Integrated optics - Vocabulary - Part 1: Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols (ISO 11807-1:2021)

This document defines basic terms for integrated optical devices, their related optical chips and optical
elements which find applications, for example, in the fields of optical communications and sensors.
— The coordinate system used in Clause 3 is described in Annex A.
— The symbols and units defined in detail in Clause 3 are listed in Annex B

Integrierte Optik - Begriffe - Teil 1: Grundbegriffe und Formelzeichen optischer Wellenleiter (ISO 11807-1:2021)

Dieses Dokument definiert Grundbegriffe für integriert-optische Baugruppen und ihre zugehörigen optischen Chips und optische Elemente, die z. B. in den Bereichen der optischen Nachrichtentechnik und Sensorik eingesetzt werden.
- Das Koordinatensystem, welches in Abschnitt 3 verwendet wird, ist in Anhang A beschrieben.
- Die Symbole und Einheiten, die in Abschnitt 3 genau definiert werden, sind in Tabelle B.1 aufgeführt.

Optique intégrée - Vocabulaire - Partie 1: Termes fondamentaux et symboles des guides d'onde optique (ISO 11807-1:2021)

Integrirana optika - Slovar - 1. del: Osnovni strokovni izrazi in simboli optičnih valovodov (ISO 11807-1:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-May-2020
Publication Date
14-Nov-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Nov-2021
Due Date
09-Jan-2022
Completion Date
15-Nov-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
01-december-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2005

Integrirana optika - Slovar - 1. del: Osnovni strokovni izrazi in simboli optičnih

valovodov (ISO 11807-1:2021)

Integrated optics - Vocabulary - Part 1: Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols (ISO

11807-1:2021)
Integrierte Optik - Begriffe - Teil 1: Grundbegriffe und Formelzeichen optischer
Wellenleiter (ISO 11807-1:2021)

Optique intégrée - Vocabulaire - Partie 1: Termes fondamentaux et symboles des guides

d'onde optique (ISO 11807-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ICS:
01.040.31 Elektronika (Slovarji) Electronics (Vocabularies)
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
EN ISO 11807-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.31; 31.260 Supersedes EN ISO 11807-1:2005
English Version
Integrated optics - Vocabulary - Part 1: Optical waveguide
basic terms and symbols (ISO 11807-1:2021)

Optique intégrée - Vocabulaire - Partie 1: Termes Integrierte Optik - Begriffe - Teil 1: Grundbegriffe und

fondamentaux et symboles des guides d'onde optique Formelzeichen optischer Wellenleiter (ISO 11807-

(ISO 11807-1:2021) 1:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 October 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11807-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
EN ISO 11807-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
EN ISO 11807-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 11807-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 "Optics

and photonics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 123 “Lasers and photonics” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 11807-1:2005.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11807-1:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11807-1:2021 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11807-1
Second edition
2021-10
Integrated optics — Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Optical waveguide basic terms and
symbols
Optique intégrée — Vocabulaire —
Partie 1: Termes fondamentaux et symboles des guides d'onde optique
Reference number
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Waveguide structures ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Modes in integrated optical waveguides......................................................................................................................... 2

3.4 Refractive index distribution in integrated optical waveguides ............................................................... 4

3.5 Properties of integrated optical waveguides .............................................................................................................. 8

3.6 Loss or attenuation in integrated optical waveguides........................................................................................ 8

Annex A (informative) Coordinate system .................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Symbols and units ..................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 Optics and photonics, Subcommittee

SC 9, Laser and electro optical systems, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization

(CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 123, Lasers and photonics, in accordance with the agreement on

technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11807-1:2001), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Terminologies that have not been frequently used over the last 5 to 10 years are revised to those

matching to current trends.

