Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Safety requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use in road vehicles not for the propulsion

This document specifies safety tests and requirements for secondary lithium batteries
permanently installed in road vehicles not for the propulsion. Replacement secondary
batteries permanently installed in road vehicles not for propulsion are covered by this
document.
The following are typical applications that utilize the batteries under the scope of this
document: a power source for the starting of internal combustion engines, lighting, on-board
auxiliary equipment, and energy absorption for regeneration from braking.
This document applies to batteries with a maximum voltage less than or equal to 60 V DC.
The batteries primarily used for propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs), including battery electric
vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
are not covered by this document.
NOTE Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62619.

Sekundärzellen und -batterien mit alkalischen oder anderen nicht-säurehaltigen Elektrolyten - Sicherheitsanforderungen für sekundäre Lithium-Batterien zur Verwendung in Straßenfahrzeugen mit Ausnahme des Antriebs

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Exigences de sécurité pour batteries rechargeables Lithium destinées à l'utilisation dans des véhicules routiers hors propulsion .

L'IEC 63057:2020 spécifie des essais et des exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium installées de façon permanente dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion. Les batteries d'accumulateurs de remplacement installées de façon permanente dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion sont traitées par le présent document. Les applications suivantes sont des applications types qui utilisent les batteries relevant du domaine d'application du présent document: source électrique dédiée au démarrage des moteurs à combustion interne, éclairage, matériel auxiliaire embarqué et source d'absorption d'énergie pour la récupération par freinage. Le présent document s'applique aux batteries dont la tension continue maximale est inférieure ou égale à 60 V. Les batteries utilisées principalement pour la propulsion des véhicules électriques (EV – electric vehicles) y compris les véhicules électriques à batterie (BEV – battery electric vehicles), les véhicules électriques hybrides (HEV – hybrid electric vehicles), et les véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables (PHEV – plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) ne sont pas traitées par le présent document.

Sekundarni členi in baterije z alkalnimi ali drugimi nekislinskimi elektroliti - Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne litijeve baterije za uporabo v cestnih vozilih, ne za pogon

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Jan-2021
Due Date
19-Mar-2021
Completion Date
22-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
01-februar-2021
Sekundarni členi in baterije z alkalnimi ali drugimi nekislinskimi elektroliti -

Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne litijeve baterije za uporabo v cestnih vozilih, ne

za pogon

Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Safety

requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use in road vehicles not for the

propulsion

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Exigences de

sécurité pour batteries rechargeables Lithium destinées à l'utilisation dans des véhicules

routiers hors propulsion .
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 63057:2020
ICS:
29.220.30 Alkalni sekundarni členi in Alkaline secondary cells and
baterije batteries
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 63057
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2020
ICS 29.220.30
English Version
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-
acid electrolytes - Safety requirements for secondary lithium
batteries for use in road vehicles not for the propulsion
(IEC 63057:2020)

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à Akkumulatoren und Batterien mit alkalischen oder anderen

électrolyte non acide - Exigences de sécurité pour les nichtsäurehaltigen Elektrolyten - Sicherheitsanforderungen

batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium destinées à être für Lithium-Batterien zur Verwendung in Straßenfahrzeugen

utilisées dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à mit Ausnahme des Antriebs

la propulsion (IEC 63057:2020)
(IEC 63057:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-02-14. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 63057:2020 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
EN IEC 63057:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 21A/715/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 63057, prepared by SC 21A "Secondary

cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes" of IEC/TC 21 "Secondary cells

and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN IEC 63057:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2020-11-14

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-02-14

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 63057:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 62281 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62281
IEC 62620:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62620:2015 (not modified)
IEC 63118 NOTE Harmonized as EN 63118
ISO 9001 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 9001
To be published. Stage at the time of publication: prEN 63118:2017.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
EN IEC 63057:2020 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-482 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - - -
Part 482: Primary and secondary cells and
batteries
IEC 62619 2017 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 62619 2017
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Safety requirements for secondary lithium
cells and batteries, for use in industrial
applications
ISO/IEC Guide 51 - Safety aspects - Guidelines for their inclusion - -
in standards
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SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
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SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
IEC 63057
Edition 1.0 2020-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use
in road vehicles not for the propulsion
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium destinées
à être utilisées dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-7733-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
– 2 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Parameter measurement tolerances ................................................................................ 8

5 General safety considerations ......................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Insulation and wiring ............................................................................................... 9

5.3 Venting ................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Temperature/voltage/current ................................................................................... 9

5.5 Terminal contacts of the battery ............................................................................ 10

5.6 Assembly of battery .............................................................................................. 10

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

5.6.2 Battery design ............................................................................................... 10

5.7 Requirements for the BMS .................................................................................... 10

5.8 Operating region of lithium cells and battery for safe use ...................................... 11

5.9 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 11

6 Type test conditions ...................................................................................................... 11

