Graphic technology -- Prepress digital data exchange -- Use of PDF -- Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)

This part of ISO 15930 specifies the methods for the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for the dissemination of
compound CMYK digital data, in a single exchange, that is complete and ready for final print reproduction.

Technologie graphique -- Échange de données numériques de préimpression -- Emploi de PDF -- Partie 1: Échange complet employant les données CMYK (PDF/X-1et PDF/X-1a)

Grafična tehnologija - Izmenjava digitalnih podatkov v grafični pripravi - Uporaba PDF - 1. del: Kompletna izmenjava z uporabo podatkov CMYK (PDF/X-1 in PDF/X-1a)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Oct-2002
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Nov-2002
Due Date
01-Nov-2002
Completion Date
01-Nov-2002

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15930-1
First edition
2001-12-01
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data
exchange — Use of PDF —
Part 1:
Complete exchange using CMYK data
(PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de
préimpression — Emploi de PDF —
Partie 1: Échange complet employant les données CMYK (PDF/X-1 et
PDF/X-1a)
Reference number
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
ISO 2001
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not

be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this

file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this

area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters

were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event

that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2001

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body

in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.ch
Web www.iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ......................................................................................... iv

Introduction ....................................................................................... v

1 Scope ......................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................. 1

3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................. 2

4 Symbols and notations ............................................................................ 4

5 Conformance ................................................................................... 4

6 Technical requirements ........................................................................... 5

Annexes

A PDF feature summary ............................................................................ 12

B OPI, external references, external files and streams ..................................................... 14

C Minimal requirements for PDF/X OutputIntent objects ................................ .................. 15

D Clarifications .................................................................................. 16

Bibliography ...................................................................................... 17

iii
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member

bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each

member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on

that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the

work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical

standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical

committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval

by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

ISO 15930-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology, with the support of ANSI Committee

for Graphic Arts Technologies Standards (CGATS).

ISO 15930 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange

— Use of PDF:
 Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)
 Part 2: Guidelines for partial exchange of printing data (PDF/X-2)
 Part 3: Complete exchange suitable for colour managed workflows (PDF/X-3)
Annexes A to D of this part of ISO 15930 are for information only.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
Introduction

ISO 15930 defines methods for the exchange of digital data within the graphic arts industry and for the exchange of files between

graphic arts establishments. It is a multi-part document where each part is intended to respond to different workflow requirements.

These workflows differ in the degree of flexibility required. However, increasing flexibility can lead to the possibility of

uncertainty or error. The goal throughout the various parts of ISO 15930 has been to maintain the degree of flexibility required

while minimising the uncertainty.

Many printed documents are assemblies of partial pages and/or pages created at different locations and by different organizations.

The merging of these individual elements into the final printing form and the subsequent printing may take place at different

locations. Some of these elements may also be routed to multiple sites for incorporation into other documents. Each of these

elements is referred to in ISO 15930 as a compound entity.

A variety of data formats and structures are used for the creation of this type of material, but with two prevalent kinds of underlying

data structures. These are vector-based data for the encoding of line art and textual information; and raster-based data for the

encoding of image information, including previously rasterized line art and textual information. Both kinds of data structures are

required along with page description information in an open electronic workflow. The exchange of raster-based data using the

TIFF/IT file format is defined in ISO 12639. The subject of ISO 15930 is a format for the exchange of object-based data where

individual objects may be in either vector or raster data structures.

Part 1 of ISO 15930 defines a data format and its usage to permit the predictable dissemination of a compound entity to one or

more locations as CMYK data, in a form ready for final print reproduction, by transfer of a single file. This file must contain all

the content information necessary to process and render the document, as intended by the sender. This exchange requires no prior

knowledge of the sending and receiving environments and is sometimes referred to as "blind" exchange. It is platform and

transport independent.

These goals are accomplished by defining a specific use of the publicly available Adobe Portable Document Format as specified

in Version 1.3 In order to achieve a level of exchange that avoids any ambiguity in interpretation of the file, it identifies a limited

set of PDF objects which may be used and adds restrictions to the use, or form of use, of those objects, and/or keys within those

objects. It includes two compliance levels, PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a, that differ only in their allowed use of OPI references, and

encryption which are allowed in PDF/X-1 but not in PDF/X-1a.

Whereas PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a specify the exchange of complete material, primarily as CMYK data, with all elements present,

there are occasions where this is not appropriate. In certain workflows some or all of the referenced elements may be more

logically present at the receiving site, or may be exchanged at a different time. These include fonts, high resolution contone image

files, or line art files. These exchanges will generally require prior agreement between sender and receiver. Further, evolving

colour management capabilities may allow elements to be exchanged more expeditiously in colour spaces other than CMYK. The

requirements for such situations are addressed in later parts of ISO 15930.

Although re-purposing of data is not a primary consideration or requirement of this part of ISO 15930, maximum flexibility will

be maintained so that future requirements for re-purposing may be accommodated.

It is anticipated that a variety of products will be developed around PDF/X-1, such as readers (including viewers) and writers of

PDF/X files, and products that offer combinations of these features. Different products will incorporate various capabilities to

prepare, interpret and process conforming files based on the application needs as perceived by the suppliers of the products.

