This document specifies a method for the detection and identification of microalgae, macroalgae (seaweed), cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes by using morphological methods and/or molecular methods.
The morphological methods in this document are applicable to harvested wet biomass and to harvested dried unground biomass from microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes that have been grown and/or harvested for further processing and/or use.
The molecular methods in this document are applicable to harvested wet biomass and to harvested dried and/or ground biomass from microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes that have been grown and/or harvested for further processing and/or use.
This document describes a toolbox, consisting of several identification methods that can be chosen according to the applicability and purpose of the identification:
—   morphological methods based on observation and referring to scientific literature on taxonomy:
—   macroscopic observation;
—   light microscopic observation;
—   molecular methods of sequencing and blasting of sequences:
—   16S-rDNA sequencing;
—   18S-rDNA sequencing;
—   rbcL DNA sequencing;
—   ITS sequencing;
—   COX 1 gene sequencing;
—   tufA gene sequencing.
This document does not deal with genetic purity of the biomass or quantification of the identified taxa.

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This document specifies the methods to be used for the determination of productivity of algae growth sites.
This document excludes methods for sampling, harvesting and pre-/postprocessing. Excluded as well is 'wild growth', which is defined as algae growing in nature without human interference except when harvesting the algae.

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The stable isotope ratios of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen can be used to obtain information about the origin of bio-based feedstock and characteristics of production processes of bio-based products. However, no or limited attention for the use of the elements nitrogen and sulphur is given in this document due to the fact that these applications are not yet available.
This Technical Report provides an overview of existing applications of isotope ratio analysis of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are relevant to the analysis of bio-based feedstocks, products and production processes

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  • Technical report
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This European Standard defines the terms related to functions, products, and properties of algae
and algae products.

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  • Standard
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This document defines the terms related to functions, products, and properties of algae and algae products. In order to better pack the methodologies, algae are regarded as a functional group of organisms consisting of microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes.

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  • Standard
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This document specifies a method for the determination of the oxygen content in bio-based products using an elemental analyser. The scope is limited to products containing elements C, H, O, N, Cl, Br and I without F, representing at least 95 % of the composition of the product to be analysed.
NOTE 1 Bio-based materials can contain inorganic components. Oxygen in these inorganic components is not bio-based but will nevertheless contribute to the amount of oxygen determined by the following prescribed methods and therefore influence the results in terms of oxygen content.
NOTE 2 Although this document has been drafted for the purpose of the determinations dealing with bio-based content, it can be also used as a standalone standard for determination of oxygen in organic compounds.
NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass (μ) of a material.

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This document specifies a direct method for the determination of the total oxygen content in bio-based products using an elemental analyser. The scope is limited to products containing elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chloride, bromide and iodide without fluoride, representing at least 95 % of the composition of the product to be analysed.
NOTE 1   Bio-based materials can contain both organic and inorganic components. The oxygen content might originate both from the organic and/or the inorganic components. The inorganic components are not bio-based but will nevertheless contribute to the amount of oxygen determined by the following prescribed methods and therefore influence the results in terms of oxygen content. According to the current state of the art, it is not possible by isotopic measurements to establish a distinction between oxygen originating from biomass and oxygen originating from non-biomass.
NOTE 2   Although this document has been drafted for the purpose of the determinations dealing with bio-based content, it can be also used as a standalone standard for determination of oxygen in organic compounds.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this document, the unit "% (m/m)" is used to represent the oxygen content of a material.
NOTE 4   The method specified in this document involves a direct measurement method for the determination of oxygen content. This method contains many similarities with the ASTM D5622 [1] standard for gasoline and methanol fuels. The method specified in this document is specifically developed and validated for bio-based products. In addition, this method provides more accurate and unadulterated measured values for oxygen in contrast to indirect measurement methods for the determination of oxygen (e.g. ASTM D 3176 [2]).

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This European Standard specifies the vocabulary, methods for characterization, and templates for reporting about bio-based polymers, plastics, and plastic products (including semi-finished plastic products and composites).
In particular this European Standard covers: terminology, bio-based content, bio-based carbon content, Life Cycle Assessment, sustainability aspects, and declaration tools.
Biocompatible polymers and plastics for medical applications covered by specific provisions are out of the scope of this European Standard.

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This TR will include practical examples of reporting for specific cases in accordance with EN 16751.

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This document provides examples of business to business (B2B) reporting in accordance with EN 16751 Bio-based products -Sustainability criteria. This Technical Report also offers some additional guidance to the user of EN 16751.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based content in products, using material balance. This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product from a manufacturing unit, for which the bio-based contents of the inputs are known.

