This document applies to the design of bamboo structures whose primary load bearing structure is made of round bamboo or shear panel systems in which the framing members are made from round bamboo. Except as indicated in Clause 12, this document applies to one- and two-storey residential, small commercial or institutional and light industrial buildings not exceeding 7 m in height. This document is concerned only with requirements for mechanical resistance, serviceability and durability of bamboo structures. This document permits an allowable load-bearing capacity design (ACD) and/or allowable stress design (ASD) approach for the design of bamboo structures. Allowable load-bearing capacity and allowable stress approaches may be used in combination in the same structure. This document additionally recognises design approaches based on partial safety factor design (PSFD) and/or load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods (5.11.1), previous established experience (5.11.2), or documented ‘design by testing’ approaches (5.11.3). Other requirements, such as those concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. Bamboo structures may require consideration of additional requirements beyond the scope of this document. Execution is covered to the extent that it impacts the quality of construction materials and products required to comply with the design requirements contained herein. This document provides a number of modification factors, designated Ci. These are empirically derived factors, based on best available engineering judgement, that are believed to be universally applicable to bamboo materials that are appropriate for building construction. Parameters affecting bamboo material performance are many and are addressed explicitly through the use of experimentally determined characteristic values of strength and stiffness. Annex A provides a summary of the bases upon which the provisions of this document were developed. This document does not apply to —   structures made of engineered bamboo products such as glue-laminated bamboo, cross-laminated bamboo, oriented strand, or densified bamboo materials, —   bamboo-reinforced materials where bamboo is not the primary load-bearing constituent. This includes bamboo-reinforced concrete, masonry and soil, or, —   scaffold structures constructed with bamboo.

  • Standard
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  • Draft
    48 pages
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This document sets out requirements regarding the performance of characteristics of the following types of cross laminated timber to be used in buildings and bridges:
-   type 1: Straight or curved cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers but no large finger joints;
-   type 2: Straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and large finger joints;
-   type 3: Straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints.
It also lays down procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVPC) of characteristics and specifies marking and labelling of cross laminated timber.
This document covers cross laminated timber of all three types of cross laminated timber:
-   manufactured according to this standard, which sets up provisions for:
-   boundary conditions during manufacture of cross laminated timber;
-   moisture content and temperature of timber to be bonded;
-   production of finger joints and bonds between layers;
-   to be used in service class 1 or 2 according to EN 1995 1 1;
-   made of coniferous species and poplar listed in this standard;
-   which may be made of layers made of different species having similar properties;
-   bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane or emulsion polymer isocyanate adhesives of adhesive type I according to the respective standard;
-   built up of at least three orthogonally bonded layers (at least two of them timber layers);
-   which may have, depending on the number of layers, adjacent layers bonded parallel to the grain;
-   made of timber layers which are made of strength graded timber according to EN 14081 1;
-   made of timber layers having nominal thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 60 mm (including) depending on the layup;
-   made of timber layers
-   which may comprise non-structural edge bonds; and
-   have a mean gap width of less than or equal to 0,6 mm and a 90th percentile of the gap width of 2 mm;
-   having nominal overall thicknesses up to 500 mm.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and comprising large finger joints (type 2):
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having the same cross-section and layup;
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having nominal cross-sectional thicknesses from 51 mm (including) up to 345 mm (including) and nominal minimum thicknesses of the outer layers not less than 17 mm (including).
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces solely comprising timber layers;
-   made from plane cross laminated timber pieces;
-   with parallel x-axes of the jointed components;
-   with finger joints having a finger length of at least 45 mm and fingers which are visible at the two narrow sides of the components;
-   bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane adhesives of adhesive type I according to the respective standard.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints (type 3):
-   made of structural wood-based panels specified in this European standard;
-   made of one panel per layer and;
-   having thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 45 mm (including);
This document applies to cross laminated timber untreated or treated against biological attack.
This document  does not cover:
-   cross laminated timber treated with fire retardants;
-   cross laminated timber which is produced from re-used timber or wood-based panels comprising re-used timber.

