Algae and algae products - Methods for the determination of productivity of algae growth sites

This document specifies the methods to be used for the determination of productivity of algae growth sites.
This document excludes methods for sampling, harvesting and pre-/postprocessing. Excluded as well is 'wild growth', which is defined as algae growing in nature without human interference except when harvesting the algae.

Algen und Algenprodukte - Methoden zur Bestimmung der Produktivität von Algenwachstumsstandorten

Dieses Dokument legt die zur Bestimmung der Produktivität von Algenwachstumsstandorten anzuwendenden Verfahren fest.
Dieses Dokument enthält keine Verfahren für die Probenahme, Ernte und Vor  bzw. Nachbereitung. Nicht enthalten ist außerdem die "wilde Aufzucht", was als Algenwachstum in der Natur ohne menschliches Eingreifen mit Ausnahme der Algenernte definiert ist.

Algues et produits à base d’algues - Méthodes de détermination de la productivité des sites de croissance d’algues

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes à utiliser pour déterminer la productivité de sites de croissance d’algues.
Le présent document exclut les méthodes d'échantillonnage, de récolte et de pré/post-traitement. Est également exclue la « croissance sauvage » qui est définie comme la croissance d’algues à l’état naturel, sans l’intervention de l’homme, excepté au moment de la récolte des algues.

Alge in izdelki iz alg - Metode za določanje produktivnosti rastišč alg

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
10-Jun-2020
Publication Date
24-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Aug-2021
Due Date
24-Oct-2021
Completion Date
25-Aug-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17480:2021
01-oktober-2021
Alge in izdelki iz alg - Metode za določanje produktivnosti rastišč alg

Algae and algae products - Methods for the determination of productivity of algae growth

sites
Algen und Algenprodukte - Methoden zur Bestimmung der Produktivität von
Algenwachstumsstandorten

Algues et produits à base d’algues - Méthodes de détermination de la productivité des

sites de croissance d’algues
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17480:2021
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
SIST EN 17480:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.020.55
English Version
Algae and algae products - Methods for the determination
of productivity of algae growth sites

Algues et produits à base d'algues - Méthodes de Algen und Algenprodukte - Methoden für die

détermination de la productivité des sites de Bestimmung der Produktivität von
croissance d'algues Algenwachstumsstellen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 July 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17480:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Productivity ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Parameters specific to algae productivity ............................................................................................. 8

4.1.1 Area aspect ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1.2 Time references ............................................................................................................................................ 10

4.1.3 Biomass dry weight and ash content .................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Area Productivity ......................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2.2 Calculation of area productivity ............................................................................................................. 11

4.2.3 Example of area productivity calculation and notation ................................................................. 13

4.3 Volumetric Productivity ............................................................................................................................ 14

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.3.2 Calculation of volumetric productivity ................................................................................................ 14

4.3.3 Example of volumetric productivity calculation and notation .................................................... 16

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 17

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17480:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 454 “Algae and

algae products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by February 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)
Introduction

This document has been prepared by the experts of CEN/TC 454 “Algae and algae products”.

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was requested by the European Commission (EC) to

draft European standards or European standardization deliverables to support the implementation of

Article 3 of Directive 2009/28/EC for algae and algae-based products or intermediates.

This request, presented as Mandate M/547, also contributes to the Communication on “Innovating for

Sustainable Growth: A Bio economy for Europe”.

The former working group CEN Technical Board Working Group 218 “Algae”, was created in 2016 to

develop a work programme as part of this Mandate. The technical committee CEN/TC 454 “Algae and

algae products” was established to carry out the work programme that will prepare a series of standards.

The interest in algae and algae-based products or intermediates has increased significantly in Europe as

a valuable source, including but not limited to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and several pigments.

These materials are suitable for use in a wide range of applications from food and feed purposes to other

sectors, such as textile, cosmetics, biopolymers, biofuel and fertilizer/biostimulants. Standardization was

identified as having an important role in promoting the use of algae and algae products.

The work of CEN/TC 454 should improve the reliability of the supply chain, thereby improving the

confidence of industry and consumers in algae, which include macroalgae, microalgae, cyanobacteria,

Labyrinthulomycetes, algae-based products or intermediates and will promote and support

commercialisation of the European algae industry.

In industry and science many different measures for productivity can be found. This makes comparison

unrealistic.

The goal of this document is to allow for a comparison between productivity of different algae growth

sites.

The reasons to compare algae growth sites can be different. For example, there might be the interest to

invest in a cultivation unit or to invest in a company which produces algae. Or there might be

sustainability issues and life-cycle-analysis (LCA) which need to rely on a common way to calculate the

productivity and thereby the area.

With EN ISO 14040 and EN ISO 14044 complete standards on LCA and sustainability for algae already

exist. The parameter which is not clearly defined in these standards is the accounting of the productivity

area (or volume) of algae growth sites. The way the area is calculated can have a huge impact on the

productivity per area. Because of this, a great part of this document is on the definition of area. The

challenge of defining the area lies in the diversity of cultivation units and the impact of their configuration

on the ground area. As the goal of the area definition is to be applicable for all kinds of algae production

techniques and cultivation units (e.g. ropes and ponds), the production under sunlight in cultivation units

forms the basis (see Figure 1) to calculate productivity. The service and utility areas are not integrated in

the area calculation, but will be accounted for in the cultivation unit area.