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This part of EN 16785 specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products using the material balance applied to a representative product batch in a production unit.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous bio-based product containing carbon, obtained by chemical synthesis, mixing or assembling, provided that:
-   for a product batch, the composition of the product and the bio-based content of each input, output and loss  in the production unit are known; and
-   the bio-based content of the product is verifiable by analysis.
This method incorporates only the physical parts of the input and output stream as present in the final product, and does not incorporate material inputs for the energy to be used during the production process.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio-based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

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This European Standard sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents:
-   fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   that comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general solvents; and
-   that are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.
In addition, this document provides detail on information required to address the sustainability of the product. This is essential information as this will provide a basis to choose the most sustainable solvent.

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This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents surfactants as to whether they:
- are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
- comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general surfactants;
- are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
- comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) surfactants.
The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACh) [2] are included in the discussions that have lead to this paper.
NOTE   prEN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.

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This European Standard sets the requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of their bio-based content, their technical properties and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents that:
-   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the health, safety and environmental requirements which apply generally to solvents; and
-   are derived from biomass.
This European Standard specifies solvent classes, based on the percentage of bio-based carbon content and bio-based content.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.
In addition, this document sets requirements on information to be provided regarding sustainability aspects.

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CCMC - Mix up in clause numbering & related paragraphs

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This European Standard specifies requirements for transparent and non-misleading business-to-consumer communication of characteristics of bio-based products by means of labelling and claims.
This European Standard specifies the characteristics of bio-based products, to be communicated to consumers.
This European Standard specifies requirements for claims related to bio-based products and does not specify requirements on bio-based characteristics.
This European Standard can also be used as a basis for the establishment of product specific standards and certification schemes for specific sectors and products claims.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based carbon content in products, based on the 14C content measurement.
This European Standard also specifies three test methods to be used for the determination of the 14C content from which the bio-based carbon content is calculated:
-   Method A: Liquid scintillation-counter method (LSC) (normative);
-   Method B: Beta-ionization (BI) (informative);
-   Method C: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (normative).
The bio-based carbon content is expressed by a fraction of sample mass or as a fraction of the total carbon content. This calculation method is applicable to any product containing carbon, including bio composites.
NOTE   This European standard does not provide the methodology for the calculation of the biomass content of a sample see prEN 16785-1 [5] and prEN 16785-2 [6].

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This European Standard specifies requirements for transparent and non-misleading business-to consumer communication of characteristics of bio-based products by means of labelling and claims. It does not specify requirements for bio-based products.
This European Standard is intended to be used as a tool to generate and transfer information to the consumer and/or as an input for product-specific standards and certification schemes.
Business to business communication is covered by FprEN 16848.[1]
NOTE   This standard is applicable to all claims which are based on or make reference to bio-based content (e.g. vegetable-based, plant-based).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based carbon content in products, based on the 14C content measurement.
This European Standard also specifies three test methods to be used for the determination of the 14C content from which the bio-based carbon content is calculated:
-   Method A: Liquid scintillation-counter method (LSC) (normative);
-   Method B: Beta-ionization (BI) (informative);
-   Method C: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (normative).
The bio-based carbon content is expressed by a fraction of sample mass or as a fraction of the total carbon content. This calculation method is applicable to any product containing carbon, including bio composites.
NOTE   This European standard does not provide the methodology for the calculation of the biomass content of a sample see prEN 16785-1 [5] and prEN 16785-2 [6].

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This European Standard specifies a template for the reporting and communication of characteristics, including recovery and disposal options, of bio-based products designed for business to business transactions.
This horizontal European Standard is intended to be used as a tool to generate and transfer information in the industrial chain and/or as an input for product specific standards and certification schemes.
This European Standard does not contain requirements for bio-based products, but requirements for claims about bio-based products.
Business to consumer communication is not covered by this standard

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This European Standard specifies a template for the reporting and communication of characteristics, including recovery and disposal options, of bio-based products designed for business to business transactions.
This horizontal European Standard is intended to be used as a tool to generate and transfer information in the industrial chain and/or as an input for product specific standards and certification schemes.
This European Standard does not contain requirements for bio-based products, but requirements for claims about bio-based products.
Business to consumer communication is not covered by this standard

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This Technical Report provides guidance on how to compile an inventory for the end-of-life phase in LCA of bio-based products. All the end-of-life treatments here addressed are shown in Figure 1.

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This Technical Report provides guidance on how to compile an inventory for the end-of-life phase in LCA of bio-based products. All the end-of-life treatments here addressed are shown in Figure 1.
NOTE   The order of the end-of-life options indicated in Figure 1 respect the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste. This list is not exhaustive, but illustrates the content of this Technical Report.

