Rotating electrical machines - Part 4-1: Methods for determining synchronous machine quantities from tests (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

This part of IEC 60034 applies to three-phase synchronous machines of 1 kVA rating and
larger.
Most of the methods are intended to be used for machines having an excitation winding with
slip-rings and brushes for their supply. Synchronous machines with brushless excitation
require special effort for some of the tests. For machines with permanent magnet excitation,
there is a limited applicability of the described tests, and special precautions should be taken
against irreversible demagnetization.
Excluded are axial-field machines and special synchronous machines such as inductor type
machines, transversal flux machines and reluctance machines.
It is not intended that this document be interpreted as requiring any or all of the tests
described therein on any given machine. The particular tests to be carried out are subject to
agreement between manufacturer and customer.

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 4-1: Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Kenngrößen von Synchronmaschinen durch Messungen (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 4-1: Méthodes pour la détermination, à partir d'essais, des grandeurs des machines synchrones (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

L’IEC 60034-4-1:2018 est applicable aux machines synchrones triphasées dont la puissance assignée est supérieure ou égale à 1 kVA et décrit des méthodes destinées à être utilisées avec des machines ayant un enroulement d’excitation avec des bagues collectrices et des balais pour leur alimentation. Les machines synchrones sans balai d’excitation exigent un investissement particulier pour certains des essais. Pour les machines dont l’excitation est assurée par des aimants permanents, les essais décrits ont une applicabilité limitée et il convient de prendre des précautions particulières contre une démagnétisation irréversible.

Električni rotacijski stroji - 4-1. del: Metode za določanje parametrov sinhronskih strojev s preskusi (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

Ta del standarda IEC 60034 se uporablja za trifazne sinhronske stroje z nazivno močjo 1 kVA in več.
Večina metod je namenjenih za uporabo s stroji, ki imajo vzbujalno navitje z drsnimi obroči in ščetkami za njihovo napajanje. Sinhronski stroji z vzbujanjem brez ščetk pri nekaterih preskusih zahtevajo posebno pozornost. Pri strojih s trajnim magnetnim vzbujanjem je uporaba opisanih preskusov omejena in upoštevati je treba posebne previdnostne ukrepe proti nepovratnemu razmagnetenju.
Izključeni so aksialni stroji in posebni sinhronski stroji, kot so induktorski stroji, stroji s prečnim pretokom in reluktančni stroji.
Ta dokument ni namenjen interpretaciji, da so kateri koli ali vsi v njem opisani preskusi nujni na katerem koli stroju. Posebni preskusi, ki jih je treba izvesti, so predmet dogovora med proizvajalcem in kupcem.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Feb-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Aug-2018
Due Date
03-Nov-2018
Completion Date
04-Feb-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60034-4:2008

(OHNWULþQLURWDFLMVNLVWURMLGHO0HWRGH]DGRORþDQMHSDUDPHWURYVLQKURQVNLK

VWURMHYVSUHVNXVL ,(&

Rotating electrical machines - Part 4-1: Methods for determining synchronous machine

quantities from tests (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 4-1: Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Kenngrößen

von Synchronmaschinen durch Messungen (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 4-1: Méthodes pour la détermination, à partir

d'essais, des grandeurs des machines synchrones (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60034-4-1:2018
ICS:
29.160.01 Rotacijski stroji na splošno Rotating machinery in
general
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60034-4-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2018
ICS 29.160 Supersedes EN 60034-4:2008
English Version
Rotating electrical machines - Part 4-1: Methods for determining
electrically excited synchronous machine quantities from tests
(IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 4-1: Méthodes Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 4-1: Verfahren zur

pour la détermination, à partir d'essais, des grandeurs des Ermittlung der Kenngrößen von Synchronmaschinen durch

machines synchrones à excitation électrique Messungen
(IEC 60034-4-1:2018) (IEC 60034-4-1:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-06-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60034-4-1:2018 E
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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
EN IEC 60034-4-1:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 2/1829/CDV, future edition 1 of IEC 60034-4-1, prepared by IEC/TC 2 "Rotating

machinery" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN IEC 60034-4-1:2018.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2019-03-01