However, it is important to note that a conforming reader must be able to read and appropriately process all files conforming to

a specified conformance level.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)

The PDF/X-1 conformance level of this part of ISO 15930 is generally similar to ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999, Graphic technology

— Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF for composite data — Part 1: Complete exchange (PDF/X-1).

ANSI CGATS.12/1 is based on Portable Document Format Reference Manual Version 1.2 as extended by Adobe Technical Note

#5188. This part of ISO 15930 is based on the Adobe Portable Document Format Version 1.3.

Users are cautioned that there are currently three different conformance levels that may be associated with PDF/X readers and

writers. Two of these are generally referred to as PDF/X-1 and are those compatible with ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999 and the

PDF/X-1 compatibility level of this part of ISO 15930. It is recommended that these be referred to as PDF/X-1:1999 and PDF/X-

1:2001 respectively. Further this part of ISO 15930 makes provision for a 2nd conformance level which does not allow OPI

references or encryption. This should be referred to as PDF/X-1a:2001. While a PDF/X-1:2001 reader should accept and properly

read files conforming to both PDF/X-1:2001 and PDF/X-1a:2001 conformance levels, readers meeting the other two conformance

levels should not be expected to properly read files outside of their own conformance level.

An ongoing series of Application Notes [1] is maintained for the guidance of developers and users of the ISO PDF/X family of

International Standards. They are available from NPES The Association for Suppliers of Printing, Publishing and Converting

Technologies in the standards section at http://www.npes.org/standards/workroom.html.

Attention is drawn to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this part of ISO 15930 may involve the use of a patent

concerning data encryption (clause 6.17). ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has assured ISO that they are willing to negotiate licenses under reasonable and non-discriminatory

terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world. Information may be obtained from: RSA Data Security, Inc., 100

Marine Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065-1031, USA. Attention is also drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of

this part of ISO 15930 may be the subject of patent rights other than those identified above. ISO shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange —
Use of PDF —
Part 1:
Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15930 specifies the methods for the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for the dissemination of

compound CMYK digital data, in a single exchange, that is complete and ready for final print reproduction.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this part of

ISO 15930. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply.

However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 15930 are encouraged to investigate the possibility of

applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the

normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 12639, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)

ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF for composite data — Part 1:

Complete exchange (PDF/X-1)
ICC.1:1998-09, File Format for Color Profiles, International Color Consortium

Adobe Portable Document Format, version 1.3, 2nd Ed., Adobe Systems Incorporated, Dated July 2000, ISBN 0-201-61588-6

Adobe Technical Note #5002 — Encapsulated PostScript File Format Specification — Version 3.0, 1 May 1992, Adobe Systems

Incorporated

Adobe Technical Note #5044 — Color Separation Conventions for PostScript Language Programs, 12 February 1996, Adobe

Systems Incorporated

Adobe Technical Note #5413 — Recording Output Intentions for Color Critical Workflows, 22 January 2001, Adobe Systems

Incorporated

Desktop Color Separation Specification 2.0, June 1993, revised May 1995, Quark Inc.

Draft TIFF Technical Note #2, 17 March 95, Tom Lane, the Independent JPEG Group

PostScript Language Reference Manual, third edition, 1999, Adobe Systems Incorporated, ISBN 0-201-37922-8

TIFF, Revision 6.0, June 3, 1992, Adobe Systems Incorporated
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO 15930, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
bleed

additional printing area outside the nominal printing area necessary for the allowance of mechanical tolerance in the trimming

process

NOTE The bleed area includes area that may be printed but does not include printers’ marks of any kind.

3.2
blind exchange

exchange of compound entities which requires no exchange of technical information between sender and receiver in order for the

receiver to render the printed page as intended by the sender
3.3
characterized printing condition

printing condition (offset, gravure, flexographic, direct, etc.) for which process control aims are defined and for which the

relationship between input data (printing tone values, usually CMYK) and the colorimetry of the printed image is documented

NOTE 1 The relationship between input data (printing tone values) and the colorimetry of the printed image is commonly referred to as

characterization.

NOTE 2 It is generally preferred that the process control aims of the printing condition and the associated characterization data be made publicly

available via the accredited standards process or industry trade associations.
3.4
CMYK

cyan-magenta-yellow-black used as a modifier of printing tone values, colours, process colorants, etc.

3.5
complete exchange

exchange of compound entities in which all elements and element resources are present as part of a single exchange and all of the

information needed to process the compound entity is either in the compound entity or is specified within the applicable standard

and its normative references
3.6
compound entity

unit of work with all text, graphics and image elements prepared for final print reproduction and may represent a single page for

printing, a portion of a page or a combination of pages
3.7
DCS

desktop colour separation file formats as defined by Desktop Color Separation Specification 2.0

3.8
element

substructure of a compound entity relative to the current processing environment, such as a block of text, a contone picture or an

outline graphic that, by itself, comprises the smallest logical composed unit of a compound entity

3.9
EPS
Encapsulated PostScript as defined by Adobe Technical Note #5002
3.10
font
identified collection of graphics that may be glyphs or other graphic elements
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
3.11
glyph

recognizable abstract graphic symbol that is independent of any specific design (ISO/IEC 9541-1 [2])

3.12
glyph metrics

set of information in a glyph representation used for defining the dimensions and positioning of the glyph shape (ISO/IEC 9541-1

[2])
3.13
ICC

International Color Consortium, an industry association formed to develop standardized mechanisms for colour management

3.14
non-print element

an element not intended for final print reproduction such as previews, preview images or non-printing annotations

3.15
OPI reference

PDF dictionary of OPI type that has an F key the value of which is a file specification for an external file which is also referred

to as an OPI dictionary in the PDF documentation
3.16
partial exchange

exchange of compound entities in which some elements or element resources are intentionally excluded from the exchange, and

are separately available

NOTE Examples of excluded elements or element resources are fonts and high resolution images.

