Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges

Assessment of imposed loads associated with road traffic, pedestrian actions and rail traffic including dynamic effects, centrifugal, braking, acceleration and accidental forces, to be used for the structural design of road, railway and pedestrian/cycle bridges. Guidance on combinations with non-traffic loads and other actions on road and railway bridges, and loads on parapets.

Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 2: Verkehrslasten auf Brücken

(1) P  Dieser Abschnitt gilt für Normal- und Breitspurbahnen der europäischen Hauptstrecken.
(2)   Die in diesem Abschnitt festgelegten Lastmodelle beschreiben keine tatsächlichen Lasten. Sie wurden so gewählt, dass sie, mit den besonders zu berücksichtigenden Schwingbeiwerten, die Einwirkungen des Zugverkehrs wiedergeben. Ist es erforderlich, einen Verkehr außerhalb der in diesem Abschnitt festgelegten Lastmodelle zu berücksichtigen, so sollten alternative Lastmodelle mit den zugehörigen Kombinationsregeln für das Einzelprojekt festgelegt werden.
ANMERKUNG   Die alternativen Lastmodelle mit ihren zugehörigen Kombinationsregeln können im Nationalen Anhang festgelegt werden.
(3) P  Dieser Abschnitt ist nicht anzuwenden für Einwirkungen aus
   Schmalspurbahnen
   Straßenbahnen und andere Kleinbahnen
   Museumsbahnen
   Zahnradbahnen
   Standseilbahnen
Die Belastungen und charakteristischen Werte der Einwirkungen solcher Bahnen sollten für das Einzelprojekt festgelegt werden.
ANMERKUNG   Die Belastungen und charakteristischen Werte der Einwirkungen solcher Bahnen können im Nationalen Anhang festgelegt werden.
(4)   Zur Aufrechterhaltung der Betriebssicherheit und zur Gewährleistung des Reisendenkomforts u. a. werden die Grenzwerte der Verformungen von Eisenbahnüberführungen in EN 1990 - Eurocode: Grundlagen des Entwurfs, Anhang A.2 festgelegt.
(5)   Als Grundlage für die Berechnung der Ermüdungslebensdauer werden drei verschiedene Verkehrszusammensetzungen angegeben (siehe Anhang D).
(6)   Das Eigengewicht der nichttragenden Bauteile schließt das Gewicht von Bauteilen wie z. B. Lärmschutzwände, Führungs- und Fangvorrichtungen, Signale, Kabelkanäle, Kabel und Oberleitung ein (ausgenommen die Spannkräfte des Fahrdrahtes etc.).
(7)   Beim Entwurf ist besonders auf Hilfsbrücken zu achten aufgrund der Flexibilität dieser temporären Bauwerke. Die Belastungen und Anforderungen für die Bemessung von Hilfsbrücken sollte für das Einzelprojekt festgelegt werden.
ANMERKUNG   Im Natio

Eurocode 1: Actions sur les structures - Partie 2: Actions sur les ponts, dues au trafic

Les États Membres de l’UE et de l’AELE reconnaissent que les Eurocodes servent de documents de référence pour les usages suivants :
   comme moyen de prouver la conformité des bâtiments et des ouvrages de génie civil aux exigences essentielles de la Directive du Conseil 89/106/CEE, en particulier à l’Exigence Essentielle No. 1 – Stabilité et résistance mécanique – et à l’Exigence Essentielle N°.2 – Sécurité en cas d’incendie ;
   comme base de spécification des contrats pour les travaux de construction et les services techniques associés ;
   comme cadre d’établissement de spécifications techniques harmonisées pour les produits de construction (EN et ATE).
Les Eurocodes, dans la mesure où les ouvrages eux-mêmes sont concernés par eux, ont une relation directe avec les Documents Interprétatifs  visés à l’Article 12 de la DPC, quoiqu’ils soient d’une nature différente de celle des normes harmonisées de produits . En conséquence, les aspects techniques résultant des travaux effectués pour les Eurocodes nécessitent d’être pris en considération de façon adéquate par les Comités Techniques du CEN et/ou les groupes de travail de l’EOTA travaillant sur les normes de produits en vue de parvenir à une complète compatibilité de ces spécifications techniques avec les Eurocodes.
Les normes Eurocodes fournissent des règles de conception structurale communes d’usage quotidien pour le calcul des structures entières et des produits composants de nature traditionnelle ou innovante. Les formes de construction ou les conceptions inhabituelles ne sont pas spécifiquement couvertes, et il appartiendra en ces cas au concepteur de se procurer des bases spécialisées supplémentaires.