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This document specifies test methods for the determination of the suitability of two component epoxy and two component polyurethane adhesives for glued-in steel rods in glued laminated timber (GLT) and glued solid timber (GST) according to EN 14080, cross laminated timber (CLT) according to EN 16351 and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) according to EN 14374.
It specifies performance requirements and the determination of characteristic bond strength values for such adhesives for the prefabrication under factory or factory-like conditions of load-bearing timber-steel rod joints only. This document does not cover the performance of adhesives for on-site gluing (except for factory-like conditions).
Several provisions of this document can apply to repair and upgrading of existing timber structures including (cracked/fissured) solid wood beams. For adhesives for on-site repair or applications with solid timber additional provisions need to be taken into account. Such provisions are not part of this document.
This document also covers glued–in rods in surface treated wood. It does not cover glued-in rods in modified and stabilized wood with considerably reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, e.g. such as acetylated wood, heat treated wood, polymer impregnated wood and preservative treated wood.
The joints are intended for load-bearing timber structures subjected to temperatures up to 60 °C over a longer time in service classes 1 and 2 which are loaded predominantly static or quasi static according to EN 1990 and EN 1991-1-1.
A design procedure for glued-in rods for timber structures is given in an informative Annex A.

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This European standard specifies test methods for determination of the suitability of two component epoxy and polyurethane adhesives for on-site repair of cracked timber structures. The standard specifies minimum requirements on bond strength and integrity. The standard provides minimum on-site repair provisions and specifies test and minimum strength requirements with drill cores from on-site repaired timber structures for verification of bond strength and integrity.

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This document specifies a method based on density, for the selection of pieces of wood used in
determining the strength and stiffness properties of joints between members of structural timber
made with mechanical fasteners. It is intended to be used in conjunction with a test standard specifying
a test method.
It is assumed that the wood pieces are conditioned to the relevant conditions, that the wood density is
normally distributed and that any deviations are reported.
This document is applicable only to specimens of structural timber.
NOTE It is emphasized that the wood density is only one of the properties that can influence the strength of
a joint. Other relevant properties are, for example, growth-ring size and orientation, toughness and hardness.

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This document specifies methods of evaluating the effectiveness of glued laminated timber face and edge bonds within a manufacturing plant by cleaving of the glue line in both dry and wet conditions. It is not intended that it be used for initial type testing where cyclic delamination or block shear is preferred. It is based on the principle that, provided minimum wood failure percentages are met, then the bond strength exceeds the perpendicular to the grain tension strength of the under-lying substrate and therefore the bond is not the weak element limiting the integrity of a glulam assembly.

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    5 pages
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This document specifies the component performance and manufacturing requirements for prefabricated wood-based I-beams used as structural members in bending applications. It does not cover fire performance, formaldehyde requirements and biological durability. This document gives requirements for manufacturing, in-house quality assurance and periodic re-evaluation of prefabricated wood-based I-beams. Wood-based I-beams tested according to this document are intended for use in covered conditions and utilizing components that are able to resist the effects of moisture on structural performance due to construction delays or other conditions of similar severity, but not permanently exposed to the weather. NOTE The service conditions are similar to "Service class 2" as defined in ISO 20152‑1. Testing, evaluation and performance characterization requirements for prefabricated wood-based I-beams are covered in ISO 22389‑1. This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate health and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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    7 pages
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  • Standard
    8 pages
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This document specifies requirements for establishing the characteristic properties of structural laminated veneer lumber (LVL), including 5th percentile strength values, stiffness characteristics and other performance characteristics, related to its end use as a structural product for dry use (service class 1). It is applicable to members used in flatwise or edgewise bending orientations. It does not cover the assessment of formaldehyde requirements, biological durability, fire performance or manufacturing, such as quality control and marking.

  • Standard
    9 pages
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This document specifies a method based on density, for the selection of pieces of wood used in determining the strength and stiffness properties of joints between members of structural timber made with mechanical fasteners. It is intended to be used in conjunction with a test standard specifying a test method.
It is assumed that the wood pieces are conditioned to the relevant conditions, that the wood density is normally distributed and that any deviations are reported.
This document is applicable only to specimens of structural timber.
NOTE It is emphasized that the wood density is only one of the properties that can influence the strength of a joint. Other relevant properties are, for example, growth-ring size and orientation, toughness and hardness.

  • Standard
    17 pages
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This document specifies a method based on density, for the selection of pieces of wood used in determining the strength and stiffness properties of joints between members of structural timber made with mechanical fasteners. It is intended to be used in conjunction with a test standard specifying a test method. It is assumed that the wood pieces are conditioned to the relevant conditions, that the wood density is normally distributed and that any deviations are reported. This document is applicable only to specimens of structural timber. NOTE It is emphasized that the wood density is only one of the properties that can influence the strength of a joint. Other relevant properties are, for example, growth-ring size and orientation, toughness and hardness.