3.17
PDF (Portable Document Format)
file format defined in the Adobe Portable Document Format
3.18
PDF dictionary

associative table containing key-value pairs, specifying the name and value of an attribute for objects which is generally used to

collect and tie together the attributes of a complex object
3.19
preview

visible placeholder representing at least the size and shape of the area to be replaced by the referenced object

NOTE A visible placeholder may be something as basic as a rectangle of the appropriate size containing no image content, or may be a partial

or complete representation of the intended content. See 3.20
3.20
preview image

preview consisting of a raster image representing a compound entity at a resolution suitable for viewing on a computer display

3.21
print element
element intended for final print reproduction
3.22
printing tone value

data value corresponding to the relative area of a printing surface that is intended to transfer ink to the substrate being printed.

See 3.3 characterized printing condition
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
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ISO 15930-1:2001(E)
3.23
process colorant

one of a set of colorants that, when printed together, produce a range of colours able to reproduce the values specified by a colour

co-ordinate system

NOTE The most common of these are the cyan, magenta and yellow dyes or pigments used to create images, often with the addition of black

as a fourth process colorant.
3.24
reader
software application that is able to read and appropriately process files
3.25
spot colour

single colorant, identified by name, whose printing tone values are specified independently from colour values specified in a colour

co-ordinate system
3.26
TIFF
tagged image file format as defined by revision 6.0 of TIFF
3.27
TIFF/IT
format for exchanging raster-based data as defined in ISO 12639
3.28
trapping

modification of boundaries of colour areas to account for dimensional variations in the printing process by overprinting in selected

colours at the boundaries between colours that might inadvertently be left uncoloured due to normal variations of printing press

registration

NOTE Sometimes colloquially referred to as chokes and spreads or grips. This is not the same as ink trapping.

3.29
writer
software application that is able to write files
4 Symbols and notations

PDF operators, PDF keywords, the names of keys in PDF dictionaries, and other predefined names are written in a bold sans serif

type font; for example, the key Trapped.

Operands of PDF operators or values of dictionary keys are written in an italic sans serif font; for example the False value for the

Trapped key.

File type designations beginning with the string "TIFF/IT" refer to file data structures defined in ISO 12639.

For the purpose of this part of ISO 15930 references to the "PDF Reference Manual" are to the Adobe Portable Document Format,

as identified in clause 2.
5 Conformance

This part of ISO 15930 defines the use of the PDF file format for the exchange of digital data representing a compound entity.

A conforming PDF/X-1 file is a PDF file in which those features necessary for the exchange of a compound entity adhere to this

part of ISO 15930. A conforming file may also include other valid PDF features that do not affect final print reproduction of the

compound entity. A conforming PDF/X-1a file is a conforming PDF/X-1 file that adheres to the further restrictions set out in 6.5,

6.13, and 6.17.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)

A conforming writer is a software application that shall be able to write files conforming to the requirements of this part of ISO

15930.

A conforming PDF/X-1 reader is a software application that shall be able to read and appropriately process all conforming

PDF/X-1 files as defined in this part of ISO 15930. A conforming PDF/X-1 reader may also be able to read and process all files

conforming to ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999 having a value of (CGATS.12/1-1999) for the GTS_PDFXVersion key in the Info

dictionary.

NOTE The ability to read files prepared in accordance with ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999, the predecessor to this part of ISO 15930, is important

to preserve upward compatibility.

A conforming PDF/X-1a reader is a software application that shall be able to read and appropriately process all conforming

PDF/X-1a files. The processing of other PDF/X-1 files by a PDF/X-1a reader shall be at the discretion of the application software.

All conforming readers shall parse all PDF files but may ignore those features not required by this part of ISO 15930. A reader

may ignore an annotation’s Print flag except for those in a TrapNet annotation.

Rendering conforming files shall be performed as defined in the PDF Reference Manual.

6 Technical requirements
6.1 General

The requirements contained in all parts of clause 6, except as noted in 6.5, 6.13, and 6.17, apply equally to PDF/X-1 and PDF/X1a.

6.2 Data structure

A PDF/X-1 file consists of four sections: header, body, cross-reference table, and trailer. The body of a PDF/X-1 file contains a

sequence of numbered objects such as numbers, names, strings, dictionaries and streams representing the text characters, graphics,

images and their associated resources describing the compound entity being exchanged. The specific PDF features required by

this part of ISO 15930 are summarized in annex A and are defined in 6.3 to 6.21, inclusive. These features shall be used as

prescribed in the PDF Reference Manual and as further specified by this part of ISO 15930.