— In the revision process, terminologies and definitions are compared to similar terminology

definitions in IEC and harmonized.
A list of all parts of ISO 11807 can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html .
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The aim of this document is to clarify the terms of the field of “integrated optics” and to define a unified

vocabulary. It is expected that this document will be revised periodically to adopt the requirements of

customers and suppliers of integrated optical products. At a later stage, it is planned to add definitions

from other International Standards which deal with integrated optics.

Some of the definitions are closely related to definitions given in IEC 60050-731. Wherever this can lead

to misunderstanding, integrated optics or integrated optical waveguide should be used together with

the defined term.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
Integrated optics — Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols
1 Scope

This document defines basic terms for integrated optical devices, their related optical chips and optical

elements which find applications, for example, in the fields of optical communications and sensors.

— The coordinate system used in Clause 3 is described in Annex A.
— The symbols and units defined in detail in Clause 3 are listed in Annex B.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11807-2, Integrated optics — Vocabulary — Part 2: Terms used in classification

ISO 14881, Integrated optics — Interfaces — Parameters relevant to coupling properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11807-2 and ISO 14881 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General
3.1.1
integrated optics

planar optical waveguide (3.2.1) structures, manufactured either in or on a substrate (3.2.6), including

the optical components necessary for the input and output coupling of lightwaves

Note 1 to entry: In this context the term “planar” is used to include small deviations from planarity which are

associated with Luneburg lenses, for example. By use of a suitable material, it is possible to integrate both

optoelectronic and purely optical functions on the same substrate. The simplest case is electrodes, which can

be used for controlling the properties of a waveguide. It is also possible to fabricate lasers and detectors using

compound semiconductor materials.

Note 2 to entry: It is envisaged that integrated optical components will be combined with other microtechnologies,

such as microelectronics and micromechanics, to build more complex systems. However, such systems are

beyond the scope of this document, which will be concerned only with the integrated optical component and its

immediate interfaces (see IEC 60050-731:1991, 06-43).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
3.2 Waveguide structures
3.2.1
waveguide

transmission line designed to guide optical power consisting of structures which guide lightwaves on

the basis of a higher refractive index in the core (3.2.4) and a lower refractive index in the surrounding

material
Note 1 to entry: The lightwaves in a waveguide propagate in modes.
3.2.2
slab waveguide

waveguide (3.2.1) which confines the optical field between two light guiding parallel surfaces

Note 1 to entry: See Figure A.1 where the Cartesian coordinate system is indicated for defining the several

terminologies relating to waveguides.

Note 2 to entry: In the previous edition "planar waveguide" was used as a synonym.

3.2.3
strip waveguide
channel waveguide

waveguide (3.2.1) which confines the optical field in a two-dimensional cross-sectional area

perpendicular to the lightwave propagating direction (wave vector) along a one-dimensional path

3.2.4
core

region(s) of an integrated optical waveguide (3.2.1), in which the optical power is mainly confined

3.2.5
cladding
material surrounding the waveguide (3.2.1) core (3.2.4)

Note 1 to entry: In contrast to optical fibres for integrated optical waveguides, the cladding often consists of

more than one material. Normally, it is necessary to distinguish between lower cladding and upper cladding due

to the planar fabrication process of integrated optical waveguides.
3.2.6
substrate

carrier onto or within which the integrated optical waveguide (3.2.1) is fabricated

3.2.7
superstrate

cladding (3.2.5) medium or layer structure with which the core (3.2.4) of the integrated optical

waveguide (3.2.1) is covered

Note 1 to entry: An electrode, for example, should not be considered as a superstrate. Although it covers the

waveguide, it does not influence the optical properties of the waveguide due to an optically insulating layer of

sufficient thickness.
3.3 Modes in integrated optical waveguides
3.3.1
mode

eigenfunction of Maxwell's equations, representing an electromagnetic field in a certain space domain

and belonging to a family of independent solutions defined by specific boundary conditions

Note 1 to entry: Each mode is defined according to its order in the vertical and horizontal directions and its

polarization, the latter being separated into TE- and TM-modes. The mode order is given by indexing TE and