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This European Standard sets horizontal sustainability criteria applicable to all bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, covering all three pillars of sustainability; environmental, social and economic aspects.
This European Standard provides a framework to provide information on management of sustainability aspects. It does not establish thresholds or limits; therefore this European Standard cannot be used to make claims that operations or products are sustainable.
NOTE This European Standard can however be used for developing product specific standards and certification schemes or for business-to-business (B2B) communication.

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TThis European Standard sets horizontal sustainability criteria applicable to the bio-based part of all bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, covering all three pillars of sustainability; environmental, social and economic aspects. If the product is partly bio-based, this European Standard can only be used for the bio-based part since it does not address non-bio-based (fossil, mineral) parts of a product.
This European Standard can be used for two applications; either to provide sustainability information about the biomass production only or to provide sustainability information in the supply chain for the bio-based part of the bio-based product.
This European Standard sets a framework to provide information on management of sustainability aspects.
This European Standard cannot be used to make claims that operations or products are sustainable since it does not establish thresholds or limits.
This European Standard can however be used for business-to-business (B2B) communication or for developing product specific standards and certification schemes.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products, based on the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product containing carbon element, provided that a statement giving the composition and the origin of the product is available.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products, based on the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product containing carbon element, provided that a statement giving the composition and the origin of the product is available.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

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This European Standard provides specific life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements and guidance for bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, based on EN ISO 14040 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework and EN ISO 14044 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines.
This European Standard covers bio-based products, derived wholly or partly from biomass.
This European Standard provides guidance and requirements to assess impact over the life cycle of bio-based products.
The applications of LCA as such are outside the scope of this European Standard. Clarifications, considerations, practices, simplifications and options for the different applications, are also beyond the scope of this European Standard.
In addition, this European Standard may be applied in studies that do not cover the whole life cycle, with justification e.g. in the case of business-to-business information, such as cradle-to-gate studies, gate-to-gate studies, and specific parts of the life cycle (e.g. waste management, components of a product).
For those studies most requirements of this European Standard are applicable (e.g. data quality, collection and calculation as well as allocation and critical review), but not all the requirements for the system boundary.

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This European Standard provides specific life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements and guidance for bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, based on EN ISO 14040 and EN ISO 14044.
This European Standard covers bio-based products, derived wholly or partly from biomass.
This European Standard provides guidance and requirements to assess impact over the life cycle of bio-based products with the focus on how to handle the specificities of the bio-based part of the product.
The applications of LCA as such are outside the scope of this European Standard. Clarifications, considerations, practices, simplifications and options for the different applications, are also beyond the scope of this European Standard. In addition, this European Standard may be applied in studies that do not cover the whole life cycle, with justification e.g. in the case of business-to-business information, such as cradle-to-gate studies, gate-to-gate studies, and specific parts of the life cycle (e.g. waste management, components of a product).

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EN 16575 defines general terms to be used in the field of bio-based products, including horizontal aspects relevant for bio-based product standards.

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CEN/TR 16721 gives an overview of methods which can be used for the determination of the bio-based content of solid, liquid and gaseous products. It describes more specifically: a) a method using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis: this method is based on a statement and a verification of the composition of the products; b) methods based on measurement of stable isotopic ratio; and c) a method based on the material balance. This Technical Report gives guidance on the applicability of the different methods. This Technical Report also gives recommendations for the further development of European Standards for the determination of the bio-based content.

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This European Standard defines general terms to be used in the field of bio-based products, including horizontal aspects relevant for bio-based product standards.
NOTE   Though the terms in this standard are horizontally applicable to bio-based products, this standard focuses on areas other than food, feed and energy applications, where terms may be defined in existing specific standards.

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This Technical Report gives an overview of methods which can be used for the determination of the bio-based content of solid, liquid and gaseous products. It describes more specifically:
a)   a method using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis: this method is based on a statement and a verification of the composition of the products;
b)   methods based on measurement of stable isotopic ratio; and
c)   a method based on the material balance.
This Technical Report gives guidance on the applicability of the different methods.
This Technical Report also gives recommendations for the further development of European Standards for the determination of the bio-based content.

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This Technical Report analyzes a set of standards, documents and other reports, related to bio-based products. The report is limited to the aims of mandate M/429 on bio-based products, and hence excludes traditional products, energy applications and food.

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This Technical Report analyzes a set of standards, documents and other reports, related to bio-based products. The report is limited to the aims of mandate M/429 on bio-based products, and hence excludes traditional products, energy applications and food.