In order to achieve the requirements of a blind exchange, the use of a pre-separated PDF file (where the separations for each page

are described as separate page objects, each painting only a single colorant) shall not be permitted.

NOTE This does not prohibit the use of pre-separated workflows in which the separations of a page are combined into a single PDF page object.

A PDF/X-1 file may contain two classes of elements: those intended for final print reproduction (print elements), and those not

intended for final print reproduction (non-print elements). Non-print elements include such incidental elements as previews,

preview images or non-printing annotations. All components of a compound entity shall be contained in the body of a single

PDF/X-1 file.
"Complete" means the exchanged files shall include:

— all PDF resources (listed in the PDF Reference Manual) used in the file including all fonts, font metrics, font encodings,

and colour space resources;

— any OPI externally referenced files embedded in the PDF/X-1 file as streams; and

— all print elements, properly prepared for a single intended printing condition.

NOTE For exchange of partial compound entities refer to ISO 15930-2 [3].
6.3 Colour
6.3.1 General

All print elements shall be exchanged as CMYK data, gray scale data, or separation colour data. The CMYK and gray scale

printing tone values in print elements, including those in OPI referenced files, shall be colour corrected and adjusted for a single

characterized printing condition prior to exchange.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)

PDF print elements in a PDF/X-1 file may be defined in DeviceCMYK, DeviceGray, Separation, DeviceN, Indexed and

Pattern colour spaces as specified and restricted in the following sections. Spot colours are represented using Separation or

DeviceN colour spaces.
Non-print elements may make use of any PDF colour space.
6.3.2 Identification of characterized printing condition

The characterized printing condition for which data has been prepared is identified by use of an OutputIntents array in the

Catalog object as described in Adobe Technical Note #5413. The OutputIntents array shall contain exactly one OutputIntent

dictionary in which the value of the S key is the name /GTS_PDFX, henceforth referred to as the PDF/X OutputIntent object.

Additional OutputIntent dictionaries may be present; if so they shall use different values for the S key and shall be ignored by

a PDF/X-1 conforming reader.

The PDF/X OutputIntent object shall include the OutputConditionIdentifier key. Where the intended printing condition is a

printing condition included in the registry of characterizations maintained by the ICC, as described in ICC.1, the value of the

OutputConditionIdentifier key should be exactly the same as the name used in the ICC registry. See annex C.

If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key does not match a characterization name in the ICC registry the

DestOutputProfile key shall be present in the PDF/X OutputIntent object, and the OutputCondition key should be present.

If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key does match a characterization name in the ICC registry the

DestOutputProfile and OutputCondition keys may be present but are not required.

If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key matches a characterization name in the ICC registry the RegistryName key

shall be present with the value (http://www. color. org). If it matches a characterization name in any other registry it is strongly

recommended that the RegistryName key be present, preferably with a value that provides a URL at which more information

regarding the registry may be obtained.

The profile that is the value of the DestOutputProfile key, if present, shall include an AtoB1Tag (Device to PCS: Colorimetric

rendering intent). If present in the DestOutputProfile stream object, the Alternate key shall be ignored by a PDF/X-1

conforming reader.

The values of the profileDescriptionTag and charTargetTag, if present in the ICC profile, shall be ignored

NOTE ANSI CGATS.12/1 requires that the characterized printing condition shall be identified in all ICCBased color spaces as an entry in the

ICC profileDescriptionTag of the associated ICC compliant profile in the following form: ""characterized printing condition

name"". Leading and trailing white space characters in the characterized printing condition name will be ignored.

If the OutputCondition key is present its value should be a string describing the intended printing condition in a form that will

be meaningful to a human operator at the site receiving the exchanged file.

All PDF print elements and objects in externally referenced files that are encoded in DeviceCMYK or DeviceGray colour spaces,

either directly or as the base colour space of an Indexed colour space, shall be interpreted as having been prepared for the printing

condition identified by the PDF/X OutputIntent object.
6.3.3 Separation and DeviceN colour spaces

Separation and/or DeviceN colour spaces may be used for CMYK colours, for spot colours, and for information that is not

colour related (e.g. , varnishes, die cutting and other overlays).

NOTE It is the responsibility of the originator of the PDF/X-1 compliant file to assure consistent use of spot colour names across all objects

in the file. Industry recognized names should be used wherever possible. It is recommended that colour names "Red", "Green", or "Blue" not

be used as names for spot colours.

All Separation and DeviceN colour space resources in a PDF/X-1 file shall use DeviceGray or DeviceCMYK for their

alternateSpace.