Eurocode 1: Osnove projektiranja in vplivi na konstrukcije – 2. del: Prometna obtežba mostov

EN 1991-2 opredeljuje zunanje obtežbe (modele in značilne vrednosti), povezane s cestnim prometom, vplive pešcev in železniškega prometa, ki po potrebi vključujejo dinamične učinke in centrifugalne, zaviralne in pospeševalne vplive ter vplive nezgod. Zunanji vplivi, opredeljeni v EN 1991-2, so namenjeni uporabi za načrtovanje novih mostov, vključno s podmostniki, oporniki, pokončnimi zidovi, poševnimi krilnimi zidovi in bočnimi zidovi itd., in njihovih temeljev. Modele obtežbe in vrednosti, podane v EN 1991-2, je treba uporabljati pri načrtovanju opornih zidov ob cestah in železniških progah. EN 1991-2 je namenjen uporabi v povezavi z EN 1990 (zlasti A2) in od EN 1991 do EN 1999. Razdelek 1 podaja definicije in simbole. Razdelek 2 opredeljuje načela obremenitev za cestne mostove, mostove za pešce ali kolesarje in železniške mostove. Razdelek 3 obravnava projektne situacije ter podaja navodila glede istočasnosti modelov prometne obtežbe in glede kombinacij z neprometnimi vplivi. Razdelek 4 opredeljuje: - zunanje obtežbe (modele in značilne vrednosti) zaradi prometnih vplivov na cestne mostove in njihove pogoje vzajemne kombinacije, in kombinacije s prometom pešcev in  kolesarjev (glej razdelek 5) ; - druge vplive, posebej za načrtovanje cestnih mostov. Razdelek 5 opredeljuje: - zunanje obtežbe (modele in značilne vrednosti) na poteh za pešce, kolesarje; in na mostovih za pešce; - druge vplive, posebej za načrtovanje mostov za pešce. Razdelka 4 in 5 tudi opredeljujeta obtežbe, ki se prenašajo na konstrukcijo s sistemov za zadrževanje vozil in/ali ograj za pešce. Razdelek 6 opredeljuje: - zunanje vplive zaradi železniškega prometa na mostove; - druge vplive, posebej za načrtovanje železniških mostov in sosednjih konstrukcij.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2004
Due Date
01-Sep-2004
Completion Date
01-Sep-2004

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridgesEurocode 1: Osnove projektiranja in vplivi na konstrukcije – 2. del: Prometna obtežba mostovEurocode 1: Actions sur les structures - Partie 2: Actions sur les ponts, dues au traficEurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 2: Verkehrslasten auf BrückenTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1991-2:2003SIST EN 1991-2:2004en93.040Gradnja mostovBridge construction91.010.30Technical aspectsICS:SIST ENV 1991-3:19991DGRPHãþDSLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1991-2:200401-september-2004

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1991-2September 2003ICS 91.010.30; 93.040Supersedes ENV 1991-3:1995English versionEurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads onbridgesEurocode 1: Actions sur les structures - Partie 2: Actionssur les ponts, dues au traficEurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 2:Verkehrslasten auf BrückenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 November 2002.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1991-2:2003 E