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Test items ............................................................................................................. 12

7 Specific requirements and tests ..................................................................................... 12

7.1 Specific requirements and tests for automotive battery ......................................... 12

7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

7.1.2 Charging procedure for test purposes ............................................................ 12

7.1.3 Mechanical shock [intended use] ................................................................... 12

7.1.4 Vibration [intended use] ................................................................................. 13

7.1.5 Thermal cycling [intended use] ...................................................................... 13

7.1.6 Overcharge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ................................................ 14

7.1.7 Overdischarge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ............................................ 14

7.1.8 External short-circuit [reasonably foreseeable misuse] .................................. 15

7.1.9 Drop [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................................... 15

7.1.10 Thermal abuse [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................... 15

7.1.11 Crush [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ......................................................... 16

7.2 Specific requirements and tests for moped and motorcycle battery ....................... 16

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

7.2.2 Charging procedure for test purposes ............................................................ 16

7.2.3 Mechanical shock [intended use] ................................................................... 17

7.2.4 Vibration [intended use] ................................................................................. 17

7.2.5 Thermal cycling [intended use] ...................................................................... 18

7.2.6 Overcharge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ................................................ 18

7.2.7 Overdischarge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ............................................ 19

7.2.8 External short-circuit [reasonably foreseeable misuse] .................................. 19

7.2.9 Drop [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................................... 20

7.2.10 Thermal abuse [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................... 20

8 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

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SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Examples of BMS locations and battery configurations ......................................... 11

Figure 2 – Dimensions of the crush plate .............................................................................. 16

Table 1 – Type tests ............................................................................................................. 12

Table 2 – Mechanical shock test – parameters ...................................................................... 13

Table 3 – Frequency and acceleration .................................................................................. 13

Table 4 – Mechanical shock test – parameters (gross mass of the battery less

than 12 kg) ........................................................................................................................... 17

Table 5 – Mechanical shock test – parameters (gross mass of the battery of 12 kg or

more) .................................................................................................................................... 17

Table 6 – Frequency and acceleration (gross mass of the battery less than 12 kg) .............. 18

Table 7 – Frequency and acceleration (gross mass of the battery of 12 kg or more) ............ 18

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SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
– 4 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE
OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM
BATTERIES FOR USE IN ROAD VEHICLES
NOT FOR THE PROPULSION
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63057 has been prepared by subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells

and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21A/715/FDIS 21A/719/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
– 6 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE
OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM
BATTERIES FOR USE IN ROAD VEHICLES
NOT FOR THE PROPULSION
1 Scope

This document specifies safety tests and requirements for secondary lithium batteries

permanently installed in road vehicles not for the propulsion. Replacement secondary

batteries permanently installed in road vehicles not for propulsion are covered by this

document.

The following are typical applications that utilize the batteries under the scope of this

document: a power source for the starting of internal combustion engines, lighting, on-board

auxiliary equipment, and energy absorption for regeneration from braking.

This document applies to batteries with a maximum voltage less than or equal to 60 V DC.

The batteries primarily used for propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs), including battery electric

vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

are not covered by this document.
NOTE Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62619.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

IEC 60050-482, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries (available at http://www.electropedia.org/)

IEC 62619:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in

industrial applications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-482,

ISO/IEC Guide 51 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
3.1
battery
unit comprising one or more cells, modules and a battery management system
3.2
battery management system
BMS

set of protection functions associated with a battery to prevent overcharge, overcurrent, over

temperature, under temperature and if applicable overdischarge

Note 1 to entry: The function of the BMS can be assigned to the battery or to the vehicle that uses the battery.

See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: The BMS can be divided and it can be found partially in the battery and partially on the

equipment that uses the battery. See Figure 1.

Note 3 to entry: The BMS is sometimes also referred to as a BMU (battery management unit).

Note 4 to entry: This term applies to the French language only.
3.3
cell

secondary cell where electrical energy is derived from the insertion or extraction reactions of

lithium ions or oxidation/reduction reaction of lithium between the negative electrode and the

positive electrode

Note 1 to entry: The cell typically has an electrolyte that consists of a lithium salt and organic solvent compound

in liquid, gel or solid form and has a metal or a laminate film casing. It is not ready for use in an application

because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal arrangement and electronic control device.

3.4
cell block

group of cells connected together in parallel configuration with or without protective devices

(e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device) and monitoring circuitry

Note 1 to entry: It is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal

arrangement and electronic control device.
3.5
explosion

failure that occurs when a battery case opens violently, and solid components are forcibly

expelled
Note 1 to entry: Liquid, gas, and smoke can be erupted.
3.6
final voltage

specified closed circuit voltage at which the discharge of a battery is terminated

Note 1 to entry: The final voltage should be declared by the battery manufacturer.