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2021-06-01

document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60034-4:2008

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60034-4-1:2018 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
EN IEC 60034-4-1:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60034-1 2017 Rotating electrical machines - Part 1: - -
Rating and performance
IEC 60034-2-1 - Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: EN 60034-2-1 -
Standard methods for determining losses
and efficiency from tests (excluding
machines for traction vehicles)
Direct acting indicating analogue electrical
IEC 60051 series EN 60051 series
measuring instruments and their
accessories
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
IEC 60034-4-1
Edition 1.0 2018-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Rotating electrical machines –
Part 4-1: Methods for determining electrically excited synchronous machine
quantities from tests
Machines électriques tournantes –
Partie 4-1: Méthodes pour la détermination, à partir d’essais, des grandeurs
des machines synchrones à excitation électrique
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.160.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-5634-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
– 2 – IEC 60034-4-1:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 14

5 Overview of tests ........................................................................................................... 15

6 Test procedures ............................................................................................................ 17

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

6.1.1 Instrumentation requirements ........................................................................ 17

6.1.2 Excitation system requirements ..................................................................... 18

6.1.3 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 18

6.1.4 Per unit base quantities ................................................................................. 18

6.1.5 Conventions and assumptions ....................................................................... 19

6.1.6 Consideration of magnetic saturation ............................................................. 19

6.2 Direct measurements of excitation current at rated load ........................................ 20

6.3 Direct-current winding resistance measurements .................................................. 21

6.4 No-load saturation test .......................................................................................... 21

6.4.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 21

6.4.2 No-load saturation characteristic determination ............................................. 22

6.5 Sustained three-phase short-circuit test ................................................................ 22

6.5.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 22

6.5.2 Three-phase sustained short-circuit characteristic ......................................... 22

6.6 Motor no-load test ................................................................................................. 23

6.7 Over-excitation test at zero power-factor ............................................................... 23

6.8 Negative excitation test ......................................................................................... 23

6.9 On-load test measuring the load angle .................................................................. 23

6.10 Low slip test .......................................................................................................... 24

6.11 Sudden three-phase short-circuit test .................................................................... 24

6.12 Voltage recovery test ............................................................................................ 25

6.13 Suddenly applied short-circuit test following disconnection from line ..................... 25

6.14 Direct current decay test in the armature winding at standstill ............................... 26

6.15 Applied voltage test with the rotor in direct and quadrature axis positions ............. 26

6.16 Applied voltage test with the rotor in arbitrary position .......................................... 27

6.17 Single phase voltage test applied to the three phases ........................................... 28

6.18 Line-to-line sustained short-circuit test .................................................................. 28

6.19 Line-to-line and to neutral sustained short-circuit test ........................................... 28

6.20 Negative-phase sequence test .............................................................................. 29

6.21 Field current decay test, with the armature winding open-circuited ........................ 29

6.21.1 Test at rated speed ........................................................................................ 29

6.21.2 Test at standstill ............................................................................................ 30

6.22 Applied voltage test with rotor removed ................................................................ 30

6.23 No-load retardation test ........................................................................................ 31

6.24 Locked rotor test ................................................................................................... 31

6.25 Asynchronous operation during the low-voltage test .............................................. 31

6.26 Over-excitation test at zero power factor and variable armature voltage ................ 32

6.27 Applied variable frequency voltage test at standstill .............................................. 32

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IEC 60034-4-1:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

7 Determination of quantities ............................................................................................ 34