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    9 pages
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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

  • Standard
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This standard gives guidelines on the criteria to be used for the on-site assessment of load-bearing timber structures in heritage buildings. It is intended for all those concerned with the conservation of heritage buildings which contain wooden elements, from the building owners or authorities who are responsible for them to the professionals employed. It should also help decision-making regarding the need for immediate measures. Its aim is to guarantee that condition survey and assessment provide the necessary data for historical analysis, structural safety assessment and planning of intervention works. This document is applicable to any kind of timber member and to any kind of historic timber structures. It is not applicable to timber members made of engineered wood based panels and glued laminated timber. This document provides a comprehensive procedure for the on-site assessment. With a practical and technical evaluation of the damage found and based on the responsibility of the involved professionals, a sufficient assessment can also be made when not all the steps are followed. In each different country, the document is expected to be applied in accordance with National legislation and regulations.

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    28 pages
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This document gives guidelines on the criteria to be used for the on-site assessment of load-bearing timber structures in heritage buildings. It is intended for all those concerned with the conservation of heritage buildings which contain wooden elements, from the building owners or authorities who are responsible for them to the professionals employed. It should also help decision-making regarding the need for immediate measures. Its aim is to guarantee that condition survey and assessment provide the necessary data for historical analysis, structural safety assessment and planning of intervention works.
This document is applicable to any kind of timber member and to any kind of historic timber structures. It is not applicable to timber members made of engineered wood based panels and glued laminated timber.
This document provides a comprehensive procedure for the on-site assessment. With a practical and technical evaluation of the damage found and based on the responsibility of the involved professionals, a sufficient assessment can also be made when not all the steps are followed.
In each different country, the document is expected to be applied in accordance with National legislation and regulations.

  • Standard
    28 pages
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This Part of this European Standard specifies a test method to be followed for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural timber members.
Such fire protection systems include claddings, sprayed fire protection and coatings.
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of timber members. These can be fixed directly, totally or in part, to the timber member and can include an air gap between the fire protection system and the timber member, as an integral part of its design.
Evaluation of timber constructions protected by horizontal or vertical protective membranes are the subject of ENV 13381-1 or ENV 13381-2 respectively.

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    90 pages
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This document reviews the methodologies or analytical models that have been used to develop the strength and stiffness of structural glued laminated timber (glulam) from the characteristic properties of lumber laminations. The review is limited to the methodologies used in Europe, the USA, Australia/New Zealand, and Canada as they represent different fundamental philosophies in these areas. As a result, the methodologies are not intended to be combined unless there is clear understanding of the fundamental assumptions adopted by the respective methodologies. NOTE Detailed assumptions used by the respective methodologies are available from the standards listed in the Bibliography.

  • Technical report
    33 pages
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This document specifies test methods for determining the contribution of fire protection kits to the fire resistance of structural timber members.
Such fire protection kits include claddings, sprayed fire protection and reactive coatings.
The method is applicable to all fire protection kits used for the protection of timber members. These can be fixed directly, totally or in part, to the timber member and can include an air gap between the fire protectionkit and the timber member, as an integral part of its design.
Evaluation of timber constructions protected by horizontal or vertical protective membranes are the subject of EN 13381-1 or EN 13381-2 respectively.
The test method is applicable to the determination of the contribution of fire protection kits to the fire resistance of loadbearing timber structural members including floors, roofs, walls, beams and columns.
This document contains the fire test which specifies the test to be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection kit at a specified thickness to delay the temperature rise throughout the timber member, to determine the ability of the fire protection kit at a specified thickness to remain coherent and fixed to the timber member and to provide data for determining the charring rate of the protected test member, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve according to the procedures defined herein. This document is not appropriated to classify the tested assembly according to EN 13501-2.
The test to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering temperature time fire curve and the special circumstances for this are detailed in Annex G.
The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance of timber members in accordance with the procedures given in EN 1995-1-2.
A description of the relationship of this test method and the assessment of the results obtained therefrom to EN 1995-1-2 and guidelines for the use of this test method in accordance with that standard are given in Annex B.
This document also contains the assessment which indicates how the analysis of the test data should be made and gives guidance to the procedures by which interpolation should be undertaken.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with the direct application of the results to different timber constructions with the specified thickness and fixation of the applied fire protection kit tested.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the creep deformation of bonded specimens loaded in bending shear. It is applicable to adhesives used in load bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives to EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load bearing timber structures.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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    12 pages
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This document establishes the basic principles for component performance and minimum production requirements for cross laminated timber (CLT). This document also contains scheme requirements for conformance, as provided in Annex D. The document is applicable to CLT products which are manufactured from solid-sawn timber or wood based panels built up of at least three layers in which the grain of adjoining layers are at right angles to each other. This document provides CLT dimension tolerances; component requirements; performance criteria; production, testing and trade marking guidance; and minimum requirements for factory production control. This document is based on known species, species combination and/or wood based panel structural performance and bondability. CLT qualified in accordance with the provisions of this document are intended to resist the effects of moisture on structural performance as can occur due to construction delays or other conditions of similar severity. NOTE This document does not include how CLT is to be used and installed, as it will be detailed in ISO 16696-2.

