Water quality - Sampling - Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of environmental water sampling and handling (ISO 5667-14:2014)

This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the selection and use of various quality assurance and quality
control techniques relating to the manual sampling of surface, potable, waste, marine and ground waters.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 14: Anleitung zur Qualitätssicherung und Qualitätskontrolle der umweltrelevanten Wasserprobenahme und -handhabung (ISO 5667-14:2014)

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 14: Lignes directrices pour le contrôle de la qualité dans l'échantillonnage et la manutention des eaux environnementales (ISO 5667-14:2014)

ISO 5667-14:2014 fournit des lignes directrices sur le choix et l'utilisation de différentes techniques d'assurance qualité et de contrôle qualité liées à l'échantillonnage manuel des eaux de surface, potables, résiduaires, marines et souterraines.
NOTE Dans certains cas, les principes généraux exposés dans la présente partie de l'ISO 5667 peuvent s'appliquer à l'échantillonnage de boues et de sédiments.

Kakovost vode - Vzorčenje - 14. del: Navodilo za zagotavljanje in kontrolo kakovosti vzorčenja vode v okolju ter ravnanje z vzorci (ISO 5667-14:2014)

Ta del standarda ISO 5667 ponuja načela glede izbire in uporabe različnih tehnik za zagotavljanje in kontrolo kakovosti, ki so povezane z ročnim vzorčenjem površinske, pitne, odpadne in morske vode ter podtalnice.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
05-Apr-2016
Publication Date
17-May-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2017
Due Date
09-Apr-2017
Completion Date
18-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
01-junij-2017
.DNRYRVWYRGH9]RUþHQMHGHO1DYRGLOR]D]DJRWDYOMDQMHLQNRQWUROR
NDNRYRVWLY]RUþHQMDYRGHYRNROMXWHUUDYQDQMH]Y]RUFL ,62

Water quality - Sampling - Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of

environmental water sampling and handling (ISO 5667-14:2014)

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 14: Anleitung zur Qualitätssicherung und

Qualitätskontrolle der umweltrelevanten Wasserprobenahme und -handhabung (ISO
5667-14:2014)

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 14: Lignes directrices pour le contrôle de la

qualité dans l'échantillonnage et la manutention des eaux environnementales (ISO 5667-

14:2014)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5667-14:2016
ICS:
13.060.45 Preiskava vode na splošno Examination of water in
general
SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
EN ISO 5667-14
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.45
English Version
Water quality - Sampling - Part 14: Guidance on quality
assurance and quality control of environmental water
sampling and handling (ISO 5667-14:2014)

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 14: Lignes Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 14:

directrices pour le contrôle de la qualité dans Anleitung zur Qualitätssicherung und

l'échantillonnage et la manutention des eaux Qualitätskontrolle bei der Entnahme und Handhabung

environnementales (ISO 5667-14:2014) von umweltrelevanten Wasserproben (ISO 5667-

14:2014)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 July 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5667-14:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
EN ISO 5667-14:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
EN ISO 5667-14:2016 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 5667-14:2014 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147 “Water quality”

of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN

ISO 5667-14:2016 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the secretariat of which is

held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5667-14:2014 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5667-14:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-14
Second edition
2014-12-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 14:
Guidance on quality assurance and
quality control of environmental
water sampling and handling
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 14: Lignes directrices pour le contrôle de la qualité dans
l’échantillonnage et la manutention des eaux environnementales
Reference number
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Sources of sampling error ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Sampling quality ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Technical and personnel requirements ............................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Sampling manual ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Training of sampling staff .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Strategy and organization ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Time, duration and frequency of sampling..................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Sampling collection locations ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Sample collection and handling ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 Equipment and vehicle check prior to carrying out a sampling programme ................................... 8

7.2 Preparation for sampling on-site ............................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3 Field measurements ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4 Taking the samples .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8 Sample identification ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Field sample protocol ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Transport and storage of samples ...................................................................................................................................................12

11 Sampling quality control techniques ...........................................................................................................................................13

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

11.2 Replicate quality control samples .......................................................................................................................................15

11.3 Field blank samples .........................................................................................................................................................................16

11.4 Rinsing of equipment (sampling containers) ............................................................................................................17

11.5 Filtration recovery ............................................................................................................................................................................18

11.6 Technique 1 — Spiked samples .............................................................................................................................................20

11.7 Technique 2 — Spiked environmental samples ......................................................................................................22

12 Analysis and interpretation of quality control data .....................................................................................................22

12.1 Shewhart control charts...............................................................................................................................................................22