7.1 Analysis of recorded data...................................................................................... 34

7.1.1 No-load saturation and three-phase, sustained short-circuit curves ............... 34

7.1.2 Sudden three-phase short-circuit test ............................................................ 35

7.1.3 Voltage recovery test ..................................................................................... 38

7.1.4 Direct current decay in the armature winding at standstill .............................. 39

7.1.5 Suddenly applied excitation test with armature winding open-circuited ........... 41

7.2 Direct-axis synchronous reactance........................................................................ 41

7.2.1 From no-load saturation and three-phase sustained short-circuit test............. 41

7.2.2 From motor no-load test ................................................................................ 41

7.2.3 From on-load test measuring the load angle .................................................. 42

7.3 Direct-axis transient reactance .............................................................................. 42

7.3.1 From sudden three-phase short-circuit test .................................................... 42

7.3.2 From voltage recovery test ............................................................................ 42

7.3.3 From DC decay test in the armature winding at standstill ............................... 43

7.3.4 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 43

7.4 Direct-axis sub-transient reactance ....................................................................... 43

7.4.1 From sudden three-phase short-circuit test .................................................... 43

7.4.2 From voltage recovery test ............................................................................ 43

7.4.3 From applied voltage test with the rotor in direct and quadrature axis ............ 43

7.4.4 From applied voltage test with the rotor in arbitrary position .......................... 44

7.5 Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance ............................................................... 44

7.5.1 From negative excitation test ......................................................................... 44

7.5.2 From low slip test .......................................................................................... 45

7.5.3 From on-load test measuring the load angle .................................................. 46

7.6 Quadrature-axis transient reactance ..................................................................... 47

7.6.1 From direct current decay test in the armature winding at standstill ............... 47

7.6.2 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 47

7.7 Quadrature-axis sub-transient reactance ............................................................... 47

7.7.1 From applied voltage test with the rotor in direct and quadrature

position .......................................................................................................... 47

7.7.2 From applied voltage test with the rotor in arbitrary position .......................... 47

7.8 Zero-sequence reactance ..................................................................................... 48

7.8.1 From single-phase voltage application to the three phases ............................ 48

7.8.2 From line-to-line and to neutral sustained short-circuit test ............................ 48

7.9 Negative-sequence reactance ............................................................................... 48

7.9.1 From line-to-line sustained short-circuit test .................................................. 48

7.9.2 From negative-phase sequence test .............................................................. 49

7.9.3 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 49

7.9.4 From direct-current decay test at standstill .................................................... 49

7.10 Armature leakage reactance ................................................................................. 50

7.11 Potier reactance.................................................................................................... 50

7.12 Zero-sequence resistance ..................................................................................... 51

7.12.1 From single-phase voltage test applied to the three phases ........................... 51

7.12.2 From line-to-line and to neutral sustained short-circuit test ............................ 51

7.13 Positive-sequence armature winding resistance .................................................... 52

7.14 Negative-sequence resistance .............................................................................. 52

7.14.1 From line-to-line sustained short-circuit test .................................................. 52

7.14.2 From negative-phase sequence test .............................................................. 52

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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
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7.15 Armature and excitation winding resistance .......................................................... 52

7.16 Direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant ..................................................... 53

7.16.1 From sudden three-phase short-circuit test .................................................... 53

7.16.2 From direct current decay test at standstill .................................................... 53

7.17 Direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant ..................................................... 53

7.17.1 From field current decay at rated speed with armature winding open ............. 53

7.17.2 From field current decay test at standstill with armature winding open ........... 53

7.17.3 From voltage recovery test ............................................................................ 54

7.17.4 From direct-current decay test at standstill .................................................... 54

7.18 Direct-axis sub-transient short-circuit time constant .............................................. 54

7.19 Direct-axis sub-transient open-circuit time constant .............................................. 54

7.19.1 From voltage recovery test ............................................................................ 54

7.19.2 From direct-current decay test at standstill .................................................... 54

7.20 Quadrature-axis transient short-circuit time constant ............................................. 54

7.20.1 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 54

7.20.2 From direct-current decay test at standstill .................................................... 54

7.21 Quadrature-axis transient open-circuit time constant ............................................. 54

7.22 Quadrature-axis sub-transient short-circuit time constant ...................................... 54

7.22.1 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 54

7.22.2 Determination from direct-current decay test at standstill ............................... 55

7.23 Quadrature-axis sub-transient open-circuit time constant ...................................... 55

7.24 Armature short-circuit time constant ...................................................................... 55

7.24.1 From sudden three-phase short-circuit test .................................................... 55

7.24.2 Calculation from test values ........................................................................... 55

7.25 Rated acceleration time and stored energy constant ............................................. 55

7.26 Rated excitation current ........................................................................................ 56