  • Standard
    25 pages
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This Europen Standard specifies test methods for the determination of the fundamental frequency, damping, unit point load deflection and acceleration of timber or wood based composite beams and flooring systems.

  • Standard
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This document specifies test methods for the determination of natural frequencies, damping, unit point load deflection and acceleration of floors composed of sawn timber, engineered wood products, and mass timber beams or slabs (e.g. cross laminated timber CLT, glued laminated timber GL, nail laminated timber), with or without concrete screeds, as well as for timber-concrete composite floors.

  • Standard
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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements, additional to those in EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This document gives methods of determination of characteristic values for a defined population of mechanical connections between timber components, calculated from full scale test values. It presents methods for the determination of: a) slip modulus of mechanical connections; b) characteristic strength of connections subjected to either monotonic or cyclic loads. Glued connections are excluded from the scope of this document. NOTE 1 It is assumed that the failure mode is the same for all specimens in the sample. NOTE 2 When a small number of test results is available, ISO 12122‑6 is used for the determination of the mean and the 5th percentile values. NOTE 3 Informative commentary to the clauses of this document can be found in Annex A.

  • Standard
    13 pages
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This document provides standard test methods for determining the vertical load, axial load and torsional moment capacity as well as deflection characteristics of preformed three-dimensional joist hangers that are used primarily for securing one timber member to another (the header can be concrete or masonry). The joist hangers primarily transfer vertical loads from the supported member to the supporting member, but they can also be required to transfer axial loads from the supported member to the supporting member. NOTE 1 Structural steel sections can also be substituted as the header, but are not covered in this document. NOTE 2 One secondary mechanism to be considered is the effect of rotation of the supported member about its longitudinal axis on the joist hanger.

  • Standard
    17 pages
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This document specifies grading procedures for visually and mechanically sorting round, or pole, bamboo for structural applications using such fundamental elements. Visual sorting is based on observable characteristics of the piece(s). Mechanical sorting is based on non-destructive measurement of properties known to correlate to characteristic values defining a grade. The grading procedures in this document can be used in a quality acceptance regime, although this document does not define or address acceptance criteria. This document is applicable only for bamboo that is graded in the seasoned state.

  • Standard
    22 pages
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This European Standard establishes a classification for phenolic and aminoplastic polycondensation adhesives according to their suitability for use for load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions, and specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the factory manufacture or factory-like manufacturing conditions of load-bearing timber structures only.
This European Standard only specifies the performance of an adhesive for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
The performance requirements of this European Standard apply to the adhesive only, not to the timber structure. This European Standard does not cover the performance of adhesives for on-site gluing (except for factory-like conditions) nor the production of wood-based panels, except solid wood panels, or modified and stabilized wood with considerably reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, e.g. such as acetylated wood, heat treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. The requirements apply to the type testing of the adhesives. Production control activities are outside the scope of this European Standard.
Adhesives meeting the requirements of this European Standard are adequate for use in a load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the resistance to delamination in glue lines.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives with EN 301, EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for comparing the effects on the bond strength resulting from the choice of bonding conditions, from different climatic conditioning and from the treatment of the test pieces before and after bonding.
This test is not applicable for modified and stabilized wood with strongly reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, such as acetylated wood, heat-treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the effect on bond strength of damage to wood fibres caused by the action of acids from the adhesive or primer used in the gluing process during climatic cycling. It is suitable for the following applications: a) for assessing the compliance of adhesives with EN 301, EN 15425 and FprEN 16254; b) for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures; c) for determining if the adhesive after bonding has a damaging influence on the strength of the wood due to chemical action. This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments. This test is carried out on Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). This method is not intended for use to provide numerical design data and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

  • Standard
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ISO 12122-6:2017 specifies methods of determination of characteristic values for a defined population of large components and assemblies, calculated from test values. It establishes two methods for the determination of characteristic values: a) direct calculation from test values; b) calculation from a resistance model, which is firstly calibrated from test results, including calculation of error terms.