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)2ContentsFOREWORD...................................................................................................................7BACKGROUND OF THE EUROCODE PROGRAMME............................................................7STATUS AND FIELD OF APPLICATION OF EUROCODES.....................................................8NATIONAL STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING EUROCODES....................................................9LINKS BETWEEN EUROCODES AND HARMONISED TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (ENS ANDETAS) FOR PRODUCTS...................................................................................................9ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO EN 1991-2......................................................9NATIONAL ANNEX FOR EN 1991-2..............................................................................11SECTION 1 GENERAL...............................................................................................151.1 SCOPE....................................................................................................................151.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES.......................................................................................161.3 DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION RULES..............................161.4 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS........................................................................................171.4.1 Harmonised terms and common definitions...................................................171.4.2 Terms and definitions specifically for road bridges......................................191.4.3 Terms and definitions specifically for railway bridges..................................201.5 SYMBOLS...............................................................................................................211.5.1 Common symbols...........................................................................................211.5.2 Symbols specifically for sections 4 and 5.......................................................211.5.3 Symbols specifically for section 6..................................................................23SECTION 2 CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS.......................................................272.1 GENERAL...............................................................................................................272.2 VARIABLE ACTIONS................................................................................................272.3 ACTIONS FOR ACCIDENTAL DESIGN SITUATIONS.....................................................28SECTION 3 DESIGN SITUATIONS..........................................................................30SECTION 4 ROAD TRAFFIC ACTIONS AND OTHER ACTIONSSPECIFICALLY FOR ROAD BRIDGES..................................................................314.1 FIELD OF APPLICATION...........................................................................................314.2 REPRESENTATION OF ACTIONS...............................................................................314.2.1 Models of road traffic loads...........................................................................314.2.2 Loading classes..............................................................................................324.2.3 Divisions of the carriageway into notional lanes..........................................324.2.4 Location and numbering of the lanes for design............................................334.2.5 Application of the load models on the individual lanes.................................344.3 VERTICAL LOADS - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES.......................................................354.3.1 General and associated design situations......................................................354.3.2 Load Model 1.................................................................................................354.3.3 Load Model 2.................................................................................................384.3.4 Load Model 3 (special vehicles).....................................................................394.3.5 Load Model 4 (crowd loading).......................................................................394.3.6 Dispersal of concentrated loads.....................................................................404.4 HORIZONTAL FORCES - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES.................................................414.4.1 Braking and acceleration forces....................................................................41