TM , where TE and TM represent the y- and x-direction of polarization, respectively. The symbols, i and j define

the mode indices (the order) along x (horizontal) and y (vertical) respectively.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11807-1:2021
ISO 11807-1:2021(E)
3.3.2
guided mode

electromagnetic wave whose electric field decays monotonically in the transverse direction everywhere

outside the core (3.2.4) and which does not lose power
3.3.3
TE mode

transverse electromagnetic wave, where the electric field vector is normal to the direction of

propagation; i.e., the electric field vector lies in the transverse plane (xy-plane)

Note 1 to entry: Strictly speaking, in strip waveguides, hybrid modes having a non-zero component of the electric

and magnetic field in the direction of propagation do exist. Pure TE- and TM-modes are only found in waveguides

with a corresponding geometry — for example in slab waveguides. For integrated optical waveguides in planar

substrates, the polarization state is usually defined relative to the substrate surface. In slab waveguides, the

electric field vector of TE modes lies in the y-direction, as a result of the choice of the coordinate system.

3.3.4
TM mode

transverse electromagnetic wave, where the magnetic field vector is normal to the direction of

propagation; i.e., the magnetic field vector lies in the transverse plane (xy-plane)

Note 1 to entry: In slab waveguides, the magnetic field vector of TM mode lies in the y-direction, as a result of the

choice of the coordinate system.
3.3.5
evanesce
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
01-maj-2020

Integrirana optika - Slovar - 1. del: Osnovni strokovni izrazi in simboli (ISO/DIS

11807-1:2020)

Integrated optics - Vocabulary - Part 1: Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols

(ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020)

Integrierte Optik - Begriffe - Teil 1: Grundbegriffe und Formelzeichen (ISO/DIS 11807-

1:2020)

Optique intégrée - Vocabulaire - Partie 1: Termes fondamentaux et symboles des guides

d'onde optique (ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 11807-1
ICS:
01.040.31 Elektronika (Slovarji) Electronics (Vocabularies)
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 11807-1
ISO/TC 172/SC 9 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-03-30 2020-06-22
Integrated optics — Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols
ICS: 31.260; 01.040.31
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Waveguide structures ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Modes in integrated optical waveguides .......................................................................................................................... 2

3.4 Refractive index distribution in integrated optical waveguides ................................................................... 5

3.5 Properties of integrated optical waveguides ................................................................................................................ 9

3.6 Loss or attenuation in integrated optical waveguides .......................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Coordinate system ...................................................................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Symbols and units ....................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 Optics and photonics, Subcommittee

SC 9, Laser and electro optical systems.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11807-1:2001), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Terminologies that have not been frequently used over the last 5 to 10 years are revised to those

matching to current trends.

— In the revision process, terminologies and definitions are compared to similar terminology

definitions in IEC and harmonized.
A list of all parts of ISO 11807 can be found on the ISO Website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html .
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The aim of this part of ISO 11807 is to clarify the terms of the relatively new field of “integrated optics”

and to define a unified vocabulary at a time when the first products are coming onto the market. It is

expected that this part of ISO 11807 will be revised periodically to adopt the requirements of customers

and suppliers of integrated optical products. At a later stage, it is planned to add definitions from other

International Standards which deal with integrated optics.

Some of the definitions are closely related to definitions given in IEC 60050, International electrotechnical

vocabulary. Wherever this can lead to misunderstanding, integrated optics or integrated optical

waveguide should be used together with the defined term.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
Integrated optics — Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Optical waveguide basic terms and symbols
1 Scope

This document defines basic terms for integrated optical devices, their related optical chips and optical

elements which find applications, for example, in the fields of optical communications and sensors.