  • Standard
    23 pages
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ISO 8375:2017 specifies test methods suitable for determining the following characteristic values of glued laminated timber: modulus of elasticity in bending; shear modulus; bending strength; modulus of elasticity in tension parallel to the grain; tension strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain; compression strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in tension perpendicular to the grain; tension strength perpendicular to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression perpendicular to the grain; compression strength perpendicular to the grain and shear strength. In addition, the determination of dimensions, moisture content and density are specified. ISO 8375:2017 is applicable to rectangular shapes of glued laminated timber.

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    26 pages
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ISO/TR 21136:2017 provides a review of key floor vibration design criteria (human acceptability criterion using calculated parameters) developed in research studies on timber floor around the world over the last 30 years. Associated design methods are provided in the Annexes. The methods proposed in this report are intended to be used for establishing human acceptability criteria for timber floor vibrations induced by walking activities. The proposed methods are applicable to the following timber floors: lightweight floors made of timber joists and thin wood panel subfloor, heavy timber floors made of heavy timber beams with a thick timber deck, and mass timber slab floors such as cross laminated timber (CLT), nail laminated timber (NLT) and glued laminated timber.

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ISO 18100:2017 specifies the product and performance requirements for finger-jointed structural timber made from sawn timber elements. ISO 18100:2017 does not cover products made using impressed (die-formed) joints or finger-jointed laminations for glued laminated timber, which is covered in ISO 12578.

  • Standard
    26 pages
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This European Standard specifies a laboratory method of determining the minimum pressing time for two glue line thicknesses, close contact and 0,2 mm or 0,3 mm, at three temperatures and three wood moisture contents.
This European Standard is intended to determine the minimum pressing time using a defined procedure for obtaining a reliable base for comparison of minimum pressing time between adhesives under referenced conditions.
The method gives a result that cannot be applied to the safe manufacture of timber structures without taking into account the influence in variation of factors such as timber density, moisture content, factory temperature and relative air humidity.

  • Standard
    10 pages
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This European Standard specifies a laboratory method of determining the open assembly time in a standard atmosphere [20/65].
This European Standard is intended to determine the open assembly time using a defined procedure for obtaining a reliable base for comparison of open assembly time between adhesives under referenced conditions.
The method gives a result that cannot be applied to the safe manufacture of timber structures without taking into account the influence of factors such as timber density, moisture content, factory temperature and relative air humidity.

  • Standard
    9 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the ability of adhesive bonds to resist static load. It is applicable to adhesives used in load bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives according to EN 301, EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for assessing the effect on the bond strength resulting from constant load at different climate conditions.
This method is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

  • Standard
    15 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the ability of adhesive bonds to resist long-term sustained load applied vertical to the glue lines. It is applicable to adhesives used in load-bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives according to EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for assessing the effect on the bond strength resulting from long-term sustained load at cyclic climate conditions.
This method is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

  • Standard
    14 pages
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This European Standard establishes a classification for one component polyurethane (PUR) adhesives according to their suitability for use in load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions; it specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the factory manufacture or factory like manufacturing of load-bearing timber structures only.
It also classifies “adhesive lines” where all the products within the line have almost identical physical/chemical properties and gluing performance, but different reactivity.
This European Standard only specifies the performance of adhesives for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
The performance requirements of this European Standard apply to the adhesives only, not to the timber structure. This European Standard does not cover the performance of adhesives for on-site gluing (except for factory-like conditions) nor the production of wood-based panels, except solid wood panels, or modified and stabilized wood with considerably reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, e.g. such as acetylated wood, heat treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. The requirements apply to the type testing of the adhesives. Production control activities are outside the scope of this European Standard.
Adhesives meeting the requirements of this European Standard are adequate for use in load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

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ISO 12122-4:2017 gives methods of determination of characteristic values for a defined population of engineered wood products calculated from test values. This document presents methods for the determination of a) characteristic value of material properties, where the determined property is multiplied by a geometric parameter to give a component capacity or component stiffness, or b) characteristic value of component properties directly, where the determined property is a component capacity or component stiffness. ISO 12122-4:2017 presents methods for determination of a) characteristic value of mean-based properties, and b) characteristic value of 5th percentile-based properties.