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)34.4.2 Centrifugal and other transverse forces........................................................424.5 GROUPS OF TRAFFIC LOADS ON ROAD BRIDGES......................................................424.5.1 Characteristic values of the multi-component action....................................424.5.2 Other representative values of the multi-component action..........................444.5.3 Groups of loads in transient design situations...............................................444.6 FATIGUE LOAD MODELS.........................................................................................454.6.1 General...........................................................................................................454.6.2 Fatigue Load Model 1 (similar to LM1)........................................................484.6.3 Fatigue Load Model 2 (set of "frequent" lorries)..........................................484.6.4 Fatigue Load Model 3 (single vehicle model)................................................494.6.5 Fatigue Load Model 4 (set of "standard" lorries).........................................504.6.6 Fatigue Load Model 5 (based on recorded road traffic data).......................534.7 ACTIONS FOR ACCIDENTAL DESIGN SITUATIONS.....................................................534.7.1 General...........................................................................................................534.7.2 Collision forces from vehicles under the bridge............................................534.7.2.1 Collision forces on piers and other supporting members........................534.7.2.2 Collision forces on decks........................................................................534.7.3 Actions from vehicles on the bridge...............................................................544.7.3.1 Vehicle on footways and cycle tracks on road bridges...........................544.7.3.2 Collision forces on kerbs.........................................................................554.7.3.3 Collision forces on vehicle restraint systems..........................................554.7.3.4 Collision forces on structural members...................................................564.8 ACTIONS ON PEDESTRIAN PARAPETS......................................................................564.9 LOAD MODELS FOR ABUTMENTS AND WALLS ADJACENT TO BRIDGES.....................574.9.1 Vertical loads.................................................................................................574.9.2 Horizontal force.............................................................................................57SECTION 5 ACTIONS ON FOOTWAYS, CYCLE TRACKS ANDFOOTBRIDGES...........................................................................................................595.1 FIELD OF APPLICATION...........................................................................................595.2 REPRESENTATION OF ACTIONS...............................................................................595.2.1 Models of the loads........................................................................................595.2.2 Loading classes..............................................................................................605.2.3 Application of the load models.......................................................................605.3 STATIC MODELS FOR VERTICAL LOADS - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES.......................605.3.1 General...........................................................................................................605.3.2 Load Models...................................................................................................615.3.2.1 Uniformly distributed load......................................................................615.3.2.2 Concentrated load....................................................................................615.3.2.3 Service vehicle........................................................................................625.4 STATIC MODEL FOR HORIZONTAL FORCES - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES..................625.5 GROUPS OF TRAFFIC LOADS ON FOOTBRIDGES........................................................625.6 ACTIONS FOR ACCIDENTAL DESIGN SITUATIONS FOR FOOTBRIDGES.......................635.6.1 General...........................................................................................................635.6.2 Collision forces from road vehicles under the bridge....................................635.6.2.1 Collision forces on piers..........................................................................635.6.2.2 Collision forces on decks........................................................................645.6.3 Accidental presence of vehicles on the bridge...............................................645.7 DYNAMIC MODELS OF PEDESTRIAN LOADS.............................................................655.8 ACTIONS ON PARAPETS...........................................................................................65

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)45.9 LOAD MODEL FOR ABUTMENTS AND WALLS ADJACENT TO BRIDGES.......................65SECTION 6 RAIL TRAFFIC ACTIONS AND OTHER ACTIONSSPECIFICALLY FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES..........................................................666.1 FIELD OF APPLICATION...........................................................................................666.2 REPRESENTATION OF ACTIONS – NATURE OF RAIL TRAFFIC LOADS........................676.3 VERTICAL LOADS - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES (STATIC EFFECTS) AND ECCENTRICITYAND DISTRIBUTION OF LOADING...................................................................................676.3.1 General...........................................................................................................676.3.2 Load Model 71...............................................................................................676.3.3 Load Models SW/0 and SW/2.........................................................................686.3.4 Load Model “unloaded train”.......................................................................696.3.5 Eccentricity of vertical loads (Load Models 71 and SW/0)...........................696.3.6 Distribution of axle loads by the rails, sleepers and ballast..........................706.3.6.1 Longitudinal distribution of a point force or wheel load by the rail.......706.3.6.2 Longitudinal distribution of load by sleepers and ballast.......................716.3.6.3 Transverse distribution of actions by the sleepers and ballast................716.3.6.4 Equivalent vertical loading for earthworks and earth pressure effects...736.3.7 Actions for non-public footpaths....................................................................746.4 DYNAMIC EFFECTS (INCLUDING RESONANCE)........................................................746.4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................746.4.2 Factors influencing dynamic behaviour.........................................................746.4.3 General design rules......................................................................................756.4.4 Requirement for a static or dynamic analysis................................................756.4.5 Dynamic factor