A PDF/X-1 conforming reader shall treat process separations specified using a Separation colour space, or as values within the

© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)

names array of a DeviceN colour space as having been prepared for the characterized printing condition identified in the PDF/X

OutputIntent object.
In situations where
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.DTechnologie graphique -- Échange de données numériques de préimpression -- Emploi de PDF -- Partie 1: Échange complet employant les données CMYK (PDF/X-1et PDF/X-1a)Graphic technology -- Prepress digital data exchange -- Use of PDF -- Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)37.100.99Other standards related to graphic technology35.240.30Uporabniške rešitve IT v informatiki, dokumentiranju in založništvuIT applications in information, documentation and publishingICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ISO 15930-1:2001SIST ISO 15930-1:2002en01-november-2002SIST ISO 15930-1:2002SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ISO 15930-1:2002
Reference numberISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO15930-1First edition2001-12-01Graphic technology —Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF — Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a) Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de préimpression — Emploi de PDF — Partie 1: Échange complet employant les données CMYK (PDF/X-1 et PDF/X-1a)

SIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

ISO 2001 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.ch Web
www.iso.ch Printed in Switzerland
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
SIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ContentsPageForeword......................................................................................... ivIntroduction....................................................................................... v1

Scope......................................................................................... 12

Normative references............................................................................. 13

Terms and definitions............................................................................. 24

Symbols and notations............................................................................ 45

Conformance................................................................................... 46

Technical requirements........................................................................... 5AnnexesA PDF feature summary............................................................................ 12B OPI, external references, external files and streams..................................................... 14C Minimal requirements for PDF/X OutputIntent objects .................................................. 15D Clarifications.................................................................................. 16Bibliography......................................................................................17ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved iiiSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO memberbodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Eachmember body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented onthat committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take

part in thework. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnicalstandardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technicalcommittees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approvalby at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. ISO 15930-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology, with the support of ANSI Committeefor Graphic Arts Technologies Standards (CGATS). ISO 15930 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange— Use of PDF: 

Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a) 
Part 2: Guidelines for partial exchange of printing data (PDF/X-2) 

Part 3: Complete exchange suitable for colour managed workflows (PDF/X-3) Annexes A to D of this part of ISO 15930 are for information only. © ISO 2001 - All rights reservedivForewordSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)IntroductionISO 15930 defines methods for the exchange of digital data within the graphic arts industry and for the exchange of files betweengraphic arts establishments.

It is a multi-part document where each part is intended to respond to different workflow requirements.These workflows differ in the degree of flexibility required.

However, increasing flexibility can lead to the possibility ofuncertainty or error.

The goal throughout the various parts of ISO 15930 has been to maintain the degree of flexibility requiredwhile minimising the uncertainty.Many printed documents are assemblies of partial pages and/or pages created at different locations and by different organizations.The merging of these individual elements into the final printing form and the subsequent printing may take place at differentlocations.

Some of these elements may also be routed to multiple sites for incorporation into other documents.

Each of theseelements is referred to in ISO 15930 as a compound entity.A variety of data formats and structures are used for the creation of this type of material, but with two prevalent kinds of underlyingdata structures.

These are vector-based data for the encoding of line art and textual information; and raster-based data for theencoding of image information, including previously rasterized line art and textual information.

Both kinds of data structures arerequired along with page description information in an open electronic workflow.

The exchange of raster-based data using theTIFF/IT file format is defined in ISO 12639.

The subject of ISO 15930 is a format for the exchange of object-based data whereindividual objects may be in either vector or raster data structures. Part 1 of ISO 15930 defines a data format and its usage to permit the predictable dissemination of a compound entity to one ormore locations as CMYK data, in a form ready for final print reproduction, by transfer of a single file.

This file must contain allthe content information necessary to process and render the document, as intended by the sender.

This exchange requires no priorknowledge of the sending and receiving environments and is sometimes referred to as "blind" exchange.

It is platform andtransport independent.

These goals are accomplished by defining a specific use of the publicly available Adobe Portable Document Format as specifiedin Version 1.3

In order to achieve a level of exchange that avoids any ambiguity in interpretation of the file, it identifies a limitedset of PDF objects which may be used and adds restrictions to the use, or form of use, of those objects, and/or keys within thoseobjects.

It includes two compliance levels, PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a, that differ only in their allowed use of OPI references, andencryption which are allowed in PDF/X-1 but not in PDF/X-1a. Whereas PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a specify the exchange of complete material, primarily as CMYK data, with all elements present,there are occasions where this is not appropriate.

In certain workflows some or all of the referenced elements may be morelogically present at the receiving site, or may be exchanged at a different time.

These include fonts, high resolution contone imagefiles, or line art files.

These exchanges will generally require prior agreement between sender and receiver.

Further, evolvingcolour management capabilities may allow elements to be exchanged more expeditiously in colour spaces other than CMYK.

Therequirements for such situations are addressed in later parts of ISO 15930. Although re-purposing of data is not a primary consideration or requirement of this part of ISO 15930, maximum flexibility willbe maintained so that future requirements for re-purposing may be accommodated. It is anticipated that a variety of products will be developed around PDF/X-1, such as

readers (including viewers) and writers ofPDF/X files, and products that offer combinations of these features.

Different products will incorporate various capabilities toprepare, interpret and process conforming files based on the application needs as perceived by the suppliers of the products.However, it is important to note that a conforming reader must be able to read and appropriately process all files conforming toa specified conformance level.

© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved vSIST ISO 15930-1:2002
ISO 15930-1:2001(E)

The PDF/X-1 conformance level of this part of ISO 15930 is generally similar to ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999, Graphic technology— Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF for composite data

Part 1: Complete exchange (PDF/X-1).ANSI CGATS.12/1 is based on Portable Document Format Reference Manual Version 1.2 as extended by Adobe Technical Note#5188.

