.5.3 Data elements and guidance specific to type .......................................................................................90

8.5.4 Operating systems ..........
...

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