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This Technical Report describes quality designations and indications for algae and directly derived products from algae production required for or by food/feed/nutraceuticals/animal food producers and industry. This TR does not apply to pharmacuetical, cosmetics and chemical applications.  
Note: This TR does not provide instructions on existing handling of technical requirements in existing legislations.

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  • Technical report
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This document specifies the methods to be used for the determination of productivity of algae growth sites.
This document excludes methods for sampling, harvesting and pre-/postprocessing. Excluded as well is “wild growth”, which is defined as algae growing in nature without human interference except when harvesting the algae.

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The aim of this document is to summarize the actual situation regarding many aspects regarding bio-based surfactants and their relation to any other surfactant regardless of its origin. It will describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surface active agents, their source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same.
It also includes the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability, the LCA approaches and end of life options.

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  • Technical report
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The stable isotope ratios of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen can be used to obtain information about the origin of bio-based feedstock and characteristics of production processes of bio-based products. However, no or limited attention for the use of the elements nitrogen and sulphur is given in this document due to the fact that these applications are not yet available.
This Technical Report provides an overview of existing applications of isotope ratio analysis of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are relevant to the analysis of bio-based feedstocks, products and production processes

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  • Technical report
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This document gives an overview of recommendations on product specifications, and other relevant information, for algae and algae products for cosmetics industry.
This document does not apply to food and feed applications.
This document does not provide instructions on handling of technical requirements in existing legislations.

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  • Technical report
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This document specifies a method for the detection and identification of microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes by using morphological methods and/or molecular methods.
The morphological methods in this document are applicable to harvested wet biomass and to harvested dried unground biomass from microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes that have been grown and/or harvested for further processing and/or use.
The molecular methods in this document are applicable to harvested wet biomass and to harvested dried and/or ground biomass from microalgae, macroalgae, cyanobacteria and Labyrinthulomycetes that have been grown and/or harvested for further processing and/or use.
This document describes a toolbox, consisting of several identification methods that can be chosen according to the applicability and purpose of the identification:
-   morphological methods based on observation and referring to scientific literature on taxonomy:
-   macroscopic identification;
-   light microscopic identification.
-   molecular methods for sequencing and blasting of sequences:
-   16S rDNA sequencing;
-   18S rDNA sequencing;
-   rbcL DNA sequencing;
-   ITS sequencing;
-   COX1 gene sequencing;
-   tufA gene sequencing.
This document does not deal with genetic purity of the biomass or quantification of the identified taxa.
This document is not suitable for the analysis of highly processed biomass with highly degraded DNA where the fragments’ length are not sufficient for amplification of the targets and the morphological characteristics cannot be assessed.

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This document gives an overview of recommendations on product specifications, and other relevant information, for algae and algae products for pharmaceutical applications.
This document does not apply to food and feed applications.
This document does not provide instructions on handling of technical requirements in existing legislations.

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  • Technical report
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This Technical Reports describes quality designations and indications for algae and directly derived products from algae production required for or by chemicals and biofuels producers and industry. It does not apply to Food and Feed sectors.
Note: This TRs does not provide instructions on existing handling of technical requirements in existing legislations.

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This document describes the sample preparation of dry and wet samples of micro- and macroalgae, algae-based products and intermediates. This document enables laboratories analysing algae samples to report accurate dry weight percentages and to obtain representative samples possible for further examination.

  • Draft
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This document sets out requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It establishes the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based surfactants as to whether they:
—   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
—   comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general surfactants;
—   are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
—   comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.
The criteria of the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) [11] also apply to bio-based surfactants.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

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This document describes the sample preparation of dry and wet samples of micro- and macroalgae, algae-based products and intermediates. This document enables laboratories analysing algae samples to report accurate dry weight percentages and to obtain representative samples possible for further examination.

  • Draft
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This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents as to whether they:
- are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
- comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general solvents;
- are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
- comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) solvents.
The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACh) [2] are included in the discussions that have lead to this paper.
NOTE   prEN 16575 defines the term bio-based as derived from biomass and clarifies that bio-based does not imply biodegradable. In addition, biodegradable does not necessarily imply the use of bio-based material.

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  • Technical specification
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CEN/TS 16640 specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based carbon content in products, based on the 14C content measurement. It also specifies three test methods to be used for the determination of the 14C content from which the biobased carbon content is calculated: - Method A: Liquid scintillation-counter method (LSC); - Method B: Beta-ionization (BI); - Method C: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The bio-based carbon content is expressed by a fraction of sample mass, as a fraction of the total carbon content or as a fraction of the total organic carbon content. This calculation method is applicable to any product containing organic carbon, including biocomposites.

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