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ISO 18402:2016 specifies test methods for determining, for use in roofs, the structural properties of double-sided load bearing structural insulated panels having - two face layers, at least one of which is a wood-based structural panel, and - a core made of a thermally insulating material having sufficient shear strength to cause the face layers to act together structurally.

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  • Standard
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This document specifies methods for the determination of characteristic 5-percentile strength and density values as well as mean values for stiffness from test results for solid wood, fasteners, and wood-based products in the frame of initial type testing.
This document also gives methods for checking strength, density or stiffness properties in the frame of factory production control by variables. Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.
In addition to this standard, specific requirements related to the product are given in separate standards.
NOTE   For example, in the case of solid timber, specific correction factors for calculation of characteristic values are given in EN 384.

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This European Standard specifies the test methods for determining the long term behaviour of coated and uncoated dowel-type fasteners in load bearing timber structures (nails, staples, screws, dowels and bolts with nuts).

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the long duration withdrawal strength of coated and uncoated dowel-type fasteners in structural timber and timber products and wood based products for structural application.
The method applies to all types of nails, screws and staples.

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ISO 12122-3:2016 gives methods for the determination of characteristic values for a defined population of glued laminated timber products, calculated from test values. It presents methods for the determination of a) characteristic value of mean-based properties, and b) characteristic value of 5th percentile-based properties. NOTE Annex B gives information on the methods that have been successfully used to estimate the characteristic values of glued laminated timber products from properties of the laminates.

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  • Standard
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This standard gives statistical methods for the determination of characteristic values from test results on a sample drawn from a clearly defined reference population of e.g. solid wood, fasteners, connectors and wood-based products. The characteristic value is an estimate of the property of the reference population and can be based on a 5-percentile value of strength, resistance or density as well as on a mean value for stiffness.
Parametric methods are given for the determination of lower and upper 5-percentiles. The upper 5-percentile is the 95-percentile.
This standard is suitable for use with any structural product in the frame of type testing as well as factory production control.
Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.
This standard also provides the acceptance procedure for verification of a lot.
Depending on the product, characteristic values determined in accordance with this standard may be used directly or may need additional adjustments specified in the relevant product standards.
Note:   For example, in the case of solid timber, specific adjustment factors for calculation of characteristic values are given in EN 384.

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This European Standard establishes a classification for emulsion polymerised isocyanate (EPI) adhesives according to their suitability for use in load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions, and specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the industrial manufacture of load-bearing timber structures only.
The performance requirements of this standard apply to the adhesive only, not to the structure.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. This European Standard only specifies the performance of an adhesive for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
Such an adhesive meeting the requirements of this European Standard for its type is adequate for use in a load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

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ISO 19049:2016 defines the test method for horizontal diaphragms including floors and horizontal and sloped roofs under static loads. This test method is designated to evaluate the static shear capacity of a typical segment of a diaphragm under applied static loads, and to evaluate the stiffness of the diaphragm assembly.

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ISO 12578:2016 specifies requirements for the components of glued laminated timber members for structural use. ISO 12578:2016 is applicable to products with a finished lamination thickness of not more than 50 mm. Although most glued laminated timber is made from coniferous species, this International Standard also applies to broad leaf species if the tests specified in this International Standard show that a satisfactory glue bond can be achieved. The basic requirements apply to structural members of all service classes; however, special precautions are necessary for service class 3, for example, the use of weather resistant adhesives (see 5.3). ISO 12578:2016 does not apply to the determination of strength and stiffness characteristics. Annex B contains informative materials for formaldehyde emission.

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ISO 18324:2016 specifies test procedures to measure natural frequencies, modal damping ratios and static deflection under a concentrated load of laboratory or field timber floors. These parameters have been found to correlate well with human perception to timber floor vibration response caused by human-induced excitation under normal use. It is intended that the test procedures can be applied in lieu of calculation to quantify some or all of the above parameters that are used to evaluate the vibrational serviceability of the test floor. The subsequent use of the measured parameters to evaluate vibrational serviceability is, however, outside the scope of this International Standard. ISO published a series of International Standards on the application of modal testing and analysis to determine natural frequencies, modal damping ratios, and other dynamic properties of a structure. For the measurement of dynamic parameters such as natural frequencies and modal damping ratios, modal testing is proposed in this International Standard. It is assumed that the test operators possess the required equipment and fundamental knowledge to perform such a test. The theory of modal testing and analysis has been well documented in Reference [4].

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  • Standard
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