— The coordinate system used in Clause 3 is described in Annex A.
— The symbols and units defined in detail in Clause 3 are listed in Table B.1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11807-2, Integrated optics -- Vocabulary -- Part 2: Terms used in classification

ISO 14881, Integrated optics -- Interfaces -- Parameters relevant to coupling properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11807-2 and ISO 14881 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1 General
3.1.1
integrated optics

planar optical waveguide structures, manufactured either in or on a substrate, including the optical

components necessary for the input and output coupling of lightwaves

Note 1 to entry: In this context the term “planar” is used to include small deviations from planarity such as

are incurred with, for example, Luneburg lenses. By use of a suitable material, it is possible to integrate both

optoelectronic and purely optical functions on the same substrate. The simplest case is electrodes, which can be

used for controlling the properties of a waveguide. It is, however, possible to fabricate lasers and detectors using

compound semiconductor materials.

Note 2 to entry: It is envisaged that integrated optical components will be combined with other microtechnologies,

such as microelectronics and micromechanics, to make more complex systems. However, such systems are

beyond the scope of this part of ISO 11807, which will be concerned only with the integrated optical component

and its immediate interfaces (see IEC 60050-731/06-43).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11807-1:2020
ISO/DIS 11807-1:2020(E)
3.2 Waveguide structures
3.2.1
waveguide

transmission line designed to guide optical power consisting of structures which guide lightwaves on

the basis of a higher refractive index in the core and a lower index of refraction in the surrounding

material
Note 1 to entry: The lightwaves in a waveguide propagate in modes.
3.2.2
slab waveguide
planar waveguide

waveguide which confines the optical field in rectangular crosssection along a parallel extended light

guiding surface or between two such surfaces

Note 1 to entry: See Figure A.1 where the Cartesian coordinate system is indicated for defining the several

terminologies relating to waveguides.
3.2.3
strip waveguide
channel waveguide

waveguide which confines the optical field in a two-dimensional cross-sectional area perpendicular to

the lightwave propagating direction (wavenumber vector) along a one-dimensional path

3.2.4
core

the region(s) of an integrated optical waveguide, in which the optical power is mainly confined

3.2.5
cladding
material surrounding the waveguide core

Note 1 to entry: In contrast to optical fibres for integrated optical waveguides, the cladding often consists of

more than one material. Normally, it is necessary to distinguish between lower cladding and upper cladding due

to the planar fabrication process of integrated optical waveguides.
3.2.6
substrate
carrier onto or within which the integrated optical waveguide is fabricated
3.2.7
superstrate
medium or layer structure with which the integrated optical waveguide is covered

Note 1 to entry: An electrode, for example, should not be designated as a superstrate. Although it covers the

waveguide, it would not influence the optical properties of the waveguide due to an optically insulating layer of

sufficient thickness.
3.3 Modes in integrated optical waveguides
3.3.1
mode

eigenfunction of Maxwell's equations, representing an electromagnetic field in a certain space domain

and belonging to a family of independent solutions defined by specific boundary conditions

Note 1 to entry: Each mode is defined according to its order in the vertical and horizontal directions and its

polarization, the latter being separated into TE- and TM-modes. The mode order is given by indexing TE and

TM , where TE and TM represent respectively the y- and x-direction of polarization, and i and j define the mode

indices (the order) along x (horizontal) and y (vertical) respectively.
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3.3.2
guided mode

electromagnetic wave whose electric field decays monotonically in the transverse direction everywhere

external to the core and which does not lose power
3.3.3
TE mode

transverse electromagnetic wave, where the electric field vector is normal to the direction of

propagation; i.e., the electric field vector lies in the transverse plane (xy-plane).

Note 1 to entry: Strictly speaking, in strip waveguides, hybrid modes having the non-zero component of the

electric and magnetic field in the direction of propagation do exist. Pure TE- and TM-waves are only found in

waveguides with a corresponding geometry — for example in slab waveguides. For integrated optical waveguides

in planar substrates, it is natural to define the polarization state relative to the substrate surface. Because the

terms TE and TM are used and well understood in general language in the context of planar waveguides, they are

also applied in the same sense to strip waveguides.