(2, 3)............................................................................786.4.5.1 Field of application.................................................................................786.4.5.2 Definition of the dynamic factor .........................................................786.4.5.3 Determinant length L............................................................................796.4.5.4 Reduced dynamic effects........................................................................826.4.6 Requirements for a dynamic analysis............................................................836.4.6.1 Loading and load combinations..............................................................836.4.6.2 Speeds to be considered..........................................................................876.4.6.3 Bridge parameters...................................................................................886.4.6.4 Modelling the excitation and dynamic behaviour of the structure..........896.4.6.5 Verifications of the limit states...............................................................916.4.6.6 Additional verification for fatigue where dynamic analysis is required.926.5 HORIZONTAL FORCES - CHARACTERISTIC VALUES..................................................936.5.1 Centrifugal forces...........................................................................................936.5.2 Nosing force...................................................................................................976.5.3 Actions due to traction and braking...............................................................976.5.4 Combined response of structure and track to variable actions.....................986.5.4.1 General principles...................................................................................986.5.4.2 Parameters affecting the combined response of the structure and track.996.5.4.3 Actions to be considered.......................................................................1016.5.4.4 Modelling and calculation of the combined track/structure system......1026.5.4.5 Design criteria.......................................................................................1046.5.4.6 Calculation methods..............................................................................1056.6 AERODYNAMIC ACTIONS FROM PASSING TRAINS..................................................1086.6.1 General.........................................................................................................1086.6.2 Simple vertical surfaces parallel to the track (e.g. noise barriers)..............109

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)56.6.3 Simple horizontal surfaces above the track (e.g. overhead protectivestructures)..............................................................................................................1106.6.4 Simple horizontal surfaces adjacent to the track (e.g. platform canopies withno vertical wall)....................................................................................................1116.6.5 Multiple-surface structures alongside the track with vertical and horizontalor inclined surfaces (e.g. bent noise barriers, platform canopies with vertical wallsetc.)........................................................................................................................1126.6.6 Surfaces enclosing the structure gauge of the tracks over a limited length (upto 20 m) (horizontal surface above the tracks and at least one vertical wall, e.g.scaffolding, temporary constructions)...................................................................1126.7 DERAILMENT AND OTHER ACTIONS FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES.................................1136.7.1 Derailment actions from rail traffic on a railway bridge............................1136.7.2 Derailment under or adjacent to a structure and other actions for AccidentalDesign Situations..................................................................................................1156.7.3 Other actions................................................................................................1156.8 APPLICATION OF TRAFFIC LOADS ON RAILWAY BRIDGES......................................1156.8.1 General.........................................................................................................1156.8.2 Groups of Loads - Characteristic values of the multicomponent action.....1186.8.3 Groups of Loads - Other representative values of the multicomponent actions...............................................................................................................................1206.8.3.1 Frequent values of the multicomponent actions....................................1206.8.3.2 Quasi-permanent values of the multicomponent actions......................1216.8.4 Traffic loads in Transient Design Situations...............................................1216.9 TRAFFIC LOADS FOR FATIGUE...............................................................................121ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) MODELS OF SPECIAL VEHICLES FOR ROADBRIDGES.....................................................................................................................123A.1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION......................................................................123A.2 BASIC MODELS OF SPECIAL VEHICLES..................................................................123A.3 APPLICATION OF SPECIAL VEHICLE LOAD MODELS ON THE CARRIAGEWAY..........125ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE) FATIGUE LIFE ASSESSMENT FOR ROADBRIDGES ASSESSMENT METHOD BASED ON RECORDED TRAFFIC......128ANNEX C (NORMATIVE) DYNAMIC FACTORS 1 +

FOR REAL TRAINS.......................................................................................................................................132ANNEX D (NORMATIVE) BASIS FOR THE FATIGUE ASSESSMENT OFRAILWAY STRUCTURES.......................................................................................134D.1 ASSUMPTIONS FOR FATIGUE ACTIONS..................................................................134D.2 GENERAL DESIGN METHOD..................................................................................135D.3 TRAIN TYPES FOR FATIGUE..................................................................................135ANNEX E (INFORMATIVE) LIMITS OF VALIDITY OF LOAD MODELHSLM AND THE SELECTION OF THE CRITICAL UNIVERSAL TRAINFROM HSLM-A..........................................................................................................141E.1 LIMITS OF VALIDITY OF LOAD MODEL HSLM.....................................................141E.2 SELECTION OF A UNIVERSAL TRAIN FROM HSLM-A...........................................142ANNEX F (INFORMATIVE) CRITERIA TO BE SATISFIED IF A DYNAMICANALYSIS IS NOT REQUIRED..............................................................................150

