Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests (ISO 4516:2002)

Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): N 201: New TD (980917) ++ Res. 159/99 new TC forecast (BLI 99/10/18)

Metallische und andere anorganische Überzüge - Mikrohärteprüfungen nach Vickers und Knoop (ISO 4516:2002)

Diese Internationale Norm legt für metallische und andere anorganische Schichten Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Mikrohärte nach Vickers und Knoop fest.
Wenn die Kräfte auf den Eindringkörper im allgemeinen weniger als 10 N betragen, ist dieses Verfahren anwendbar, d. h. auf elektrolytisch oder autokatalytisch abgeschiedene Schichten, auf aufgespritzte Schichten sowie auf anodisch erzeugte Oxidschichten auf Aluminium. Nach diesem Verfahren sind nach 7.4 Messungen senkrecht zur beschichteten Oberfläche und nach 7.3 Messungen an Querschliffen durchführbar.
ANMERKUNG 1   Zu beachten sind ISO 4545 sowie ISO 6507 Teile 1, 2 und 3, die Härteprüfverfahren nach Knoop und Vickers für metallische Werkstoffe festlegen. Zur Zeit in Vorbereitung sind weitere Internationalen Normen für die Prüfung der Prüfmaschinen zur Instrumentierten Eindringprüfung sowie zur Kalibrierung der Härtevergleichsplatten für diese Prüfmaschinen (z. B. ISO 14577 Teil 1 bis 4).
ANMERKUNG 2  Üblicherweise werden für Härteprüfungen an Schichten die Prüfkräfte, wie sie für den Mikrobereich in ISO 6507-1 festgelegt sind, verwendet. Soll jedoch die größt  mögliche Prüfkraft gewählt werden, dürfen auch Prüfkräfte aus dem Kleinkraftbereich und dem konventionellen Vickersbereich angewendet werden.

Revetements métalliques et autres revetements inorganiques - Essais de microdureté Vickers et Knoop (ISO 4516:2002)

L'ISO 4516 décrit l'application des essais de micropénétration Vickers et Knoop pour déterminer la microdureté des revêtements métalliques et autres revêtements inorganiques. La présente méthode est applicable lorsque l'effort exercé par un pénétrateur doit en général être inférieur à 10 N comme c'est le cas pour les dépôts électrolytiques, les dépôts autocatalytiques, les revêtements au pistolet et les revêtements anodiques sur l'aluminium. Elle est applicable aux mesurages effectués perpendiculairement à la surface de revêtements, ainsi qu'aux mesurages effectués sur des coupes transversales.

Kovinske in druge anorganske prevleke - Preskusi mikrotrdote po Vickersu in Knoopu (ISO 4516:2002)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2003
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2003
Due Date
01-Dec-2003
Completion Date
01-Dec-2003

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
01-december-2003
Kovinske in druge anorganske prevleke - Preskusi mikrotrdote po Vickersu in
Knoopu (ISO 4516:2002)

Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests (ISO

4516:2002)

Metallische und andere anorganische Überzüge - Mikrohärteprüfungen nach Vickers und

Knoop (ISO 4516:2002)

Revetements métalliques et autres revetements inorganiques - Essais de microdureté

Vickers et Knoop (ISO 4516:2002)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4516:2002
ICS:
25.220.40 Kovinske prevleke Metallic coatings
SIST EN ISO 4516:2003 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 4516
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2002
ICS 25.220.40
English version
Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Vickers and Knoop
microhardness tests (ISO 4516:2002)

Revêtements métalliques et autres revêtements Metallische und andere anorganische Überzüge -

inorganiques - Essais de microdureté Vickers et Knoop Mikrohärteprüfungen nach Vickers und Knoop (ISO

(ISO 4516:2002) 4516:2002)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 June 2002.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 4516:2002 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
EN ISO 4516:2002 (E)
CORRECTED 2002-07-31
Foreword

This document (ISO 4516:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107

"Metallic and other inorganic coatings" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC

262 "Metallic and other inorganic coatings", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication

of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2002, and conflicting

national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2002.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard ISO 4516:2002 has been approved by CEN as a

European Standard without any modifications.

NOTE Normative references to International Standards are listed in annex ZA (normative).

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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
EN ISO 4516:2002 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions

of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications,

indicated by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN Year
ISO 1463 1982 EN ISO 1463 1994
Metallic and oxide coatings 
Measurement of coating thickness 
Microscopical method
ISO 6507-1 1997 EN ISO 6507-1 1997
Metallic materials  Vickers
hardness test  Part 1: Test method
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4516
Second edition
2002-06-15
Metallic and other inorganic coatings —
Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests
Revêtements métalliques et autres revêtements inorganiques — Essais de
microdureté Vickers et Knoop
Reference number
ISO 4516:2002(E)
ISO 2002
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
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ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
Contents Page

Foreword.....................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope..............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references....................................................................................................................................1

3 Principle..........................................................................................................................................................1

4 Symbols and designations ...........................................................................................................................2

5 Apparatus.......................................................................................................................................................2

6 Factors affecting measurement accuracy...................................................................................................5

7 Measuring procedure....................................................................................................................................9

8 Test report....................................................................................................................................................11

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted

by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 4516 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4516:1980), which has been technically revised.

iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4516:2002(E)
Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop
microhardness tests
1 Scope

This International Standard describes the application of the Vickers and Knoop micro-indentation tests for

determining the microhardness of metallic and other inorganic coatings. This method is applicable where indenter

forces generally need to be below 10 N such as for electrodeposited coatings, autocatalytic coatings, sprayed

coatings and anodic coatings on aluminium. It is applicable to measurements normal to the coated surface as

described in 7.4 and to measurements on cross-sections as described in 7.3.