12.2 Construction of duplicate control charts .......................................................................................................................23

13 Independent audits.........................................................................................................................................................................................23

[7]

Annex A (informative) Common sources of sampling error ...............................................................................................25

Annex B (informative) Control charts ..............................................................................................................................................................27

Annex C (informative) Sub-sampling using a homogenizer ......................................................................................................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Sampling

(general methods).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 5667-14:1998), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

— Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes
— Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples
— Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes
— Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water
— Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
— Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
— Part 8: Guidance on sampling of wet deposition
— Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
— Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
— Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
— Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments;
— Part 13: Guidance on sampling of water, waste water and related sludges

— Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of environmental water sampling and handling

— Part 15: Guidance on preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
— Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
— Part 17: Guidance on sampling of suspended sediments
— Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

— Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making – Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

— Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than

distribution pipes
— Part 22: Guidance on design and installation of groundwater sample points
— Part 23: Guidance on passive sampling in surface waters
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
Introduction

Sampling is the first step in carrying out chemical, physical and biological examinations. Therefore, the

goal of sampling should be to obtain a representative sample for the research question and to supply it

to the laboratory in the correct manner. Errors caused by improper sampling, sample pre-treatment,

transport and storage cannot be corrected.

This part of ISO 5667 specifies quality assurance and quality control procedures and provides additional

guidance on sampling of the various types of water covered in the specific parts of ISO 5667.

Quality control procedures are necessary for the collection of environmental water samples for the

following reasons:
a) to monitor the effectiveness of sampling methodology;

b) to demonstrate that the various stages of the sample collection process are adequately controlled

and suited to the intended purpose, including adequate control over sources of error such as

sample contamination, loss of determinand and sample instability. To achieve this, quality control

procedures should provide a means of detecting sampling error, and hence a means of rejecting

invalid or misleading data resulting from the sampling process;

c) to quantify and control the sources of error which arise in sampling. Quantification gives a guide to

the significance that sampling plays in the overall accuracy of data; and

d) to provide information on suitably abbreviated quality assurance procedures that might be used for

rapid sampling operations such as pollution incidents or groundwater investigations.

This part of ISO 5667 is one of a group of International Standards dealing with the sampling of waters.

It should be read in conjunction with the other parts of ISO 5667 and in particular with parts 1 and 3.

The general terminology is in accordance with that published.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 14:
Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of
environmental water sampling and handling

WARNING — Consider and minimize any risks and obey safety rules. See ISO 5667-1 for certain

safety precautions, including sampling from boats and from ice-covered waters.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the selection and use of various quality assurance and quality

control techniques relating to the manual sampling of surface, potable, waste, marine and ground waters.

NOTE The general principles outlined in this part of ISO 5667 might, in some circumstances, be applicable to

sludge and sediment sampling.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1:2006, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3:2012, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and the true value

Note 1 to entry: In practice, the accepted reference value is substituted for the true value.

Note 2 to entry: The term accuracy, when applied to a set of test or measurement results, involves a combination

of random components and a common systematic error or bias component.
Note 3 to entry: Accuracy refers to a combination of trueness and precision.
[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.1]
3.2
bias

difference between the expectation of the test results or measurement result and a true value

Note 1 to entry: Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more

systematic error components contributing to the bias. A larger systematic difference from the true value is

reflected by a larger bias value.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5667-14:2017
ISO 5667-14:2014(E)

Note 2 to entry: The bias of a measuring instrument is normally estimated by averaging the error of indication

over an appropriate number of repeated measurements. The error of indication is the: “indication of a measuring

instrument minus a true value of the corresponding input quantity”.

Note 3 to entry: In practice, the accepted reference value is substituted for the true value.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.2]
3.3
precision

closeness of agreement between independent test/measurement results obtained under stipulated

conditions

Note 1 to entry: Precision depends only on the distribution of random errors and does not relate to the true value

or the specified value.

Note 2 to entry: The measure of precision is usually expressed in terms of imprecision and computed as a standard

deviation of the test results or measurement results. Less precision is reflected by a larger standard deviation.