3.7
fire
emission of flames from a battery
3.8
harm

physical injury or damage to the health of people or damage to property or to the environment

3.9
hazard
potential source of harm
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
– 8 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
3.10
intended use

use of a product, process or service in accordance with specifications, instructions and

information provided by the battery manufacturer
3.11
leakage
visible escape of liquid electrolyte
3.12
module

group of cells connected together in a series and/or parallel configuration with or without

protective devices (e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device) and monitoring

circuitry
3.13
rated capacity

capacity value of a battery determined under specified conditions and declared by the battery

manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: The rated capacity is the quantity of electricity Cn Ah (ampere-hours) declared by the battery

manufacturer which a battery can deliver during an n h period when charging, storing and discharging under the

conditions specified in IEC 62620:2014, 6.3.1.
3.14
reasonably foreseeable misuse

use of a product, process or service in a way which is not intended by the battery

manufacturer, but which can result from readily predictable human behaviour
3.15
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

3.16
rupture

mechanical failure of a cell container or battery case induced by an internal or external cause,

resulting in exposure or spillage but not ejection of materials
3.17
safety
freedom from unacceptable risk
3.18
venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell, module, or battery in a manner intended by

design to preclude rupture or explosion
4 Parameter measurement tolerances

The overall accuracy of controlled or measured values, relative to the specified or actual

values, shall be within the following tolerances unless otherwise noted in the individual test

procedure:
a) ±0,5 % for voltage;
b) ±1 % for current;
c) ±2 °C for temperature;
d) ±0,1 % for time;
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
e) ±1 % for dimensions
f) ±1 % for mass.

These tolerances comprise the combined accuracy of the measuring instruments, the

measurement techniques used, and all other sources of error in the test procedure.

The details of the instrumentation used shall be provided in any report of results.

5 General safety considerations
5.1 General

The safety of lithium secondary batteries requires the consideration of two sets of applied

conditions:
1) intended use;
2) reasonably foreseeable misuse.

Batteries shall be so designed and constructed that they are safe under conditions of both

intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.

It is expected that batteries subjected to misuse can fail to function. However, even if such a

situation occurs, they shall not present any significant hazards.
Potential hazards which are the subject of this document are:
a) fire,
b) explosion.

Conformity with 5.1 to 5.7 is checked by the tests of Clauses 6 and 7, and in accordance with

the appropriate standard.
5.2 Insulation and wiring

Wiring and its insulation shall be sufficient to withstand the maximum anticipated voltage,

current, and temperature requirements. The design of wiring shall be such that adequate

clearances and creepage distances are maintained between conductors. The mechanical

integrity of the battery and its connections shall be sufficient to accommodate conditions of

reasonably foreseeable misuse.
5.3 Venting

The casing of the battery shall incorporate a pressure relief function that will preclude rupture

or explosion. If encapsulation is used to support cells within an outer case, the type of

encapsulant and the method of encapsulation shall neither cause the battery to overheat

during normal operation nor inhibit pressure relief.
5.4 Temperature/voltage/current

The design of batteries shall be such that abnormal temperature-rise conditions are prevented.

The battery shall be designed within voltage, current, and temperature limitations specified by

the cell manufacturer. The battery shall be provided with specifications and charge

instructions for vehicle manufacturer or battery-charger manufacturer so that associated

chargers are designed to maintain charging within the voltage, current and temperature limits

specified.

NOTE Where necessary, means can be provided to limit current or voltage to safe levels during charging and

discharging.
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SIST EN IEC 63057:2021
– 10 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
5.5 Terminal contacts of the battery

Terminals shall have clear polarity marking(s) on the external surface of the battery, and the

polarity marking(s) should be located near the terminal in order to be understood easily.

The size and shape of the terminal contacts shall ensure that they can carry the maximum

anticipated current. External terminal contact surfaces shall be formed from conductive

materials with good mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. Terminal contacts shall be

arranged so as to minimize the risk of short-circuits (caused by metal tools, for example).

5.6 Assembly of battery
5.6.1 General
• The battery should have an independent control and protection method.
• The cell manufacturer shall provide recommendations about current, voltage and

temperature limits so that the battery manufacturer or designer can ensure proper design

and assembly.

• Protective circuit components should be added as appropriate, and consideration given to

the vehicle.
5.6.2 Battery design

The voltage control function of the battery design shall ensure that the voltage of each cell or

cell block shall not exceed the upper limit of the charging voltage specified by the cell

manufacturer, except in the case where the vehicle system provides an equivalent voltage

control function.

The following should be considered at battery level and by the battery manufacturer:

For a battery that has several series-connected cells or modules, it is recommended that the

voltages of any one of the single cells or cell blocks do not exceed the upper limit of the

charging voltage, specified by the cell manufacturer, by monitoring the voltage of every single

cel
...

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