With regard to non-horizontal cultivation units (e.g. bubble columns, tubular photobioreactors and

green-wall panels) every system has a different total direct solar area in a different ratio to the ground

area of the cultivation unit, therefore the volumetric productivity formula should apply (see Figure 1).

A flowchart is provided to estimate if it is possible to utilize the general area definition of this document.

In comparison to land-based agriculture, the productivity of algae growth sites can be defined over

several time periods. This allows to calculate productivity of algae growth sites also over periods which

are less than one year.

Whenever possible, for comparability reasons, it is advisable to use the achieved production data to

calculate the productivity for every time period that is defined in this document.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)

The specification of the area in a wild growth site where macroalgae are growing in nature without

human interference, except when harvesting, is misleading for the calculation of productivity as many

factors influence the growth (e.g. currents, mixture of species, natural regeneration cycles, etc.). For an

investigation on the productivity and its sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem an area estimation is

possible, but this exceeds the scope of this document.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the methods to be used for the determination of productivity of algae growth

sites.

This document excludes methods for sampling, harvesting and pre-/postprocessing. Excluded as well is

“wild growth”, which is defined as algae growing in nature without human interference except when

harvesting the algae.
2 Normative references

The following document is referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 17399, Algae and algae products — Terms and definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in EN 17399 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
cultivation
process of maintaining, growing and harvesting algae
3.2
controlled growth
algae growing in (partly) controlled conditions
3.3
wild growth

algae growing in nature without human interference except when harvesting the algae

3.4
cultivation unit
equipment for cultivating algae, e.g. photobioreactors, open ponds or longlines
3.5
natural basin
enclosed or sheltered area of water in nature in which algae are cultivated
3.6
natural site
area of open water in nature where algae are cultivated
3.7
insolate
expose to sunlight
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 17480:2021
EN 17480:2021 (E)
3.8
algae growth site
area of a single or multiple algae cultivation unit(s) or natural sites
3.9
production area
insolated horizontal surface of the culture medium

Note 1 to entry: The production area of non-horizontal systems could result in multi-interpretable outcomes,

therefore non-horizontal systems use the volume productivity formula to calculate productivity.

Note 2 to entry: Wild growth areas are excluded.
3.10
cultivation unit area

area occupied by the cultivation unit, including equipment needed to operate the unit and service area

Note 1 to entry: The equipment is considered to be tubing and connections necessary for the specific cultivation

unit to function, e.g. the area occupied by the pumps and recirculating reservoir/ degasser in a tubular

photobioreactor or to fixate a macroalgae cultivation unit in the sea.

Note 2 to entry: Cultivation unit area does not include equipment upstream and downstream of the cultivation

unit, e.g. the reservoirs for water preparation and/or harvesting.

Note 3 to entry: Service area is considered to be the area necessary for the operation of the cultivation unit,

including paths needed for inspection, cleaning and maintenance.
3.11
productivity

quantity of algae produced or harvested during a specified period of time and over a specified area or

volume
3.12
peak productivity
indicates the maximum productivity obtained in a certain period of time
3.13
yearly productivity
indicates the average productivity obtained during one year
3.14
net productivity
indicates the average productivity obtained during the operative time
3.15
ope
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
01-junij-2020
Alge in izdelki iz alg - Metode za določanje produktivnosti rastišč alg

Algae and algae products - Methods for the determination of productivity of algae growth

sites
Algen und Algenprodukte - Methoden zur Bestimmung der Produktivität von
Algenwachstumsstandorten

Algues et produits à base d’algues - Méthodes de détermination de la productivité des

sites de croissance d’algues
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17480
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
oSIST prEN 17480:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17480
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2020
ICS 13.020.55
English Version
Algae and algae products - Methods for the determination
of productivity of algae growth sites

Algues et produits à base d'algues - Méthodes de Algen und Algenprodukte - Methoden zur Bestimmung

détermination de la productivité des sites de der Produktivität von Algenwachstumsstandorten

croissance d'algues

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for parallel enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/TC 454.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17480:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Productivity ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Parameters specific to algae productivity ............................................................................................. 6

4.1.1 Area aspect ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1.2 Time references ............................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1.3 Biomass dry weight and ash content ....................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Area Productivity ............................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.2 Calculation of area productivity ............................................................................................................. 10

4.2.3 Example of area productivity calculation and notation ................................................................. 11

4.3 Volumetric Productivity ............................................................................................................................ 12

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.3.2 Calculation of volumetric productivity ................................................................................................ 12

4.3.3 Example of volumetric productivity calculation and notation .................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Example calculation for single non-horizontal systems ................................. 15

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 17480:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 454 “Algae and

algae products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)
Introduction

This document has been prepared by the experts of CEN/TC 454 'Algae and algae products'.