NOTE 1 Attention is drawn to ISO 4545, ISO 6507-1, ISO 6507-2 and ISO 6507-3, which describe Knoop and Vickers

hardness testing of metallic materials. Other International Standards for instrumental indentation testing, the verification of

microindentation testing instruments and for the verification of reference blocks to be used with such instruments are currently

being developed (e.g. ISO 14577 Parts 1 to 4).

NOTE 2 Usually for hardness measurements of coating test forces in the microhardness range in accordance with

ISO 6507-1 are used. However, since the largest possible test force should be selected, test forces of the low force and

hardness ranges may also be used.
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 9002, Quality systems — Model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing

3 Principle

A testing instrument slowly lowers an indenter vertically on to the test surface and holds it there for a specified time

under a specified load (see 6.2). The tolerance of the applied test force is within 1 % of that specified.

An indenter is forced into the coating and the diagonal(s) of the indentation left in the surface after removal of the

indenter is measured using a microscope. The indenter is applied such that the resultant indentation does not

contain artefacts of the loading apparatus or procedure but rather is characteristic of the coating.

A number, known as the Vickers or Knoop hardness number, is derived from this measurement using the symbols

and designations given in clause 4.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
4 Symbols and designations

Vickers and Knoop hardnesses are denoted respectively by the symbols HV and HK preceded by the hardness

value and followed by:

a) a number representing the test force (force in newtons multiplied by proportionality factor 0,102) (see Table 1);

b) the application time of test force, in seconds, if different from the time specified in 6.3.

EXAMPLE 1 640 HV 0,1: Vickers hardness of 640 determined using a test force of 0,980 7 N applied for between 10 s and

15 s.

EXAMPLE 2 640 HK 0,1/20: Knoop hardness of 640 determined using a test force of 0,980 7 N applied for 20 s.

Table 1 — Symbols and designations
Symbol Measuring unit Designation
Vickers Knoop
F Force: N Test force: N Test force: N
d Diagonal Arithmetic mean of the two separately Length of longer diagonal
measurement: µm dd+
measured diagonals d=
HV and HK — Vickers hardness number = Knoop hardness number =
(0,102 F)/A = (0,102 F)/A =
V K
6 2 6 2
189,1 × 10 F/d 1 451,4 × 10 F/d
A mm Sloping surface area of indentation
(contact area)
A mm Projected area of the indentation
t µm Coating thickness Coating thickness
s — Standard deviation Standard deviation
2 2
HV−HV HK−HK
() ()
s= s=
n−1 n−1
() ()
N — Number of measurements Number of measurements
HV HV = Σ HV/n HK = Σ HK/n
and
V % Coefficient of variation Coefficient of variation
100s 100s
V= V=
HV HK
5 Apparatus
5.1 Testing instrument, to perform the task described in clause 3.
5.2 Indenters
5.2.1 Form and dimensions
2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
5.2.1.1 Vickers indenter

The indenter consists of a diamond in the form of a right pyramid with a square base (see Figure 1). The angle at

the vertex between opposite faces shall be 136° ± 0,5°. This angle shall have been verified with a 2-circle

goniometer of appropriate accuracy. The relation between the diagonals d and d and the depth of the indentation,

1 2
h, is approximately 7:1.

The four faces shall be equally inclined to the axis of the indenter (within 0,5°) and shall meet at a point; any line of

junction (offset) between two opposite faces shall not exceed 0,5 µm. The usual shape of the point is shown in

Figure 2 as it would appear under high magnification.
Offset
Figure 1 — Vickers indenter
Maximum offset 0,5 µm
Figure 2 — Vickers indenter offset
5.2.1.2 Knoop indenter

The indenter consists of a diamond tipped right pyramid with a rhomboid base (see Figure 3). The angles at the

vertex shall be 172,5° ± 0,3° and 130 ± 0,3°. These angles shall have been verified with a 2-circle goniometer of

appropriate accuracy. The four faces shall be equally inclined to the axis of the indenter (within 0,5°) and shall meet

at a point; any line of junction (offset) between two opposite faces shall not exceed 1,0 µm. The usual shape of the

point as it would appear under high magnification is shown in Figure 4. The relation between the long diagonal and

the depth of the indentation is approximately 30:1.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)
Figure 3 — Knoop indenter
Offset
Maximum offset 1,0 µm
Figure 4 — Knoop indenter offset
5.2.2 Surface characteristics

The indenter faces shall be smooth and free from cracks or other imperfections or defects. The diamond shall be

examined periodically. Any foreign materials shall be removed. The indenter shall be replaced if it is cracked,

chipped or loose in its mounting.

NOTE The diamond can be cleaned by pressing it into copper or steel of low hardness, or by means of a suitable solvent

not harmful to the equipment. The diamond can be examined using a scanning electron microscope or an optical microscope

4 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4516:2003
ISO 4516:2002(E)

with a numerical aperture greater than 0,85. Cracks and other imperfections or defects can sometimes be detected by

examining the shape and symmetry of the indentation. Additional cleaning techniques may be provided by the manufacturer.

5.3 Hardness reference blocks

The test blocks shall be cleaned immediately prior to use because frequently they are coated to prevent corrosion

during storage.

To verify the hardness testing instrument and the measurement, the measurement shall be compared with blocks,

the hardness of which is close to the range of interest. Each block shall be of a material the grain size of which is

small compared with the indentation size and shall have a known uniform hardness measured at a particular test

force specified by the calibrating authorities or the testing instrument manufacturer. The test for

...

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