Note 3 to entry: Quantitative measures of precision depend critically on the stipulated conditions. Repeatability

conditions and reproducibility conditions are particular sets of extreme stipulated conditions.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.4]
3.4
representativeness

extent to which the condition of all the samples taken from the body of water reflects conditions in

water of interest
3.5
blank

observed value obtained when measurement is made on a sample identical to the sample of interest, but

in the absence of the determinand

Note 1 to entry: Deionised water; distilled water can be used as blank samples which are prepared in the laboratory

prior to sampling.
3.6
field blank

container prepared in the laboratory, using reagent water or other blank matrix, and sent with the sampling

personnel for exposure to the sampling environment to verify possible contamination during sampling

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2005, 4.5.3]
3.7
spike

known quantity of determinand which is added to a sample, usually for the purpose of estimating the

systematic error of an analytical system by means of a recovery exercise
3.8
recovery

extent to which a known, added quantity of determinand in a sample can be measured by an

analytical system

Note 1 to entry: Recovery is calculated from the difference between results obtained from a spiked (3.7) and an

unspiked aliquot of sample and is usually expressed as a percentage.
3.9
control chart

chart on which some statistical measure of a series of samples is plotted in a particular order to steer

the process with respect to that measure and to control and reduce variation

Note 1 to entry: The particular order is usually based on time or sample number order.

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 5667-14:2014(E)

Note 2 to entry: The control chart operates most effectively when the measure is a process variable which is

correlated with an ultimate product or service characteristic.
[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 2.3.1]
3.10
Shewhart control chart

control chart with Shewhart control limits intended primarily to distinguish between the variation in

the plotted measure due to random causes and that due to special causes

Note 1 to entry: This could be a chart using attributes (for example, proportion nonconforming) for evaluating a

process, or it could be a chart using variables (for example, average and range) for evaluating a process. Examples are:

a) X-bar chart — the sample means are plotted in order to control the mean value of a variable;

b) R chart — the sample ranges are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable;

c) s chart — the sample standard deviations are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable;

d) s chart — the sample variances are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable;

e) C chart — the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine, etc.) is plotted.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 2.3.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.11
action limits

control limits between which the statistic under consideration lies with a very high probability when

the process is under statistical control

Note 1 to entry: Action lines are drawn on a control chart to represent action limits.

Note 2 to entry: When the measure plotted lies beyond an action limit, appropriate corrective action is taken

on the process.

Note 3 to entry: These limits are based on the assumption that only 0,3 % of normally distributed results will fall

outside these limits. Such an occurrence would strongly indicate that additional, assignable causes of variation

might be present and that action might be required to identify and reduce them.
[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 2.4.4, modified — Note 3 to entry has been added.]
3.12
warning limits

control limits between which the statistic under consideration lies with a high probability when the

process is under statistical control

Note 1 to entry: Warning lines are drawn on a control chart to represent warning limits.

Note 2 to entry: When the value of the statistic plotted lies outside a warning limit, but within the action limit

(3.11), increased supervision of the process, to pre-specified rules, is generally required.

Note 3 to entry: The limits are calculated from the standard deviation of the statistic under consideration of at

least 10 samples. Warning and action control limits are applied to individual sampling results.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 2.4.3, modified — Note 3 to entry has been added.]
3.13
uncertainty
measurement uncertainty

non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the quantity values being attributed to a

measurand based on the information used

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.26, modified — The notes to entry are not included here.]

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 5667-14:2014(E)
3.14
true value

value which characterizes a quantity or quantitative characteristic perfectly defined in the conditions

which exist when that quantity or quantitative characteristic is considered

Note 1 to entry: The true value of a quantity or quantitative characteristic is a theoretical concept and, in general,

cannot be known exactly.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.2.5, modified — Note 2 to entry is not included here.]

3.15
accepted reference value
value that serves as an agreed-upon reference for comparison
Note 1 to entry: The accepted reference value is derived as:
a) a theoretical or established value, based on scientific principles;

b) an assigned or certified value, based on experimental work of some national or international organization;

c) a consensus or certified value, based on collaborative experimental work under the auspices of a scientific or

technical group;

d) the expectation, i.e. the mean of a specified set of measurements, when a), b) and c) are not available.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.2.7]
4 Sources of sampling error
Sources of sampling errors include the following:
a) Contamination

Contamination can be caused by sampling equipment materials (sampling containers and sample

containers) by cross-contamination between samples and by sample preservation and inappropriate

storage and transport arrangements.
b) Sample instability

The type of sampling vessels and containers used can affect the stability of the determinand between

sampling and analysis due to the inherent instability of the sample itself and the conditions in which

samples are stored and transported.
c) Incorrect preservation

The choice of sampling vessels and containers affects the integrity of the determinand and the

options for preservation which may be available, as detailed in ISO 5667-3.
d) Incorrect sampling

Deviation from the sampling procedure, or the procedure itself, might be a source of error.

e) Sampling from non-homogenized wate
...

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