The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) was requested by the European Commission (EC) to

draft European standards or European standardisation deliverables to support the implementation of

Article 3 of Directive 2009/28/EC for algae and algae-based products or intermediates.

This request, presented as Mandate M/5471, also contributes to the Communication on "Innovating for

Sustainable Growth: A Bio economy for Europe".

The former working group CEN Technical Board Working Group 218 “Algae”, was created in 2016 to

develop a work programme as part of this Mandate. The technical committee CEN/TC 454 'Algae and

algae products' was established to carry out the work programme that will prepare a series of standards.

The interest in algae and algae-based products or intermediates has increased significantly in Europe as

a valuable source including but not limited to, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and several pigments.

These materials are suitable for use in a wide range of applications from food and feed purposes to other

sectors, such as textile, cosmetics, biopolymers, biofuel and fertilizer/biostimulants. Standardisation was

identified as having an important role in order to promote the use of algae and algae products.

The work of CEN/TC 454 should improve the reliability of the supply chain, thereby improving the

confidence of industry and consumers in algae, which include macroalgae, microalgae, cyanobacteria,

Labyrinthulomycetes, algae-based products or intermediates and will promote and support

commercialisation of the European algae industry.

In industry and science many different measures for productivity can be found. This makes comparison

unrealistic.

The goal of this document is to allow for a comparison between productivity of different algae growth

sites. The specification of the area in a wild growth site where macroalgae are growing in nature without

human interference, except when harvesting, is misleading for the calculation of productivity as many

factors influence the growth (e.g. currents, mixture of species, natural regeneration cycles, etc.). For an

investigation on the productivity and its sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem an area estimation is

possible, but this exceeds the scope of this document.

The reasons to compare algae growth sites can be different. For example, there might be the interest to

buy a cultivation unit or to invest in a company which produces algae. Or there might be sustainability

issues and life-cycle-analysis (LCA) which need to rely on a common way to calculate the productivity

and thereby the area.

With EN ISO 14040 and EN ISO 14044 complete standards on LCA and sustainability for algae already

exist. The parameter which is not clearly defined in these standards is the accounting of the productivity

area (or volume) of algae growth sites. The way the area is calculated can have a huge impact on the

productivity per area. Because of this, a great part of this document is on the definition of area.

A flowchart is provided to estimate if it is possible to utilize the general area definition of this document.

In comparison to land-based agriculture, the productivity of algae growth sites can be defined over

several time periods. This allows to calculate productivity of algae growth sites also over periods which

are less than one year.

Whenever possible, for comparability reasons, it is advisable to use the achieved production data to

calculate the productivity for every time period that is defined in this document.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the methods to be used for the determination of productivity of algae growth

sites.

This document excludes methods for sampling, harvesting and pre-/postprocessing. Excluded as well is

'wild growth', which is defined as algae growing in nature without human interference except when

harvesting the algae.
2 Normative references

The following document is referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

FprEN 17399, Algae and algaebased products or intermediates – Terms and definitions

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in FprEN 17399 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
cultivation (of algae)
process of growing and harvesting algae
3.2
controlled growth
algae growing in a (partly) controlled environment
3.3
wild growth

algae growing in nature without human interference except when harvesting the algae

3.4
cultivation unit
equipment in which algae are cultivated, e.g. photobioreactors or open ponds
3.5
natural basin
enclosed or sheltered area of water in nature in which algae are cultivated
3.6
natural site
area of open water in nature where algae are cultivated
3.7
insolate
to expose to sunlight
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)
3.8
algae growth site
insolated area of a single or multiple algae cultivation unit(s)
3.9
production area
insolated horizontal surface of the cultivation medium

Note 1 to entry: If the non-horizontal system consists only of one row see Annex A.

Note 2 to entry: Wild growth areas are excluded.
3.10
productivity

quantity of algae harvested during a specified period of time and over a specified area or volume

3.11
peak productivity
indicates the maximum productivity obtained in a certain period of time
3.12
yearly productivity
indicates the average productivity obtained during one year
3.13
net productivity
indicates the average productivity obtained during the operative time
3.14
operative time
period that the algae production is in progress
4 Productivity
4.1 Parameters specific to algae productivity
4.1.1 Area aspect

The type of algae, and therefore the production methods, covered by this standard are very diverse. The

types of algae are specified in FprEN 17399. Not all production alternatives have the same prerequisites

and are therefore not comparable. To help to decide whether a production method is applicable for an

area calculation, and thereby an area productivity calculation, a flowchart was developed.

By going through the characteristics of the production method the indication is given, if an area definition

is possible and therefore an area productivity can be calculated.

The flowchart is divided into (Figure 1) microalgae, cyanobacteria, Labyrinthulomycetes and (Figure 2)

macroalgae.

For microalgae the parameters light source, cultivation and metabolism have to be checked. Additionally

explanatory notes are added for both figures.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)

NOTE 1 As the energy source light is produced artificially outside of the system any reference to insolated area

could be misleading.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17480:2020
prEN 17480:2020 (E)

NOTE 2 The specification of the area in a wild growth site where the microalgae are only collected is misleading

for the calculation of productivity as many factor
...

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