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)6ANNEX G (INFORMATIVE) METHOD FOR DETERMINING THECOMBINED RESPONSE OF A STRUCTURE AND TRACK TO VARIABLEACTIONS.....................................................................................................................155G.1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................155G.2 LIMITS OF VALIDITY OF CALCULATION METHOD..................................................155G.3 STRUCTURES CONSISTING OF A SINGLE BRIDGE DECK..........................................156G.4 STRUCTURES CONSISTING OF A SUCCESSION OF DECKS........................................162ANNEX H (INFORMATIVE) LOAD MODELS FOR RAIL TRAFFIC LOADS INTRANSIENT DESIGN SITUATIONS.....................................................................164

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)7ForewordThis document (EN 1991-2:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 "Structural Eurocodes", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either bypublication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2004, andconflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2009.This document supersedes ENV 1991-3:1995.CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standardsorganizations of the following countries are bound to implement this EuropeanStandard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.Background of the Eurocode ProgrammeIn 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programmein the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of theprogramme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation oftechnical specifications.Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set ofharmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage,would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and,ultimately, would replace them.For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee withRepresentatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodesprogramme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s.In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on thebasis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparationand the publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order toprovide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto theEurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’sDecisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC onconstruction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated inpursuit of setting up the internal market).

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN)concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)8The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generallyconsisting of a number of Parts:EN 1990Eurocode :Basis of Structural DesignEN 1991Eurocode 1:Actions on structuresEN 1992Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structuresEN 1993Eurocode 3:Design of steel structuresEN 1994Eurocode 4:Design of composite steel and concrete structuresEN 1995Eurocode 5:Design of timber structuresEN 1996Eurocode 6:Design of masonry structuresEN 1997Eurocode 7:Geotechnical designEN 1998Eurocode 8:Design of structures for earthquake resistanceEN 1999Eurocode 9:Design of aluminium structuresEurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in eachMember State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatorysafety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.Status and field of application of EurocodesThe Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as referencedocuments for the following purposes :– as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with theessential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly EssentialRequirement N°1 – Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential RequirementN°2 – Safety in case of fire ;– as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineeringservices ;– as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for constructionproducts (ENs and ETAs)The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a directrelationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD,although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3. Therefore,technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered byCEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on productstandards with a view to achieving a full compatibility of these technical specificationswith the Eurocodes.

2 According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents forthe creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.3 According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall :a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classesor levels for each requirement where necessary ;b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods ofcalculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)9The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use forthe design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and aninnovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are notspecifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designerin such cases.National Standards implementing EurocodesThe National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of theEurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by aNational title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National Annex.The National Annex may only contain information on those parameters which are leftopen in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters,to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed inthe country concerned, i.e. :– values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode,– values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode,–

country specific data (geographical, climatic, etc.), e.g. snow map,– procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode.It may also contain– decisions on the application of informative annexes,– references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user toapply the Eurocode.Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs)for productsThere is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications forconstruction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all theinformation accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer toEurocodes should clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have beentaken into account.Additional information specific to EN 1991-2EN 1991-2 defines models of traffic loads for the design of road bridges, footbridgesand railway bridges. For the design of new bridges, EN 1991-2 is intended to be used,for direct application, together with Eurocodes EN 1990 to 1999.The bases for combinations of traffic loads with non-traffic loads are given in EN 1990,A2.

4 see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1 (Interpretative Document Nr. 1).

EN 1991-2:2003 (E)10Complementary rules may be specified for individual projects :– when traffic loads need to be considered which are not defined in this Part ofEurocode 1 (e.g. site loads, military loads, tramway loads) ;– for bridges intended for both road and rail traffic ;– for ac

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