7.26.1 From direct measurement .............................................................................. 56

7.26.2 Potier diagram ............................................................................................... 56

7.26.3 ASA diagram ................................................................................................. 57

7.26.4 Swedish diagram ........................................................................................... 58

7.27 Excitation current referred to rated armature sustained short-circuit current .......... 59

7.27.1 From sustained three-phase short-circuit test ................................................ 59

7.27.2 From over-excitation test at zero power factor ............................................... 59

7.28 Frequency response characteristics ...................................................................... 60

7.28.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

7.28.2 From asynchronous operation at reduced voltage .......................................... 61

7.28.3 From applied variable frequency voltage test at standstill .............................. 61

7.28.4 From direct current decay test in the armature winding at standstill ............... 63

7.29 Short-circuit ratio .................................................................................................. 63

7.30 Rated voltage regulation ....................................................................................... 63

7.30.1 From direct measurement .............................................................................. 63

7.30.2 From no-load saturation characteristic and known field current at rated

load ............................................................................................................... 63

7.31 Initial starting impedance of synchronous motors .................................................. 64

Annex A (informative) Testing cross-reference ..................................................................... 65

Annex B (informative) Calculation scheme for frequency response characteristics ............... 68

B.1 Basics ................................................................................................................... 68

B.2 Parameter calculation ........................................................................................... 68

Annex C (informative) Conventional electrical machine model ............................................. 70

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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
IEC 60034-4-1:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 72

Figure 1 – Schematic for DC decay test at standstill ............................................................. 26

Figure 2 – Circuit diagram for line-to-line short-circuit test .................................................... 28

Figure 3 – Circuit diagram for line-to-line and to neutral sustained short-circuit test ............. 29

Figure 4 – Search coil installation with rotor removed ........................................................... 30

Figure 5 – Power and current versus slip (example) .............................................................. 32

Figure 6 – Schematic for variable frequency test at standstill ................................................ 33

Figure 7 – Recorded quantities from variable frequency test at standstill (example) ............. 34

Figure 8 – Combined saturation and short-circuit curves ....................................................... 35

Figure 9 – Determination of intermediate points on the envelopes......................................... 35

Figure 10 – Determination of transient component of short-circuit current ............................ 37

Figure 11 – Determination of sub-transient component of short-circuit current ..................... 37

Figure 12 – Transient and sub-transient component of recovery voltage ............................... 39

Figure 13 – Semi-logarithmic plot of decay currents .............................................................. 40

Figure 14 – Suddenly applied excitation with armature winding open-circuited ..................... 41

Figure 15 – No-load e.m.f. and excitation current for one pole-pitch slip .............................. 45

Figure 16 – Current envelope from low-slip test .................................................................... 46

Figure 17 – Determination of Potier reactance ...................................................................... 51

Figure 18 – Potier's diagram ................................................................................................. 56

Figure 19 – ASA diagram ...................................................................................................... 57

Figure 20 – Swedish diagram ................................................................................................ 58

Figure 21 – Excitation current from over-excitation test at zero power factor ........................ 60

Figure 22 – Frequency response characteristics at low frequencies (example) ..................... 61

Figure C.1 – Equivalent circuit model of a salient pole machine ............................................ 70

Table 1 – Test methods and cross-reference table ................................................................ 15

Table A.1 – Test cross-reference .......................................................................................... 65

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SIST EN IEC 60034-4-1:2019
– 6 – IEC 60034-4-1:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 4-1: Methods for determining electrically excited
synchronous machine quantities from tests
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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