This part of ISO 15930 is based on the Adobe Portable Document Format Version 1.3. Users are cautioned that there are currently three different conformance levels that may be associated with PDF/X readers andwriters.

Two of these are generally referred to as PDF/X-1 and are those compatible with ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999 and thePDF/X-1 compatibility level of this part of ISO 15930.

It is recommended that these be referred to as PDF/X-1:1999 and PDF/X-1:2001 respectively.

Further this part of ISO 15930 makes provision for a 2nd conformance level which does not allow OPIreferences or encryption.

This should be referred to as PDF/X-1a:2001.

While a PDF/X-1:2001 reader should accept and properlyread files conforming to both PDF/X-1:2001 and PDF/X-1a:2001 conformance levels, readers meeting the other two conformancelevels should not be expected to properly read files outside of their own conformance level. An ongoing series of Application Notes [1] is maintained for the guidance of developers and users of the ISO PDF/X family ofInternational Standards.

They are available from NPES The Association for Suppliers of Printing, Publishing and ConvertingTechnologies in the standards section at http://www.npes.org/standards/workroom.html.

Attention is drawn to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this part of ISO 15930 may involve the use of a patentconcerning data encryption (clause 6.17).

ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of this patent right.The holder of this patent right has assured ISO that they are willing to negotiate licenses under reasonable and non-discriminatoryterms and conditions with applicants throughout the world.

Information may be obtained from: RSA Data Security, Inc., 100Marine Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065-1031, USA.

Attention is also drawn to the possibility that some of the elements ofthis part of ISO 15930 may be the subject of patent rights other than those identified above.

ISO shall not be held responsible foridentifying any or all such patent rights.
© ISO 2001 - All rights reservedviSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15930-1:2001(E) Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange —

Use of PDF — Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a) 1

ScopeThis part of ISO 15930 specifies the methods for the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for the dissemination ofcompound CMYK digital data, in a single exchange, that is complete and ready for final print reproduction. 2

Normative referencesThe following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this part ofISO 15930.

For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply.However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 15930 are encouraged to investigate the possibility ofapplying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below.

For undated references, the latest edition of thenormative document referred to applies.

Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.ISO 12639,

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999,

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF for composite data

Part 1:Complete exchange (PDF/X-1)ICC.1:1998-09,

File Format for Color Profiles, International Color ConsortiumAdobe Portable Document Format, version 1.3, 2nd Ed., Adobe Systems Incorporated, Dated July 2000, ISBN 0-201-61588-6Adobe Technical Note #5002 — Encapsulated PostScript File Format Specification — Version 3.0, 1 May 1992, Adobe SystemsIncorporatedAdobe Technical Note #5044 — Color Separation Conventions for PostScript Language Programs, 12 February 1996, AdobeSystems IncorporatedAdobe Technical Note #5413 — Recording Output Intentions for Color Critical Workflows, 22 January 2001, Adobe SystemsIncorporatedDesktop Color Separation Specification 2.0, June 1993, revised May 1995, Quark Inc. Draft TIFF Technical Note #2, 17 March 95, Tom Lane, the Independent JPEG GroupPostScript Language Reference Manual, third edition, 1999, Adobe Systems Incorporated, ISBN 0-201-37922-8 TIFF, Revision 6.0, June 3, 1992, Adobe Systems Incorporated© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved 1SIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved23 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this part of ISO 15930, the following terms and definitions apply.3.1bleedadditional printing area outside the nominal printing area necessary for the allowance of mechanical tolerance in the trimmingprocessNOTE

The bleed area includes area that may be printed but does not include printers’ marks of any kind.

3.2blind exchangeexchange of compound entities which requires no exchange of technical information between sender and receiver in order for thereceiver to render the printed page as intended by the sender

3.3characterized printing conditionprinting condition (offset, gravure, flexographic, direct, etc.) for which process control aims are defined and for which therelationship between input data (printing tone values, usually CMYK) and the colorimetry of the printed image is documentedNOTE 1

The relationship between input data (printing tone values) and the colorimetry of the printed image is commonly referred to ascharacterization. NOTE 2

It is generally preferred that the process control aims of the printing condition and the associated characterization data be made publiclyavailable via the accredited standards process or industry trade associations. 3.4CMYK cyan-magenta-yellow-black used as a modifier of printing tone values, colours, process colorants, etc. 3.5complete exchangeexchange of compound entities in which all elements and element resources are present as part of a single exchange and all of theinformation needed to process the compound entity is either in the compound entity or is specified within the applicable standardand its normative references3.6compound entityunit of work with all text, graphics and image elements prepared for final print reproduction and may represent a single page forprinting, a portion of a page or a combination of pages3.7DCSdesktop colour separation file formats as defined by Desktop Color Separation Specification 2.03.8elementsubstructure of a compound entity relative to the current processing environment, such as a block of text, a contone picture or anoutline graphic that, by itself, comprises the smallest logical composed unit of a compound entity3.9EPSEncapsulated PostScript as defined by Adobe Technical Note #50023.10fontidentified collection of graphics that may be glyphs or other graphic elementsSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved33.11glyphrecognizable abstract graphic symbol that is independent of any specific design (ISO/IEC 9541-1 [2])3.12glyph metricsset of information in a glyph representation used for defining the dimensions and positioning of the glyph shape (ISO/IEC 9541-1[2])