Note 2 to entry: In planar waveguides, the electric field vector of TE mode lies in the y direction, as a result of the

definition.
3.3.4
TM mode

transverse electromagnetic wave, where the magnetic field vector is normal to the direction of

propagation; i.e., the magnetic field vector lies in the transverse plane (xy-plane).

Note 1 to entry: In planar waveguides, the magnetic field vector of TM mode lies in the y direction, as a result of

the definition.
3.3.5
evanescent field

time varying electromagnetic field in an integrated optical waveguide whose field amplitude

decays very rapidly and monotonically in the transverse direction outside the core, but without an

accompanying phase shift
3.3.6
leaky mode

mode having an evanescent field in the transverse direction external to the core for a finite distance

but with an oscillating field in the transverse direction everywhere beyond that distance

Note 1 to entry: A leaky mode is attenuated due to radiation losses along the waveguide.

3.3.7
radiation mode

mode which transfers power in the transverse direction everywhere external to the core

3.3.8
single-mode waveguide
waveguide which guides only one mode order

Note 1 to entry: The waveguide mode may consist of two orthogonal states of polarization.

3.3.9
multimode waveguide
waveguide which supports more than one guided mode
3.3.10
waveguide cutoff

transition of a guided mode at which the propagation changes from being guided to being leaky or

radiative
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3.3.11
cutoff wavelength

vacuum wavelength above which a given mode cannot exist in the waveguide

Note 1 to entry: Due to the generally short length of integrated optical waveguides, the measured value largely

depends on the waveguide structure. Therefore, special waveguide structures have to be fabricated to measure

the cutoff wavelength. The measurement methods known for optical fibres cannot be applied to integrated

optical waveguides.

Note 2 to entry: In fibre optics, the term cutoff wavelength is used to describe the cutoff wavelength of the second-

order mode. The reason is that the fundamental mode of a symmetrical dielectric waveguide has no cutoff and

the cutoff wavelength of the second order mode determines the single mode condition.

3.3.12
effective refractive index
equivalent refractive index
eff
ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the phase velocity of the guided mode

Note 1 to entry: The effective or equivalent refractive index is determined by the waveguide dimensions and

the refractive index profile of the waveguide, including the medium bordering the core of the waveguide and

the wavelength. Each mode capable of propagation is characterized by its individual effective or equivalent

refractive index.

Note 2 to entry: The terms “effective index” and “equivalent index” are both used for the same quantity defined by

n =
eff
where
β is the propagation constant of a mode in a waveguide;
k is the propagation constant of a plane wave in vacuum.

Note 3 to entry: The term “effective index” is also used for the quantity similar to “group index” defined by

dn dn
nn=+k =−n λ
eff 0
dk dλ

which is defined for a bulk material with the refractive index n. This quantity determines the free spectral range

or the spacing of the adjacent peak wavelength ∆λ of resonators, such as Fabry-Perot resonators, given by

Δ=λ −
2Ln
eff
where
L is the length of cavity;
λ is the centre wavelength of the resonator.

To avoid confusion, the term “equivalent index” is commonly used for the quantity, given by

n =

in the field of guided wave optics. However, the term “effective index” has been traditionally used for the same

quantity in the field of microwave transmission. Therefore, both terms are equally used in this document.

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3.4 Refractive index distribution in integrated optical waveguides
3.4.1
refractive index profile

refractive index n(x, y) across a cross section of the waveguide as a function of position

3.4.2
step index profile

refractive index profile which is characterized by an almost constant refractive index within the

waveguide core and a sharp drop in refractive index at the boundary between the core and the cladding

(substrate or superstrate)

Note 1 to entry: The width of the index transition is small in comparison with the wavelength.

3.4.3
graded index profile

index profile in which the refractive index varies continuously in the core as a function of distance from

the axis

Note 1 to entry: The width of the index variation is large in comparison with the wavelengt

...

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