3.13ICCInternational Color Consortium, an industry association formed to develop standardized mechanisms for colour management3.14non-print elementan element not intended for final print reproduction such as previews, preview images or non-printing annotations3.15OPI referencePDF dictionary of OPI type that has an F key the value of which is a file specification for an external file which is also referredto as an OPI dictionary in the PDF documentation3.16partial exchangeexchange of compound entities in which some elements or element resources are intentionally excluded from the exchange, andare separately availableNOTE

Examples of excluded elements or element resources are fonts and high resolution images. 3.17PDF (Portable Document Format)file format defined in the Adobe Portable Document Format3.18PDF dictionaryassociative table containing key-value pairs, specifying the name and value of an attribute for objects which is generally used tocollect and tie together the attributes of a complex object3.19previewvisible placeholder representing at least the size and shape of the area to be replaced by the referenced objectNOTE

A visible placeholder may be something as basic as a rectangle of the appropriate size containing no image content, or may be a partialor complete representation of the intended content.

See 3.203.20preview imagepreview consisting of a raster image representing a compound entity at a resolution suitable for viewing on a computer display3.21print elementelement intended for final print reproduction3.22printing tone valuedata value corresponding to the relative area of a printing surface that is intended to transfer ink to the substrate being printed.See 3.3

characterized printing conditionSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved43.23process colorantone of a set of colorants that, when printed together, produce a range of colours able to reproduce the values specified by a colourco-ordinate system

NOTE

The most common of these are the cyan, magenta and yellow dyes or pigments used to create images, often with the addition of blackas a fourth process colorant.

3.24readersoftware application that is able to read and appropriately process files3.25spot coloursingle colorant, identified by name, whose printing tone values are specified independently from colour values specified in a colourco-ordinate system 3.26TIFFtagged image file format as defined by revision 6.0 of TIFF 3.27TIFF/ITformat for exchanging raster-based data as defined in ISO 12639 3.28trappingmodification of boundaries of colour areas to account for dimensional variations in the printing process by overprinting in selectedcolours at the boundaries between colours that might inadvertently be left uncoloured due to normal variations of printing pressregistrationNOTE

Sometimes colloquially referred to as chokes and spreads or grips.

This is not the same as ink trapping. 3.29writersoftware application that is able to write files4

Symbols and notationsPDF operators, PDF keywords, the names of keys in PDF dictionaries, and other predefined names are written in a bold sans seriftype font; for example, the key Trapped. Operands of PDF operators or values of dictionary keys are written in an italic sans serif font; for example the False value for theTrapped key. File type designations beginning with the string "TIFF/IT" refer to file data structures defined in ISO 12639. For the purpose of this part of ISO 15930 references to the "PDF Reference Manual" are to the Adobe Portable Document Format,as identified in clause 2. 5

ConformanceThis part of ISO 15930 defines the use of the PDF file format for the exchange of digital data representing a compound entity. A conforming PDF/X-1 file is a PDF file in which those features necessary for the exchange of a compound entity adhere to thispart of ISO 15930.

A conforming file may also include other valid PDF features that do not affect final print reproduction of thecompound entity.

A conforming PDF/X-1a file is a conforming PDF/X-1 file that adheres to the further restrictions set out in 6.5,6.13, and 6.17. SIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved5A conforming writer is a software application that shall be able to write files conforming to the requirements of this part of ISO15930. A conforming PDF/X-1 reader is a software application that shall be able to read and appropriately process all conformingPDF/X-1 files as defined in this part of ISO 15930.

A conforming PDF/X-1 reader may also be able to read and process all filesconforming to ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999 having a value of (CGATS.12/1-1999) for the GTS_PDFXVersion key in the Infodictionary.NOTE

The ability to read files prepared in accordance with ANSI CGATS.12/1-1999, the predecessor to this part of ISO 15930, is importantto preserve upward compatibility. A conforming PDF/X-1a reader is a software application that shall be able to read and appropriately process all conformingPDF/X-1a files.

The processing of other PDF/X-1 files by a PDF/X-1a reader shall be at the discretion of the application software.All conforming readers shall parse all PDF files but may ignore those features not required by this part of ISO 15930.

A readermay ignore an annotation’s Print flag except for those in a TrapNet annotation.

Rendering conforming files shall be performed as defined in the PDF Reference Manual.

Technical requirements6.1

GeneralThe requirements contained in all parts of clause 6, except as noted in 6.5, 6.13, and 6.17, apply equally to PDF/X-1 and PDF/X1a.6.2

Data structureA PDF/X-1 file consists of four sections: header, body, cross-reference table, and trailer.

The body of a PDF/X-1 file contains asequence of numbered objects such as numbers, names, strings, dictionaries and streams representing the text characters, graphics,images and their associated resources describing the compound entity being exchanged.

The specific PDF features required bythis part of ISO 15930 are summarized in annex A and are defined in 6.3 to 6.21, inclusive.

These features shall be used asprescribed in the PDF Reference Manual and as further specified by this part of ISO 15930.

In order to achieve the requirements of a blind exchange, the use of a pre-separated PDF file (where the separations for each pageare described as separate page objects, each painting only a single colorant) shall not be permitted. NOTE

This does not prohibit the use of pre-separated workflows in which the separations of a page are combined into a single PDF page object.A PDF/X-1 file may contain two classes of elements:

those intended for final print reproduction (print elements), and those notintended for final print reproduction (non-print elements).

Non-print elements include such incidental elements as previews,preview images or non-printing annotations.

All components of a compound entity shall be contained in the body of a singlePDF/X-1 file.

"Complete" means the exchanged files shall include:—all PDF resources (listed in the PDF Reference Manual) used in the file including all fonts, font metrics, font encodings,and colour space

resources;—any OPI externally referenced files embedded in the PDF/X-1 file as streams; and—all print elements, properly prepared for a single intended printing condition. NOTE

For exchange of partial compound entities refer to ISO 15930-2 [3].6.3 Colour6.3.1 GeneralAll print elements shall be exchanged as CMYK data, gray scale data, or separation colour data.

The CMYK and gray scaleprinting tone values in print elements, including those in OPI referenced files, shall be colour corrected and adjusted for a singlecharacterized printing condition prior to exchange.

SIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved6PDF print elements in a PDF/X-1 file may be defined in DeviceCMYK, DeviceGray, Separation, DeviceN,

Indexed andPattern colour spaces as specified and restricted in the following sections.

Spot colours are represented using Separation orDeviceN colour spaces. Non-print elements may make use of any PDF colour space. 6.3.2

Identification of characterized printing conditionThe characterized printing condition for which data has been prepared is identified by use of an OutputIntents array in theCatalog object as described in Adobe Technical Note #5413.

The OutputIntents array shall contain exactly one OutputIntentdictionary in which the value of the S key is the name /GTS_PDFX, henceforth referred to as the PDF/X OutputIntent object.Additional OutputIntent dictionaries may be present; if so they shall use different values for the S key and shall be ignored bya PDF/X-1 conforming reader. The PDF/X OutputIntent object shall include the OutputConditionIdentifier key.

Where the intended printing condition is aprinting condition included in the registry of characterizations maintained by the ICC, as described in ICC.1, the value of theOutputConditionIdentifier key should be exactly the same as the name used in the ICC registry.

See annex C. If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key does not match a characterization name in the ICC registry theDestOutputProfile key shall be present in the PDF/X OutputIntent object, and the OutputCondition key should be present.If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key does match a characterization name in the ICC registry theDestOutputProfile and OutputCondition keys may be present but are not required. If the value of the OutputConditionIdentifier key matches a characterization name in the ICC registry the RegistryName keyshall be present with the value (http://www. color. org).

If it matches a characterization name in any other registry it is stronglyrecommended that the RegistryName key be present, preferably with a value that provides a URL at which more informationregarding the registry may be obtained. The profile that is the value of the DestOutputProfile key, if present, shall include an AtoB1Tag (Device to PCS: Colorimetricrendering intent).

If present in the DestOutputProfile stream object, the Alternate key shall be ignored by a PDF/X-1conforming reader. The values of the profileDescriptionTag and charTargetTag, if present in the ICC profile, shall be ignoredNOTE

ANSI CGATS.12/1 requires that the characterized printing condition shall be identified in all ICCBased color spaces as an entry in theICC profileDescriptionTag of the associated ICC compliant profile in the following form: ""characterized printing conditionname"".

Leading and trailing white space characters in the characterized printing condition name will be ignored. If the OutputCondition key is present its value should be a string describing the intended printing condition in a form that willbe meaningful to a human operator at the site receiving the exchanged file. All PDF print elements and objects in externally referenced files that are encoded in DeviceCMYK or DeviceGray colour spaces,either directly or as the base colour space of an Indexed colour space, shall be interpreted as having been prepared for the printingcondition identified by the PDF/X OutputIntent object. 6.3.3

Separation and DeviceN colour spacesSeparation and/or DeviceN colour spaces may be used for CMYK colours, for spot colours, and for information that is notcolour related (e.g. , varnishes, die cutting and other overlays).

NOTE

It is the responsibility of the originator of the PDF/X-1 compliant file to assure consistent use of spot colour names across all objectsin the file.

Industry recognized names should be used wherever possible.

It is recommended that colour names "Red", "Green", or "Blue" notbe used as names for spot colours.

All Separation and DeviceN colour space resources in a PDF/X-1 file shall use DeviceGray or DeviceCMYK for theiralternateSpace. A PDF/X-1 conforming reader shall treat process separations specified using a Separation colour space, or as values within theSIST ISO 15930-1:2002

ISO 15930-1:2001(E)© ISO 2001 - All rights reserved7names array of a DeviceN colour space as having been prepared for the characterized printing condition identified in the PDF/XOutputIntent object. In situations where spot colour separations specified in Separation or DeviceN colour spaces are to be printed using processcolorants the alternateSpace and tintTransform supplied in the Separation or DeviceN colour space shall be used to

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